Journal of Applied and Natural Science 2021-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 Editorial Secretary Open Journal Systems <div style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-family: arial,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: large;">Journal of Applied and Natural Science is indexed in Scopus and part of<a href=""> UGC-CARE List Group II</a> (Journals indexed in globally recognised databases.). 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It is the author/institute/subscriber's responsibility to check and verify with the respective databases for the latest inclusion status and their policies before submission. Thank you for your understanding.</span></span></span></span></div> <hr /> <div style="text-align: center;"><strong><span style="font-family: arial,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: large;"><span style="line-height: 1.5; background-color: transparent;">Applied and Natural Science Foundation is </span>a registered not-for-profit organization</span></span></strong></div> <hr /> Synthesis and characterization of carbon dots from coconut shell by optimizing the hydrothermal carbonization process 2021-08-23T16:04:10+00:00 K. Abinaya S.K. Rajkishore A. Lakshmanan R. Anandham P. Dhananchezhiyan M. Praghadeesh <p>Coconut shell is one of the major agro-by products <em>vis-a-vis</em> agro-waste generated by coconut processing units. At present, Coconut shells are largely utilized as feed material for thermal power conversion by various allied industrial sectors, which is a highly energy inefficient and ecologically unfriendly process. The present study aimed to generate activated carbon dots/ carbon nanomaterials with a wide range of potential applications through a relatively less energy dependant hydrothermal carbonization process. Hydrothermal carbonization is a one-step, simple, low cost and environmental friendly approach to obtain carbon dots. The findings demonstrate that coconut shells when subjected to hydrothermal carbonization process at 250<sup>ᵒ</sup>C for 6 h produced uniform-sized, stable, negatively charged and amorphous forms of carbon dots. Characterization of carbon dots using <br />High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED)<strong>,</strong> X- ray Diffractometer (XRD), UV- Visible Spectroscopy, Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), Brunauer–Emmett-Teller (BET) Analyzer, Elemental Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) had conclusively confirmed the versatility of the carbon dots generation process and were able to achieve stable 2 nm-sized, spherical shaped carbon dots with numerous downstream applications. The study will help the conversion of agro-waste coconut shells into useful bio-based fluorescent carbon dots.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 K. Abinaya, S.K. Rajkishore, A. Lakshmanan , R. Anandham , P. Dhananchezhiyan , M. Praghadeesh Effect of packaging material and postharvest calcium treatment on weight loss, decay and biochemical quality of strawberry fruits during storage 2021-09-09T10:46:26+00:00 Rakesh Kumar R. S. Antil Angrej Ali <p>Strawberry (<em>Fragaria</em> x <em>ananassa</em> Duch.) fruits are highly perishable which lose their marketability within a short period of time, resulting in considerable loss of fruits after harvest. In present study, the packaging materials treatment i.e. polypropylene terephthalate (PET) Punnet and High density polythene (HDPE) crates and calcium compounds (CaCl<sub>2 </sub>and Ca(No<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>) were examined for the storability and biochemical quality of strawberry (cv. Winter Down) fruits in cold condition (3±1 °C) in comparison to the untreated control fruit in ambient storage for 3, 6 and 8 days storage period. Results revealed that physiological loss in weight (PLW) and fruit decay increased with the advancement of the storage period irrespective of the treatments. Fruits treated with CaCl<sub>2 </sub>(2%), packed in PET Punnets and stored in cold condition (3±1 °C) showed significantly minimum PLW (6.55, 11.12 and 15 34 %) and fruit decay (7.29, 17.71 and 34.38 %) at 3, 6 and 8 days storage, respectively. Non-treated control fruits at ambient conditions could not maintain their marketability even 3 days of storage and showed relatively high decay losses (25.00, 62.21 and 91.67 % at 3, 6 and 8 days of storage, respectively). Packaging and calcium treatment did not affect the fruit total soluble solids (TSS) and total sugars but was found effective to slow down the decrease of ascorbic acid and acidity contents of the fruit during storage. PET Punnets packaged fruits treated with CaCl<sub>2 </sub>(2%) under cold conditions retained better shelf-life with better biochemical quality of fruits during storage while untreated control fruits deteriorated rapidly.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rakesh Kumar, R. S. Antil, Angrej Ali Effect of organic fortified zinc on growth and yield of green gram (Vigna radiata (L). Wilczek) in typic chromustert 2021-08-23T16:12:34+00:00 M. Dhinagaran R. Indirani P. Saravana Pandian A. Gurusamy P. Kannan <p>Zinc is a crucial micronutrient for crop growth and enzymatic regulations. The present study was formulated to reveal the effect of organic fortified Zn composite on growth and yield parameters of green gram in <em>Typic chromustert</em> at Vellakulam village, Kalligudi block, Madurai district of Tamil Nadu. A total of eight treatments with three replications were designed to grow in Randomized Block Design (RBD). The treatments consisted of recommend dose fertilizers (25:50:25 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>: K<sub>2</sub>O) + various sources organics applied such as vermicompost (1:5), poultry manure (1:5), biochar (1:5), FYM (1:10) incubated with ZnSO<sub>4</sub> @ 25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University micronutrient mixture enriched with FYM (1:10) for 30 days. Among the treatments, application of RDF (25:50:25 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup> N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>: K<sub>2</sub>O) + soil application of ZnSO<sub>4</sub> @ 25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> incubated with 125 kg Vermicompost (1:5) recorded maximum plant height (64 cm), leaf area index (LAI) (3.11), dry matter production (16.33 g plant<sup>-1</sup>), pods plant<sup>-1</sup> (28.46), grains pod<sup>-1 </sup>(13.5), test weight (3.48 g), seed yield (950 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and haulm yield (1520 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by biochar and TNAU MNM shown on par results with each other. The lowest yield parameters were spotted in absolute control. A considerable increase in yield (25 %) was detected when the crop was supplemented with organically fortified Zinc than the commercial ZnSO<sub>4</sub>. The study concluded that the application of biofortified Zn will deliver higher growth and yield in green gram.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 M. Dhinagaran, R. Indirani, P. Saravana Pandian, A. Gurusamy, P. Kannan Phytostimulation and growth promotion activities of Trichoderma spp. on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop 2021-08-23T16:15:19+00:00 M. Ayyandurai R. Akila K. Manonmani M. Theradimani S. Vellaikumar <p>Groundnut <strong>(</strong><em>Arachis hypogaea</em> L.) suffers from many soil borne pathogens that deteriorate the quality of the seeds and are responsible for high yield loss. Practically <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. is used for seed treatment, it minimizes the seed and soil borne pathogens and supports plant growth promotion activities. In the present study, five different isolates of <em>Trichoderma</em> spp. were isolated from groundnut (<em>A. hypogaea</em> ) rhizosphere soil. All the five isolates were confirmed by morphological methods and using molecular tools through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. and DNA gets amplified in 650 bp to 700 bp. <em>Trichoderma </em>spp. were molecularly identified as T(SP)-20 (<em>Trichoderma longibrachiatum</em>)<em>,</em> T(AR)-10 (<em>T.