K. Sathiya Bama S. Elamathi T. Sivasankari Devi A. Anuratha


Cauvery Delta is the major rice-growing tract of Tamil Nadu. Continuous waterlogging is inevitable in the delta region due to unexpected heavy rain, leading to stunted crop growth and poor soil conditions. The present study aimed to alleviate the waterlogging-associated problems of stunted growth, crop nutrition deficiency, heavy algal growth and poor soil aeration issues in the heavy clayey soils of deltaic region of Tamil Nadu. Field experiments were laid out with the treatments viz., CuSO4,, (5kg/ha) (T1), Gypsum (500 kg/ha) (T2), Conoweeding+Alternate Wetting and Drying Irrigation(AWDI) (T3), microbial consortia (K and Zn solubilising Bacteria  500 ml/ha) (T4) control (T5) and combination of all (T6) except  CuSOalong with control .  The results indicated that the T6 recorded higher plant height (110.2 cm), productive tillers/m2 of 332, filled grains of 118.3 and less chaffy grains of 20.3 nos, high nutrient status of 265 kg/ha of available N,35.4 kg/ha of available P,342 kg/ha of available K,  21.1meq/100 g of Ca,8.2 meq/100 g of Mg and root length and volume. The  algal population in terms of dry biomass was reduced to 3.1 (g/m2) from the control group of 11.2 (g/m2) at 15 days after imposing treatment. The per cent increase of 26.0 % grain yield was also recorded in the combination treatment over control. From the present research, combined application of gypsum @500 kg/ha  +Cono weeding twice +AWDI and microbial consortia of Zn and K solubilising bacteria @500ml/ha could be recommended for better soil environment and rice production in the delta region.