</em> <em>asperellum</em>), T(VT)-3 (<em>T. hamatum</em>), T(BI)-16 (<em>T. longibrachiatum</em>), T(TK)-23 (<em>T. citrinoviride</em>). Phytostimulation activities of all the six isolates <em>viz., </em>phosphate solubilization, Ammonia production, IAA production, and Siderophore production, were evaluated. Among the six isolates, T(SP)-20, T(AR)-10, and TNAU-TA showed higher phytostimulation activities. The growth promotion of <em>Trichoderma</em> spp. on groundnut was assessed through the roll towel method. The isolate T(SP)-20 (<em>T</em>. <em>longibrachiatum</em>) produced the highest germination percentage of 93.33 and vigor index of 2246.2. This work developed a new isolate of <em>T. longibrachiatum</em> (T(SP)-20) which is a native isolate having significant phytostimulation and growth promotion activities and it could be exploited for other soil borne disease managing successfully.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 M. Ayyandurai, R. Akila, K. Manonmani, M. Theradimani, S. Vellaikumar Toxicity of diatomaceous earth on seed weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L. and its effect on agro-morphological characters of maize seeds 2021-09-19T03:08:29+00:00 S. Aisvarya M. Kalyanasundaram M. Kannan A. Lakshmanan T. Srinivasan <p><em>Sitophilus oryzae</em> L. (Curculionidae; Coleoptera) is considered to be a serious internal feeder of stored cereals. The use of insecticides results in the development of resistance among the pests and residues in the produce. Diatomaceous Earth (DE) is from a natural source, environment-friendly, safe to humans and natural enemies. In addition, it is highly effective against a wide range of stored pest species and has no toxic residues on the treated seeds. The promising alternative to synthetic insecticides is the application of DE in storage pest management under physical control. With this background, the present study was aimed to find the efficacy of DE against rice weevil, <em>S. oryzae</em> L. and their effect on the agro-morphological characters of maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) seeds. Contact toxicity bioassays were carried out with different concentrations of DE against <em>S. oryzae</em>. The results of the bioassay studies revealed LD<sub>50</sub> at the concentration of 1.27 mg/100 gm of maize seeds. Further, 100 per cent mortality was achieved at the dose of 15 mg/100 gm of maize seeds within six days of exposure. The effect of DE on the germination provided a significant increase in germinability of maize seeds (LD<sub>50</sub>= 94%, LD<sub>95</sub>= 98% and control= 96%). DE at the concentration of LD<sub>95</sub> had a beneficial effect on the seedling parameters, especially germination% (98%) and seedling length (53.02 cm) of maize. The present study concluded that DE could be effectively utilised as an alternative management tool to chemical insecticides in the management of rice weevil under storage conditions.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 S. Aisvarya, M. Kalyanasundaram, M. Kannan, A. Lakshmanan, T. Srinivasan Development of low formaldehyde emitting particle board by nano particle reinforcement 2021-09-04T10:43:35+00:00 Ranjana Yadav <p>Nanoscience and nanotechnology offer a plethora of possibilities for improving the qualities of wood composites. The present study aimed to use nanotechnology to develop low formaldehyde emitting particle board as ecologically acceptable composites. Conventional urea Formaldehyde resins were prepared by the percentage of second urea at 10%. Nano-wollastonite, silica and montomorillonite with the size range of 25-100 nm were applied at 0.5-2.0% based on the weight of resin. The nano-reinforced resins were admixed with suitable hardener and the panels were made. Formaldehyde emission reduction in wood panel products is critical and it can be partially controlled by using resin modification. The effectiveness of nanoparticle addition to reducing formaldehyde emission from wood particle board was examined by the perforator method as per IS 13745 (1993). Physical and Mechanical properties were evaluated according to IS 3087 (2005). The result indicated distinctly lower water absorption and thickness swelling of panels produced with 1.5 %, 1.5 % and 2.0 % nano silica, nano montomorillinite and nano wollastonite respectively. The results showed that static bending of the produced composite varied from 21.07 to 28.86 N/mm<sup>2</sup> of MOR and from 2246 - 3353 N/mm<sup>2</sup> of MOE; while internal bond strength (IB) varied from 0.35 to 0.58 N/mm<sup>2</sup>. As per IS 3087 (2005) requirements, 1.5 % nano silica and montomorillonite and 2.0 % nano wollastonite mechanically modified urea formaldehyde based agro composites gave the best results for grade II particle boards. The study concluded that nanoparticle addition reduces the formaldehyde content in the panel without affecting the strength properties.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ranjana Yadav Effect of biochar composite and organic sources on soil properties and yield of bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) 2021-09-04T08:16:45+00:00 B. Karthikeyan B. Bhakiyathu Saliha P. Kannan S. Vellaikumar <p>Biochar is considered as a possible and potential tool for soil fertility improvement, climate change mitigation and long term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Soil application of biochar enhances the soil properties indirectly. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of organic manures viz., Farm Yard Manure (FYM), Vermicompost, Biochar, Biochar composite on soil properties, growth and yield of bhendi,<em> Abelmoschus esculentus</em> in <em>Somayyanur</em> soil series of Madurai district, Tamil Nadu. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with eleven treatments and three replications during the summer season (March – June) 2021 with the inclusion of inorganic fertilizers based on soil test crop response (STCR) based recommendation. Application of biochar composite (5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) along with STCR based NPK (75% STCR) increased the total carbon content in soil by 0.538 %. This, in turn, increased the available nitrogen status to 295 and 244 Kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>at 40 and 70 DAS, respectively. Similarly, the available phosphorous (22.4, 19.3 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and potassium (344.70, 323.70 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) status also showed a considerable increase with the same treatment. The yield attributes of bhendi viz., fruit length, girth, weight, dry matter production and yield recorded maximum values of 15.23 cm, 6.93 cm, 21.56 g, 11.9 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and 25.20 t ha<sup>-1</sup> with the combined application of biochar composite and NPK. The findings revealed that 25 % STCR based NPK could be reduced with the application of 5 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>of biochar composite, which is economically an option besides promoting soil health.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 B. Karthikeyan, B. Bhakiyathu Saliha, P. Kannan , S. Vellaikumar Multivariate analysis on blackgram genotypes for bruchine (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) resistance towards selection of parental lines 2021-09-22T11:05:40+00:00 Ragul Subramaniyan Manivannan Narayana Iyanar Krishnamoorthy Ganapathy Natarajan Karthikeyan Gandhi <p>Black gram (<em>Vigna mungo </em>(L.) Hepper) is one of the most important pulse crops in daily diets. However, black gram production and post-harvest preservation are still tedious due to the losses caused by the storage pest bruchine, <em>Callosobruchus maculatus </em>(F.), both quantitatively and qualitatively. Hence, the present study involves the utilization of the multivariate analysis by effectively understanding variation among the genotypes based on their level of bruchine infestation. The multivariate studies indicated that the traits viz., the total number of adult emergence (AE), seed damage % (SD) and seed weight loss % (SWL) had more variation and with more significant correlation among them. Also, these traits are the most influential principal component traits governing 88% of the variation among genotypes. The divergence analysis showed that the genotype TU 68 found in cluster II would have the potential to create the variation for bruchine infestation among the black gram genotypes involved in the study. As it has scored lesser adult emergence (AE) (7 adults), seed damage % (SD) (14 %) and seed weight loss % (SWL) (17.79 %) than the other genotypes. It shows the resistant nature of the genotype against bruchine beetles. Hence, TU 68 could be utilized in the future hybridization programme as a donor for bruchine resistance.