Alleviation, Alternate wetting and drying, Gypsum, Rice, Waterlogging

Arduini, I., Baldanzi, M. & Pampana, S. (2019). Reduced growth and nitrogen uptake during waterlogging at tillering permanently affect yield components in late sown oats. Front. Plant Sci.  Volume 10 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01087
Arthur Wallace. (1994). Use of gypsum on soil where needed can make agriculture more sustainable, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 25:1-2, 109-116, 
Belmonte, S. A., Luisella, C., Stahel, R. J., Bonifacio, E., Novello, V. & Zanini, E. (2018). Effect of long-term soil management on the mutual interaction among soil organic matter, microbial activity and aggregate stability in a vineyard. Pedosphere .28 288–298. 10.1016/S1002-0160(18)60015-3
Celedonio, de San, R. P., Abeledo, L. G., Brihet, J. & Miralles, D. J. (2016). Waterlogging affects leaf and tillering dynamics in wheat and barley. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 202 409–420.
Chao Huang., Weiqiang Zhang., Hui Wang., Yang Gao., Shoutian Ma., Anzhen Qin., Zugui Liu., Ben Zhao., Dongfeng Ning., Hongjian Zheng. & Zhandong Liu. (2022) Effects of waterlogging at different stages on growth and ear quality of waxy maize, Agricultural Water Management, Volume 266,107603,ISSN 0378-3774
Coutinho, I. D., Henning, L. M. M., Döpp, S. A., Nepomuceno, A., Moraes, L. A. C. & Marcolino-Gomes, J. (2018). Flooded soybean metabolomic analysis reveals important primary and secondary metabolites involved in the hypoxia stress response and tolerance. Environ. Exp. Bot. 153 176–187. 10.1016/j.envexpbot..05.018
Drew, M.C. (1988). Effects of flooding and oxygen deficiency on plant mineral nutrition. Advances in Plant Nutrition, 3: 115–159
Ferronato, C., Marinari, S., Francioso, O., Bello, D., Trasar-Cepeda, C. & Antisari, L. V. (2019). Effect of waterlogging on soil biochemical properties and organic matter quality in different salt marsh systems. Geoderma ,338 302–312, 10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.12.019
Grogan, A.E., Alves-de-Souza, C., Cahoon, L.B., Mallin, M.A. (2023). Harmful Algal Blooms: A Prolific Issue in Urban Stormwater Ponds. Water.,15,2436.
Gutierrez, Boem, F.H. Lavado, R.S. & Pprcelli, C. (1996). Note on the effects of winter and spring waterlogging on growth, chemical composition and yield of rapeseed. Field Crops Research, 47: 175–179.
He, Q. (2014). Investigation and analysis on Heilongjiang province waterlogging. Heilongjiang Sci. Technol. Water Conservancy 42, 8–10.
Jackson, M. (1973). Methods of chemical analysis: Prentice Hall of India (Pvt.) Ltd., New Delhi.
Jaiswal, A. & Srivastava, J. (2018). Changes in reactive oxygen scavenging systems and protein profiles in maize roots in response to nitric oxide under waterlogging stress. Indian J. Biochem. Biophysics.55,26-63
Kisaakye, E., Acuña, T. B., Johnson, P. & Shabala, S. (2017). “Improving wheat growth and nitrogen-use efficiency under waterlogged conditions,” in Proceedings of the 18th Australian Agronomy Conference, Ballarat, 1–4.
Lixin Tian., Jing Li., Wenshuang., Bi., Shiyu Zuo., Lijie Li, Wenlong, Li & Lei Sun, (2019).Effects of waterlogging stress at different growth stages on the photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of spring maize (Zea mays L.) Under field conditions,Agricultural Water Management,Volume 218, ,Pages 250-258,ISSN 0378-3774,
Manik, S.M.N., Pengilley, G., Dean, G., Field, B., Shabala, S. & Zhou, M. (2019). Soil and Crop Management Practices to Minimize the Impact of Waterlogging on Crop Productivity. Front Plant Sci. Feb 12;10:140.
Masunaga, T. & Marques Fong, J. D. (2018). “Chapter 11 - strategies for increasing micronutrient availability in soil for plant uptake,” in Plant Micronutrient Use Efficiency, eds Hossain M. A., Kamiya T., Burritt D. J., Phan Tran L.-S., Fujiwara T. (Cambridge, MA: Academic Press; ),195–208. [
Mengel, K. & Kirkby, E. (2001). Principles of plant nutrition. 5th edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Morad, P. & Silvestre, J. (1996). Plant injury due to oxygen deficiency in the root environment of soilless culture: A review. Plant and Soil, 184: 243–254.
Najeeb, U., Bange, M. P., Tan, D. K. & Atwell, B. J. (2015). Consequences of waterlogging in cotton and opportunities for mitigation of yield losses. AoB Plants 7:lv080.
Nguyen, L.T.T., Osanai, Y. & Anderson, I.C (2018). Impacts of waterlogging on soil nitrification and ammonia-oxidizing communities in farming system. Plant Soil 426, 299–311 .