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ragul Subramaniyan, Manivannan Narayana , Iyanar Krishnamoorthy, Ganapathy Natarajan, Karthikeyan Gandhi Magmatic origin and petrogenesis characterization of syenite rock from Pakkanadu alkaline complex, Southern Granulite Terrain, India: Implication on emplacement and petrogenetic history 2021-08-28T20:44:23+00:00 P. Gangatharan K. Anbarasu M. Satyanarayanan <p>The present study mainly focused on understanding the magmatic origin and petrogenesis characterization based on the Petrography, major, trace and Rare Earth Element (REE) signatures in the alkaline syenite from Pakkanadu alkaline carbonatite complex. The alkaline plutons from South Indian granulite terrain are intruded along with Archaean epidote-hornblende gneisses. The study area was carbonatite complexes of Tamil Nadu and is characterized by a group of rock associations Carbonatite-Syenite-Pyroxenite - Dunite. From Harker various patterns Pakkanadu alkaline complex syenite showed increasing trends of SiO<sub>2,</sub> Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, Na<sub>2</sub>O + K<sub>2</sub>O opposite to decreasing order of CaO, Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, MgO, TiO<sub>2</sub>, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> and MnO trend, suggest fractionation of clinopyroxene, hornblende, sphene, apatite and oxide minerals and feldspar that ruled the fractionation. The concentration of trace elements enriched in Large Ion lithophile elements (LILE) (Ba, Sr, and Rb) elements and High Field Strength Elements (HFSEs) indicated that the dyke intrusion by differentiation of magma from a mantle source. Rare earth element (REE) distribution of Light rare earth element (LREE) enriched and High rare earth element (HREE) depleted pattern show strongly fractionated pattern with moderate Eu anomalies. Plots of tectonic discrimination diagrams of Pakkanadu samples fall in the field of syn-COLG field to the VAG syn- COLG field. For the first time, this type of study was carried out in the study region in a detailed manner. The present study significantly exposed the petrography, petrogenesis and magmatic origin process in the Pakkanadu alkaline carbonatite complex. </p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 P. Gangatharan, K. Anbarasu, M. Satyanarayanan Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry analysis of bioactive compounds in chloroform extract of Psoralea corylifolia L. 2021-08-07T10:16:46+00:00 S. Ranjith Kumar K. Chozhan K. A. Murugesh R. Rajeswari K. Kumaran <p><em>Psoralea corylifolia </em>is the most important medicinal plant which has various secondary metabolites and its leaves are broadly used in many sectors due to its antimicrobial activity. This study aimed to find the bio-active compounds of chloroform extract of <em>P. corylifolia</em> leaves using Perkin-Elmer Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of GC-MS compounds in the chloroform extract was appropriate to the database of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). GC-MS analysis of chloroform extract of <em>P. corylifolia </em>leaves reveal the presence of bioactive compounds as Hexadecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-, methyl ester , Hydroxylamine, O-decyl- , 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol ) Cubenol , Neophytadiene , Phytol , Linoleic acid ethyl esterand 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, ethyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- ) <em>. </em>These bio-active compounds are mainly responsible for various biological activities. Hence, this study will make a good way for the production of various products for curing various disease-causing pathogens by using <em>P. corylifolia </em>leaves.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 S. Ranjith Kumar, K. Chozhan, K. A. Murugesh , R. Rajeswari , K. Kumaran Biorational management of maize fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) using Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) enriched with chemical additives 2021-09-23T06:34:43+00:00 M. Priyanka P. Yasodha C.Gailce Leo Justin J. Ejilane Venugopal Rajanbabu <p>An invasive pest, fall armyworm,<em> Spodoptera frugiperda </em>(J.E.Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae<strong>) </strong>attacks maize at every stage of development, from seedling emergence up to cob formation. Early instar larvae were seen mostly on leaves of maize with characteristics pin or shot hole symptoms. Later instar larvae were confined to deep whorls, leaving typically ragged like appearance and fed on the reproductive stage of the crop especially tassels and developing cobs resulting in quality and quantity loss of maize produce. The effect of commercially available <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> subsp. <em>kurstaki</em> product, Dipel<sup>®</sup> against the second instar larvae of Fall Armyworm (FAW )was not promising under laboratory conditions. Hence, an effort was made to add an adjuvant along with <em>B. thuringiensis </em>to increase the virulence of commercially available <em>B. thuringiensis</em>.The Laboratory bioassays with <em>B. thuringiensis </em>and seven chemical additives ( T1- <em>Bt</em> + Boric acid, T2- <em>Bt</em> + Zinc oxide, T3- <em>Bt</em> + Sodium nitrate, T4- <em>Bt</em> + Peptone, T5- <em>Bt</em> + Urea, T6- <em>Bt</em> + EDTA, T7- <em>Bt </em>+ Citric acid &amp; T8- <em>Bt</em> alone T9- Control) were tested against second instar larvae of <em>Spodoptera frugiperda</em> larvae. The results showed that <em>B. thuringiensis </em>plus sodium nitrate (T3) promoted maximum mortality 82.2 per cent with a minimum LC<sub>50</sub> value of 54.620 mg/l. Sodium nitrate boosted <em>B. thuringiensis</em> activity at a concentration of 0.05 per cent by 2.128-fold than <em>B. thuringiensis</em> alone. Overall, sodium nitrate improved the efficacy of <em>B. thuringiensis </em>spray at the maximum level followed by boric acid, urea, EDTA and peptone.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 M. Priyanka, P. Yasodha, C.Gailce Leo Justin, J. Ejilane , Venugopal Rajanbabu Effect of soil and crop management practices on sodicity stress alleviation and rice productivity under water scarce condition 2021-08-24T16:17:28+00:00 P. Janaki A. Alagesan J. Ejilane S. Nithila P. Balasubramaniam P. Santhy <p>The prominent issue faced by the farmers of Cauvery Delta regionin Tamil Nadu particularly Tiruchirapalli District is the lack of timely release of water for rice nursery preparation and transplanting. Hence wet seeding of rice is recommended for timely cultivation. On the other hand, sodic nature of the soil warrants rice cultivation only. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to study the different soil and crop management practices on alleviating sodicity stress and improving rice (variety ADT 3) productivity under water-scarce conditions. The experiment was laid in a split plot design with six mainplots,including rice wet seeding, daincha (<em>Sesbania aculeata</em>) application as green manure, anti-oxidant microbial consortia (AOMC) spray and four sub-plots with graded levels of NPK based on soil test values with three replication. Results showed that the daincha incorporation @ 6.25 t/ha followed by rice wet seeding + AOMC spray @1.5 % with 125 % soil test based NPK had significantly increased thechlorophyll content, SPAD values, proline content and grain and straw yields which remained on par with daincha incorporation @ 6.25 t/ha followed by rice wet seeding + AOMC spray @1.5 % with 100 % soil test based NPK.Significantly lower ESP at 5% level and higher phosphatase activity in soil was also recorded by daincha incorporation @ 6.25 t/ha followed by rice wet seeding + AOMC spray @1.5 % with 125 % and 100 % soil test based NPK. Gross return, net return and B:C ratio were also higher in the plot, which received daincha incorporation @6.25 t/ha followed by rice wet seeding + AOMC spray @1.5 % with 100 % soil test based NPK. The present study reveals that the inclusion of ectophytic microbial population spray in rice plants and the management practices helps the crop to tolerate the sodicity stress under water-scarce condition by maintaining required physiological functions like proline synthesis and enzyme activities etc which need to be further explored at the genotypic level. </p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 P. Janaki, A. Alagesan, J. Ejilane, S. Nithila, P. Balasubramaniam, P. Santhy Smartphone assist deep neural network model to recognize the high-quality tea using leaf maturity and its effect on leaf chlorophyll 2021-09-22T16:38:18+00:00 Utpal Barman Ridip Dev Choudhury Bipul Kumar Talukdar George Bhokta Sahrul Alom Choudhari Abhinab Saikia <p>Immature and tender tea leaves always produce high-quality tea than mature tea leaves. Depending on the maturity and age of the leaf, the colour and texture of the tea leaf are different. The photosynthesis capacity of the tea leaf also changes with the change of leaf maturity. Though the tea farmer plucks, classifies, and recognizes the best tea leaves (immature and tender) by viewing the visual symptoms and position of the leaves, the method is not authentic all time and leads to the overall degradation of the tea quality. The present study presents a smartphone assist tea leaf recognition system by analyzing the colour and texture properties of the tea leaf. The six different colour features and 4 Haralick texture features were extracted in the colour and grey domain of the leaf images. Three types of tea leaves, i.e., mature, immature, and tender, were classified using Deep Neural Network (DNN) with ADAM (Adaptive Moment Estimation) optimizer. With an accuracy of 97%, the DNN outperformed the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and K Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The SVM and KNN reported a total of 94.42% and 95.53% accuracy, respectively. The investigated system using DNN with an average precision and recall value of 98.67 and 98.34, respectively, may detect and classify the tea leaf maturity status. The system also can be used in AI-based tea plucking robotic systems or machines.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Utpal Barman, Ridip Dev Choudhury, Bipul Kumar Talukdar, George Bhokta, Sahrul Alom Choudhari, Abhinab Saikia Knowledge pattern assessment of potential safety threats of compact fluorescent lamps in Kuwait 2021-09-21T05:05:10+00:00 Abdullah Alsanad Azel Almutairi Heba Alhelailah <p>Globally, compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) are increasing consistently, and Kuwait is not an exception. However, these lamps contain mercury, which is highly injurious to human health and the environment. This study assessed Kuwaiti respondents' awareness using a large-scale national survey conducted on a random sample of 6210 individuals (response rate 84.3%). The questionnaire was comprised of four sections and utilized skip logic branching. The modes were paper-based, face-to-face interviews, and electronic structured questionnaires. Data were also analyzed through the Pearson chi-square test to know the significant differences in lamp type preferences and the reasons for the preferences. Almost half of the participants (51.4%) knew the difference between incandescent and fluorescent lamps. Only 11.1% were using incandescent lamps solely in their houses. The remaining 88.9% used fluorescent lamps (38.4%) or both types (50.5%). The results showed that 48.3% think fluorescent lamps save energy, whereas 81.3% of people were unaware of their mercury content. The knowledge patterns towards breakage showed that respondents who chose the proper response were 31.9% for evacuation, 14.6% for aeration, and 7.3% for turning off the AC. The awareness of populations to take appropriate actions towards proper disposal was very poor in case of fluorescent lamp accidental breakage or when it completes its life cycle because most of them did not know about the proper evacuation, aeration, and cleanup measures. These findings are beneficial for the government and policymakers to take essential steps to create relevant awareness channels among the country's communities for safety from expected health hazards.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Abdullah Alsanad, Azel Almutairi, Heba Alhelailah Multifunctional activity of graphene oxide-based nanoformulation against the disease vector, Aedes aegypti 2021-09-18T11:13:06+00:00 Devaj Gupta Roopa Rani Samal Drashya Gautam Sunita Hooda Sarita Kumar <p><em>Aedes aegypti </em>management is a global concern due to the absence of medication and effective vaccines. The pesticide-mediated health hazards and rising insecticide resistance in mosquitoes have aggravated the issues. As graphene Oxide (GO)- based nanoformulations are considered a novel mosquito management strategy; the present investigation evaluated the efficacy of GO-based nanoformulations conjugated with malathion (ML) and endosulphan (EN) against <em>Ae. aegypti.</em> The GO was synthesised by Hummers’ method and was confirmed by UV-visible spectral analysis. The GO-ML and GO-EN binary mixtures (1:1 and 1:2) were assayed for toxic potential against mosquito larvae as per WHO protocol and the dead larvae were scrutinized for morphological deformations/abnormalities. The contact irritancy potential of GO nanoformulations was also evaluated against adult <em>Ae. aegypti. </em>The UV-visible spectrum of GO showed a narrow and high peak at ~300 nm corresponding to an n-π* plasmon peak. The GO-insecticide binary mixtures augmented the ML and EN toxicity by 80.43% and 6.43-fold, respectively. The GO-ML mixture-exposed larvae revealed cuticular deposition of black soot while larvae exposed to GO-EN exhibited disintegrated gut viscera. GO-insecticide combinations increased flights in <em>Ae. aegypti </em>denoting irritant potential<em>. </em>The effectual toxic, abrasive and irritant activity of GO-insecticide nanoformulations recommends developing graphene-based toxicants for mosquito management</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Devaj Gupta, Roopa Rani Samal, Drashya Gautam, Sunita Hooda, Sarita Kumar Relationship between the monoamine oxidase gene overactivity and the other pathophysiological and behavioral parameters implicated in memory deficiency in albino Winstar rats as Alzheimer’s disease model 2021-09-24T10:49:34+00:00 Halla Abdul-Hadi Chabuk Zahraa Isam Jameel <p>The current study aimed to assess the pathophysiology mechanisms that mediate the effect on albin winstar rats' memory induced by the co -administration of fluoride and aluminum sulfate, as a model of Alzheimer's disease. This was done by assessing monoamine oxidase-A<strong> (</strong>MAO-A) activity, antioxidant activity, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and amyloid-β concentration in the hippocampus, embedded deep into the brain's temporal lobe, and level of cytokines in serum. The polymerase chain reaction approach was used to genotyping MAO-A, followed by single -stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) coupled with sequencing technique. The experimental animals were divided into two groups: control and treated groups. The uptake of heavy metals led to significantly increased MAO-A activity, amyloid -β deposition, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and cytokines levels in the treated group. However, the finding showed a significant decrease in antioxidant activity in the treated group. The results indicated that metals caused memory and learning impairments. PCR -SSCP genotyping showed many SNPs and haplotypes of the MAO-A exon 2 region, which showed the MAO-A gene polymorphism changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. The overall results indicated a role of metals to induce oxidative stress stimulating pathophysiological hallmarks in the hippocampus due to an increase in the influx of monoamine oxidase expression, which has been implicated in impaired memory, this study focused on the genetic variation of the exon 2 in monoamine oxidase-A gene and its relationship to Alzheimer's disease with the presence of several single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be related to Alzheimer's disease model in rats.