Noreen, S., Fatima Z., Ahmad, S. & Ashraf, M. (2018). Foliar Application of Micronutrients in Mitigating Abiotic Stress in Crop Plants Plant Nutrients and Abiotic Stress Tolerance. Singapore: Springer, 95–117. 10.1007/978-981-10-9044-8_3
Olsen, S. R. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate: United States Department of Agriculture; Washington.
Otie Victoria. (2019) An PingIdorenyin Udo&Egrinya Eneji Brassinolide effects on maize (Zea mays L.) growth and yield under waterlogged conditions. Pages 954-969 |
Palaniappan, S.P. (1985). Cropping Systems in the Tropics: Principles and Management. Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, 215.
Piper, C. (1966). Soil and plant analysis.,(Hans Publishers: Bombay, India).
Ploschuk, R. A., Miralles, D. J., Colmer, T. D., Ploschuk, E. L. & Striker, G. G. (2018). Waterlogging of winter crops at early and late stages: impacts on leaf physiology, growth and yield. Front. Plant Sci. 9:1863. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01863
Ramaraj,R., David Dah-Wei Tsai. & Paris Honglay Chen. (2015). Biomass of algae growth on natural water medium,Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology,Volume 142,Pages 124-128,ISSN 1011-1344,
RenBaizhao, Shuting Dong, Peng Liu, Bin Zhao & Jiwang Zhang. (2016). Ridge tillage improves plant growth and grain yield of waterlogged summer maize,Agricultural Water Management,Volume 177, ,Pages 392-399,ISSN 0378-3774,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.08.033.
Sarkar Abhijit., Saha Madhumonti., & Saha, Jayanta. (2019). Management strategies for waterlogged soils in agriculture. Harit Dhara 2 (1) 23-25.
Setter, T. L. & Waters, I. (2003). Review of prospects for germplasm improvement for waterlogging tolerance in wheat, barley and oats. Plant Soil 253, 1–34. doi: 10.1023/A:1024573305997
Setter. T.L., Waters, I., Sharma, S.K., Singh, K.N., Kulshreshtha, N., Yaduvanshi, N.P.S., Ram, P.C., Singh, B.N., Rane, J., McDonald, G., Khabaz-Saveri, H., Biddulph, T.B, Wilson, R., Barclay, I., McLean, R.& Cakir, M. (2009).Review of wheat improvement for waterlogging tolerance in Australia and India: the importance of anaerobiosis and element toxicities associated with different soils. Annals of Botany. ;5:221–235
Sharma, S. K., Kulshreshtha, N., Kumar, A., Yaduvanshi, N. P. S., Singh, M. & Prasad, K. (2018). Waterlogging effects on elemental composition of wheat genotypes in sodic soils. J. Plant Nutr. 41 1252–1262. 10.1080/01904167.1434541 
Singh, S. P. & Setter, T. L. (2017). Effect of waterlogging on element concentrations, growth and yield of wheat varieties under farmer’s sodic field conditions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. India Section B Biol. Sci. 87 513–520. 10.1007/s40011-015-0607-9 Biophys. 55 26–33. 
Stanford, G. & English, L. (1949). Use of the flame photometer in rapid soil tests for K and Ca. Agronomy Journal, 41(9), 446-447.
Steffens, D., Hütsch, B. W., Eschholz,T., Lošák,T. &Schubert, S. (2005). Water logging may inhibit plant growth primarily by nutrient deficiency rather than nutrient toxicity. Plant Soil Environ, 51, (12): 545–552
Striker, G.G. (2012). Flooding stress on plants: anatomical, morphological and physiological responses. Botany, 1, pp.3-28.
Subbiah, B. V. & Asija, G. L. (1956). A rapid procedure for the estimation of available nitrogen in soils. current science, 25, 259-260.
Tian ,L.,  Yu-chuan Zhang., Peng-liang Chen ., Fei-fei Zhang Jing Li., Feng Yan Yang Dong. & Bai-li Feng (2021). Sec. plant abiotic stress. Plant sci., 12 -| https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.634898
Unger, P. W., Sharpley, A. N., Steiner, J. L., Papendick, R. I. & Edwards, W. M. (2018). Soil management research for water conservation and quality, Advances in Soil and Water Conservation. Abingdon: Routledge, 69–98. 10.1201/9781315136912-5
Walkley, A. & Black, I. A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil science, 37(1), 29-38.
Ye, Yi Quan, Hong Yan Luo, Mao Li, Jia Jun Zhang, Guang Qiu Cao, Kai Min Lin, Si Zu Lin, & Shan Shan Xu.(2019). Potassium ameliorates iron deficiency by facilitating the remobilization of iron from root cell walls and promoting its translocation from roots to shoots. Plant and Soil 440, no. 1/2: 507–21. https://www.jstor.org/stable/48703899.
Research Articles

How to Cite

Mitigating of waterlogging associated problems by the management practices in the rice ecosystem of the Deltaic zone of Tamil Nadu. (2024). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 16(1), 427-434. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v16i1.5273