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Halla Abdul-Hadi Chabuk, Zahraa Isam Jameel Sorption of Arsenic(III) from wastewater using Prosopis spicigera L. wood (PsLw) carbon-polyaniline composite 2021-09-04T10:31:09+00:00 Ramasubbu Dhana Ramalakshmi Mahalingam Murugan Vincent Jeyabal <p>Water contamination by toxic heavy metal ions causes a serious public health problem for humans. The present work reports the development of a new adsorbent of PsLw carbon-polyaniline composite by direct oxidation polymerisation of aniline with PsLw carbon for the removal of arsenic (As). The structure and morphologies of the adsorbent were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of the adsorbent for the removal of As(III) was estimated by batch and kinetic studies. The optimum adsorption behaviour of the adsorbent was measured at pH=6.0. The equilibrium process was found to be in good agreement with Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity was 98.8 mg/g for an initial concentration of 60 mg/L at 30 °C. The kinetic study followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters predict the spontaneous, feasible and exothermic nature of adsorption. Column operation was carried out to remove As(III) bulk and column data obeys the Thomas model. The results indicated that PsLw carbon-polyaniline composite can be employed as an efficient adsorbent than polyaniline for removal of As(III) from wastewater.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ramasubbu Dhana Ramalakshmi, Mahalingam Murugan, Vincent Jeyabal A review on ecological degradation, its causes and sustainable development in Delhi, India 2021-09-06T04:14:52+00:00 Ranjana Saxena Rita Rath Sadhna Gupta Neeraja Sood <p>Degradation of natural resources and loss of biodiversity (wildlife flora and fauna) is a global problem that affects our society and hampers the economic and social progress of a country towards sustainable development. In developing countries like India, degradation of natural resources is a major threat to socio-economic development. In general, destruction of the environment, biodiversity and nature, has been a major concern in metropolitan cities. Delhi being a metropolitan city and the capital of India, has been facing this problem since 1980’s. However, the situation was not that bad then. Over the years, the environmental degradation has not only led to the loss of natural flora and fauna of Delhi city but has also become a cause of great concern because of its impact on the health of the common citizens of Delhi. Modernization, industrialization and overpopulation are key factors responsible for bringing about a drastic change in Delhi’s biodiversity and natural resources. Keeping in view their multifarious impacts, the Government of Delhi took some measures to restore the ecosystem of the city. However, we still have a long way to go to bring back the natural flora and fauna of the city, clean air, and the natural resources that have been depleted beyond imagination. Government alone cannot bring about the lost glory of Delhi. Each citizen of Delhi is responsible, and there is a need to join hands together and think in a positive direction to make Delhi a safe living place not only for human beings but also the wildlife that once existed in this majestic city.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ranjana Saxena, Rita Rath, Sadhna Gupta, Neeraja Sood Pathogenic and morphological variability among the isolates of Fusarium udum (Butler) causing wilt of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) 2021-07-11T15:55:59+00:00 Sanjeev Kumar Shambhu Roy J. P. Upadhyay <p>Wilt is the most serious disease causing irreversible losses and lethal damage to the crop in Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa and the West Bengal states of Eastern India. Because of the existence of high pathogen variability, management of the disease using resistant cultivars will be a challenging task. For breeding resistant varieties, knowledge of pathogen variability in the particular crop area is essential. In present study, fifteen isolates <em>viz.,</em> Fu-9, Fu-10, Fu-27,Fu-32, Fu-42, Fu-49, Fu-63, Fu-72, Fu-73, Fu-74,Fu-75,Fu-84, Fu-86, Fu-87, Fu-97of <em>Fusarium udum</em> obtained from wilt infected pigeonpea plants of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal of Eastern India were assessed for the phenotypic variation. The isolates exhibited considerable variations in cultural and morphological characters <em>viz.</em>, radial growth, mycelial color, sporulation, size and shape of macroconidia. Pathogenic variability on soil inoculated pot grown plants of pigeonpea resulted in 12.0 to 57.1 percent wilt incidence. The isolates also exhibited significant variations in symptoms like drooping of shoots, latent period, timing of fungal invasion, vascular clogging, drooping of shoots, and wilt establishment etc. Based on the wilt incidence, the fifteen isolates were distinguished into pathogenic groups. Fu- 10, Fu-27, Fu-32 and Fu-49 were found highly pathogenic and predominantly causing the typical wilt symptoms of more than one 31% wilt incidence. The present study indicates the existence of variability among isolates of vascular wilt pathogen collected from Eastern region of India.</p> <p> </p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sanjeev Kumar, Shambhu Roy , J. P. Upadhyay Comparative evaluation of sulphur sources on growth, yield and quality of garlic (Allium sativum L.) 2021-09-27T08:58:08+00:00 G. Divyasree R. K. Kaleeswari T. Chitdeshwari R. Swarna Priya S. Karthikeyan <p>Sulphur is a prime nutrient in <em>Allium </em>crops. Garlic fertilization with ammonium-based sulphur fertilizers in low pH soils is being practiced by farmers that culminate the soil acidity, which has an adverse effect on plant growth. Hence a field experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Station, Woodhouse farm, Ooty, the Nilgris in 2021 to evaluate the appropriate sulphur sources and their levels for garlic at acidic hilly soil using four sulphur sources viz., potassium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, zinc sulphate and ammonium phosphate sulphate and three levels viz., 0, 40, 60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Garlic variety Ooty 2 was used as test crop. The results revealed that application of magnesium sulphate @ 60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> produced the highest plant height, leaf numbers, clove numbers bulb<sup>-1</sup>, neck thickness, polar diameter, equatorial diameter, the weight of 10 cloves, fresh weight, dry weight and bulb yield (16.78 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) of garlic. Quality parameters <em>viz.</em>, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid and total phenols of garlic bulbs were improved by the application of potassium sulphate @ 60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Sulphur source of Magnesium sulphate had a minimal effect of rendering acidity to soil measured in terms of pH (4.74) and exchangeable acidity (0.22 meq 100 g<sup>-1</sup>). Hence, the promising source for acidic hilly soil and garlic crop was found to be magnesium sulphate @ 60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> followed by potassium sulphate @ 60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. This particular investigation focuses not only on yield improvement but also on maintaining soil quality of the area.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 G. Divyasree, R. K. Kaleeswari , T. Chitdeshwari, R. Swarna Priya, S. Karthikeyan Efficacy of silver and gold nanoparticles obtained from vermiwash: In vitro study on antimicrobial and antidiabetic activities 2021-09-20T06:39:17+00:00 Latha Rathinam S. P. Sevarkodiyone J. Pandiarajan <p>Emerging nanobiotechnology has provided innovative techniques to synthesize nanoparticles through biological methods to explore the potentialities of biological sources like phytoextracts, microbes, animal secretions and excretion. This research studies the potential of vermiwash to synthesize the silver and gold nanoparticles and evaluate its <em>in vitro</em> effect of antimicrobial and antidiabetic activities. The characterization of the nanoparticles was analyzed through various techniques. Ultraviolet (UV)-Visible spectroscopy showed the maximum absorption spectrum at 413 nm for silver and 541 nm for gold nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the reducing agent involved in nanoparticles synthesis. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed the size of the silver and gold nanoparticles as 24 nm and 50 nm, respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis revealed the elemental composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles that displayed the preferential orientation of the crystals toward the (111) plane. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the resazurin assay method. A minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of less than 7.8 µg was observed in <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>. In the antifungal activity, MIC at 250 µg was noted in <em>Mucor sp.</em> and <em>Candida albicans</em>. Antidiabetic activity was assessed by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay. IC<sub>50</sub> of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity of the silver nanoparticles was noted as 218 and 221 µg/mL, respectively. IC 50 value for the enzymatic assay dose-dependently confirmed the effect. Conclusively biosynthesized nanoparticles from vermiwash showed potential efficiency of antibacterial, antifungal and antidiabetic activities<em>.</em></p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Latha Rathinam, S. P. Sevarkodiyone, J. Pandiarajan Standardization of optimum sieve size for maximizing seed quality in Amaranthus (Amaranthus tricolor L.) 2021-09-25T15:25:04+00:00 Pavithra M J. Renugadevi R. Swarna Priya R. Vigneshwari <p>Vegetables have a critical function in human health and nutritional security. Vegetables are considered an essential building block of any diet. Out of the leafy vegetables, <em>Amaranthus</em> is the most popular and salable vegetable consumed by people all over India. Seed processing experiment was undertaken in <em>Amaranthus tricolor</em> (CO 2) by using the sieves placed inside the mechanical seed shaker (Gyratory sieve shaker) to improve the quality of <em>Amaranthus</em> seeds. The seeds of <em>Amaranthus</em> were size graded with seed shaker attached with various sieve size of BSS 18 X18 (R), BSS 20 X 20 (R), BSS 22 X 22 (R) and BSP 22 X 22 (P). During processing, the machine could be adjusted for 2, 3, 4 and 5 minutes with an oscillating speed of 1440 rpm. The separated seeds were evaluated for seed quality characteristics such as seed germination percentage, shoot length, root length, dry matter production, 1000 seed weight and seed recovery percentage. The results revealed that the sieve size of BSS 22 X 22 (R=retained) mesh sieve had the better quality seeds with a maximum recovery of 67.41 g and when it is operated for a period of 5 minutes. The germination percentage was improved from 77 % to 95 % with 1000 seed weight of 73.21 mg, and the observed recovery was 56 per cent with the vigour index of 1145. Hence, BSS 22 X 22 retained mesh sieve with a duration of 5 minutes could be recommended as an optimum sieve size for grading <em>Amaranthus</em> seeds for improving the seed quality.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pavithra M, J. Renugadevi , R. Swarna Priya, R. Vigneshwari Sulphur fertilization on biochemical constituents of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata. L) in non-calcareous soil of Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu 2021-09-27T08:28:56+00:00 S. Roshini D. Jegadeeswari T. Chitdeshwari A. Sankari <p>Sulphur is the fourth most important plant nutrient after nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and it is becoming increasingly crucial in high-quality crop production (Bhoyar., 2019). Since limited work has been carried out regarding different sulphur sources on cabbage production in the Coimbatore district, the present study was undertaken to investigate the sulphur sources and levels on various biochemical constituents of cabbage. Hence a field experiment was conducted in the farmer’s field at Viraliyur village, Thondamuthur block of Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu to assess the effect of sulphur fertilization on improving the biochemical constituents of cabbage hybrid Saint. There were four different S sources (Elemental sulphur, Potassium sulphate, Gypsum, Single super phosphate) applied at five levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and replicated thrice in a factorial randomized block design. The crop was fertilized with a Soil Test Crop Response-prescribed dose of NPK (200:125:25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The crop was harvested on 90<sup>th</sup> day and cabbage heads were analysed for various biochemical constituents like ascorbic acid, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), chlorophyll content, glucosinolates (GLs), total phenol content (TPC), sulphur containing amino acid (methionine) and antioxidant enzyme activity (peroxidase). The influence of S fertilizers on biochemical constituents increased significantly with increasing levels of sulphur fertilization up to 80 kg S ha<sup>-1</sup> excluding ascorbic acid content. The pooled data showed that gypsum applied at 80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> registered the maximum GLs (69.0 µmol g<sup>-1</sup>), TPC (31.9 mM 100g<sup>-1</sup>), methionine (32.3%), peroxidase activity (0.70 units min<sup>-1</sup>mg<sup>-1</sup>), TSS (7.64 <sup>0</sup>Brix), TA (0.64%), ascorbic acid (61.4 mg 100g<sup>-1</sup>) and total chlorophyll (1.21 mg g<sup>-1</sup>) in cabbage head. The lowest content of biochemical constituents <em>viz</em>., GLs (34.1 µmol g<sup>-1</sup>), TPC (8.10 mM 100g<sup>-1</sup>), methionine (17.6%) and peroxidase (0.31 units min<sup>-1</sup>mg<sup>-1</sup>) were observed in control applied NPK alone. There were positive and significant changes in the biochemical constituents of cabbage due to S application which confirms the improvement in the quality of cabbage head. The study concluded that gypsum was the better sulphur source for improving the quality of cabbage.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 S. Roshini, D. Jegadeeswari, T. Chitdeshwari, A. Sankari Artificial intelligence-powered expert system model for identifying fall armyworm infestation in maize (Zea mays L.) 2021-09-29T11:07:55+00:00 R. Prabha J. S. Kennedy G. Vanitha N. Sathiah M. Banu Priya <p>Maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L) is one of the most saleable cereal crops grown worldwide and a dominant staple food in many developing countries. The severe outbreak of fall armyworm in maize causes massive yield loss. Modern technologies, including smartphones, can assist in detecting recognising the fall armyworm infestation in maize. The objective of this study was to develop an automated Artificial Intelligence Powered Expert System (AIPES) for identifying fall armyworm infestation in maize. In addition, it put forward a deep learning-based model that is trained on photographs of healthy and fall armyworm infested leaves, cobs and tassels from a dataset and furnished an application that will be detecting maize fall armyworm infestation using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture and Mobile Net V 2 framework model. The study developed an Artificial Intelligence (AI) based maize fall armyworm infestation detection system using a DCNN (Deep Convolutional Neural Network) to support maize cultivating farmers. The model executed the objective by accurately identifying the fall armyworm infested maize plant and also classified them vis-c-vis the healthier crop. The deep learning models were trained to detect and recognise fall armyworm infection using more than 11000 images of fall armyworm infested leaves, cobs, and tassels. The created application (AIPES for identifying fall armyworm infestation in maize) using CNN detected and recognised the fall armyworm infestation in maize with a 100 per cent training accuracy rate and 87 per cent validation accuracy. So, the detection of maize fall armyworm and the treatment of fall armyworm-infested maize could lead to a higher maize crop yield. </p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 R. Prabha , J. S. Kennedy, G. Vanitha, N. Sathiah, M. Banu Priya Response of growth, yield and quality of small onion (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum don.) to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University-Water Soluble Fertilizers (TNAU-WSF) 2021-09-29T11:24:38+00:00 C. Vairavan S. Thiyageshwari P. Malarvizhi T. Saraswathi <p>Enhancing the food production for the growing world population has needed application of highly sustainable and efficient inputs to produce more food per unit of land. Hence, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu has produced Water soluble fertilizers (WSF) in its maiden attempt and it is necessary to optimize on different crops. Small onion is one of the most important vegetables in the Indian diet and it has high demand but low productivity. To enhance crop productivity and quality of small onions, the application of TNAU-WSF was taken up. A field experiment was laid out in a Randomized block design (RBD) incorporating 8 treatments comprising of application of RDF at100% NPK as TNAU WSF, soil test based application of 75%, 100%, 125% NPK ha<sup>-1</sup> as TNAU-WSF with soil application of sulphur (S) and foliar spray of TNAU Liquid multi micronutrient (LMM) and without S and TNAU LMM and absolute control. Each treatment was replicated thrice with onion (CO 4). Soil test based application of 125% NPK ha<sup>-1</sup> as TNAU-WSF with sulphur (S) and TNAU LMM recorded significantly higher in plant height (54.01 cm), the number of leaves per bulb (8.56), leaf greenness (67.5 SPAD), root length (5.42 cm), polar bulb diameter (4.38 cm), equatorial bulb diameter (2.72 cm) fresh bulb weight (74.21 g), bulb yield (1751 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and quality attributes like total soluble solids (TSS) (14.78 <sup>°</sup>Brix), ascorbic acid content (15.34 mg 100 g<sup>-1</sup>), pyruvic acid content (2.27 µmol g<sup>-1</sup>). However, soil test based application of 100% NPK ha<sup>-1</sup> as TNAU-WSF was found to be an ideal rate to attain the economic target yield of the onion crop.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 C. Vairavan, S. Thiyageshwari, P. Malarvizhi, T. Saraswathi Effect of different levels and sources of calcium on post harvest physiology of hybrid tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) 2021-09-27T08:22:20+00:00 S. Salma Santhosh T. Chitdeshwari D. Jegadeeswari C. Kavitha <p>Due to high respiration and ethylene production, tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em>) is highly perishable horticulture produce that deteriorates faster during the post-harvest storage period. Calcium nutrition is important to overcome these losses as it helps in retarding ripening process during storage and improve the post-harvest quality tomatoes. Hence a field experiment was conducted with different calcium sources and levels viz., Calcium sulphate, Calcium Nitrate, Calcium silicate, Poultry manure and Pressmud applied at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg Ca ha<sup>-1</sup>. A storage study was conducted in a factorial completely randomized block design (FCRD) to ensure the effective role of calcium in post-harvest quality of hybrid tomato. Tomatoes were analyzed for pH of fruit juice, firmness, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, moisture content and physiological loss at five days intervals upto 15 days. The results revealed thatCalcium sources and levels had highly significant impacts on the quality of tomato fruits. The tomatoes harvested from the plot applied with poultry manure at 80 kg Ca ha<sup>-1</sup> retained the highest fruit firmness(3.76 N m<sup>-1</sup>), moisture content (88.2%) and the lowest weight loss (8.82%) in fruit, highertitratable acidity (0.41%), lesser pH (3.61)andtotal soluble solids (4.23 ˚Brix). Hence the application of poultry manure at 80 kg Ca ha<sup>-1</sup>was beneficial in improving the quality and extending the storage life of hybrid tomatoes.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 S. Salma Santhosh, T. Chitdeshwari, D. Jegadeeswari, C. Kavitha Performance of water table management system for alleviating sodic soil reclamation at Kumulur farm, Trichy District, Tamil Nadu 2021-03-16T15:09:14+00:00 A. Selvaperumal Sherene Jenitta Rajammal G. Thiyagarajan Thangamani. S K. Ramaswamy <p>Waterlogging and sodicity is common problem in many irrigation canal command areas. The water table management system is the next level of improving water management in irrigated agriculture. In the present study, the water table management system was designed to work effectively in the monsoon season as a controlled drainage system and sub-irrigation system during summer. The field evaluation of drain water quality analysis was carried out from the water table management system installed at A-block of Eastern Farm, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Kumulur farm, Trichy, Tamil Nadu during 2015-2016. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Four levels of drain spacing of drain pipes (7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15m) were the main plot treatment and two levels of depth and diameter of drain pipes (75 cm, 60 cm &amp; 75 mm, 63 mm) were the sub plot treatments. The results showed that the recommended quality of press mud 2 t ha<sup>-1</sup> was a help to reduce the Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) level of 33 to 28 percent when compared to other ameliorants. It was concluded that solubilization should be removed by providing drainage and brought to ESP level of less than 16 percent and 15 m drain spacing to adapt to reduce the ESP level below the critical. </p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A. Selvaperumal , Sherene Jenitta Rajammal , G. Thiyagarajan, Thangamani. S , K. Ramaswamy Response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) productivity and nutrient uptake to nitrogen and boron fertilization in Typic Ustifluvents soil 2021-10-07T04:31:17+00:00 Abinaya M. R. Manivannan M.V. Sriramachandrasekharan P. Senthilvalavan S. Kalaisudarson C. Ravikumar <p>Nitrogen and boron are necessary for the metabolic activities of rice for its growth. With this perspective, a field experiment was conducted in farmer’s field during 2020 at Kuttalam, Mayladuthurai district, Tamilnadu in sandy clay loam(Padugai Series – TypicUstifluvents) to predict the response of rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em>) to different levels of nitrogen(N) and boron (B) application. The treatments consisted of Factor A- Nitrogen levels, 0, 75, 150, 225 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and Factor B- Boron levels 0, 1.5, 3.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Fifteen treatments were conducted in a Factorial randomised block (FRBD) design with three replications. The test crop was rice with a variety ADT 46. Concerning nitrogen alone, the highest grain (5344 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and straw yield was recorded in N<sub>3</sub>(225 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Among the boron levels tested, the highest grain (4695 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and straw yield (6509 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) was registered in B<sub>1 </sub>(1.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) in rice. The highest total nutrient uptake viz., N(88.2 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), P(30.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), K(105.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and B(172mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) were recorded in N<sub>3</sub>B<sub>1</sub>. Among the N alone, the highest total nutrient uptake viz., N(78.1kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, P(26.3kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), K (95.8 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and B(156.6 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) in N<sub>3</sub>. Concerning B alone, the highest nutrient uptake viz., N(60.5, kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) , P(17.8kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) K(74.9 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and B(112.1mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) were registered in B<sub>1</sub> over other B levels. The highest grain (5631 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded in N<sub>3</sub>B<sub>1 </sub>(225 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and 1.5kg B ha<sup>-1</sup>) than other interactions. The study concluded that applying nitrogen and boron is required to achieve the maximum yield of rice in sandy clay loam soil.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Abinaya M. , R. Manivannan, M.V. Sriramachandrasekharan, P. Senthilvalavan, S. Kalaisudarson, C. Ravikumar A comparison of mutagenic potential of Aji-no-Moto with a traditional chemical mutagen on microsporogenesis in barley (Hordeum vulagre L.) 2021-09-24T16:00:48+00:00 Vivek Singh <p><em>Aji-no-Moto</em> or Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG) is a flavour enhancer being used extensively in South East Asian cuisine. The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology for the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has concluded that MSG is safe when "eaten at customary levels" but there is still great confusion regarding its toxicity at higher concentrations. Therefore, it was decided to assess the mutagenic efficacy of MSG on a plant system and present the findings as a model for probably similar effects in the animal model. For this, a traditionally popular genus for genetic studies, <em>Hordeum vulgare </em>L. or winter barley, was used as the model system. The studies of microsporogenesis were done in order to see the long term effect. The sets were compared with experimental sets of plants grown from seeds treated with a traditional chemical mutagen Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). The study revealed that MSG does not induce much genotoxic effects at lower doses and the chromosomal damages induced were very few. However, at higher doses, it almost equals the effects of EMS in terms of heritable genetic damage. The work is significant as MSG continues to be one of the most popular flavouring agents and does not face any challenge to its biosafe status. However, the clastogenic and chromotoxic effects of higher doses of MSG as observed in the study are in total contradiction to the popular belief.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Vivek Singh Effect of long term fertilization on phosphorus dynamics in root zone environment under finger millet - Maize cropping sequence 2021-10-02T15:32:22+00:00 Kalaiselvi K. D. Jayanthi P. Santhy M. Gnanachitra B. Gokila <p>In an agro-ecosystem, phosphorus (P) is found in organic and an inorganic form which includes soluble P, sorbed P and mineral bounded P. In soil, added P sources undergo various soil processes like mineralization, immobilization, precipitation, weathering, dissolution, sorption and desorption. For understanding the P dynamics in clay loam (Vertic Ustropept) soil, the present study was undertaken in P dynamics under rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere environment of maize in Long Term Fertilizer Experiment at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The results revealed that the fractions of various pools of inorganic NaOH extractable Fe - P, H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> extractable Ca- P, NH<sub>4</sub>F extractable Al- P, NH<sub>4</sub>Cl extractable Saloid P and Na citrate - Dithionate extractable Reductant soluble P were dominant in the non-rhizospheric soil than rhizospheric environment. The order of inorganic P fractions in the non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric region of the soil was found as Ca-P &gt; Fe-P &gt; Al-P &gt; Reductant soluble-P &gt; Saloid P and the knee-high stage of the non - rhizosphere soil recorded the highest inorganic as well organic P fractions. Irrespective of P fractions, Ca – P was recorded high (192.5 &amp; 186.7 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> ) followed by Fe - P (40.8&amp; 34.9 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) at a knee-high stage in non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. Practising various nutrient management systems, application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer along with FYM @ 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (T<sub>8</sub>) recorded significant changes in all inorganic (Ca-P, Fe-P, Al-P, Reductant soluble-P, Saloid P), organic fractions and also Total P followed by 150% NPK (T<sub>3</sub>) in sandy clay loam soil. Nowadays, increasing demand for P fertilizer in India, judicious use of P fertilizer is important. Despite that, intensively cultivated soils have a lot of P reserves like organic and inorganic P pools and effective way of P transformation management could reduce the quantum of P fertilization in soil.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kalaiselvi K., D. Jayanthi, P. Santhy, M. Gnanachitra, B. Gokila Manufacturing and assessing new samplers to measure wind soil erosion 2021-10-30T08:14:59+00:00 Adil Abdelsamia Meselhy Omnia Mohamed Wassif <p>Wind soil erosion is one of the most important causes of soil degradation that impede the process of sustainable agricultural development. The first step to mitigating wind erosion hazards is to find an effective and accurate way to assess its severity. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to raise and evaluate the efficiency of the new four traps to measure eroded soil, Fixed Distance trap (FD), Fixed Point trap (FP), Rotary Distance trap (RD) and Rotary Point trap (RP). The study traps RP and FP compared with the Big Spring Number Eight trap (BSNE) (traditional trap) and the traps RD and FD compared with the Bagnold trap (traditional trap). The results indicated that the order of study traps in terms of soil collection efficiency and soil retention efficiency were RD&gt;FD&gt;Bagnold&gt;RP&gt;FP&gt;BSNE and FP&gt;RP&gt;RD&gt;FD&gt;Bagnold&gt;BSNE, respectively. Results proved that the best traps in collecting eroded soil were RP trap followed by FP trap, compared to BSNE trap. Also, the best traps in collecting eroded soil were RD trap, followed by FD trap, compared to the Bagnold trap. The most important results showed that the relative efficiency of RP and FP traps were 181% and 159%, respectively, compared to BSNE and the relative efficiency of RD and FD traps were 186% and 172%, respectively, compared to the Bagnold trap. The study proved high accuracy of new traps in measuring soil eroded material, separating soil particles according to their size directly inside traps and determining the direction of the wind compared to traditional traps. </p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Adil Abdelsamia Meselhy, Omnia Mohamed Wassif Desiccation-resurrection linked antioxidant machinery of a moss species Campylopus flexuosus (Hedw.) Bird. 2021-10-25T07:02:15+00:00 Usha S. S. Remya Krishnan Murugan K. <p>Dehydration and rejuvenation during rehydration is the salient feature of certain plants which can withstand drought. The present study was undertaken to justify the tolerance capacity of <em>Campylopus flexuosus</em>, the moss of the Ponmudi belts of Thiruvananthapuram, against dehydration followed by rehydration. Fresh leafy plants of <em>C. flexuosus</em> were hydrated, afterwards dried, and rehydrated under <em>in vitro</em> environment. In the course of loss of water from cells, the relative water content of desiccated thallus was reduced after 4 h with intense inward curling. Upon rehydration, the RWC was regained 85% of its initial water content within hours. The rehydrated thallus showed the normal morphology. Photosynthetic parameters like chlorophyll b (1.01 to 1.56 μg g –1 ), and total carotenoid (0.251 to 0.514 μg g –1 ) increased remarkably in the desiccated state. Superoxide radical (O<sub>2</sub><sup> _</sup>) content increased (11.4 nmol/g FW), resulting in an oxidative burst during desiccation. Consequently, antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (0.369 U mg protein −1), superoxide dismutase ( 2.68 to 6.02 Units mg−1), peroxidase ( 0.12 μmol min−1 g−1 protein) and glutathione reductase ( 312 Units mg−1 protein) activities were up-regulated in the desiccated thallus to ameliorate oxidative damage. Increased malondialdehyde (1.08 nmol g−1 FW) content during desiccation substantiates membrane damage and loss of its integrity. During desiccation, the osmolytes sucrose and proline (27.6 and 2.57 μmol/g FW respectively) were enhanced to maintain cell structure integrity. After rehydration, biochemical and morphological properties were maintained similar to hydrated conditions. Thus, the study reflects the unique adaptations of the moss to tide over desiccation tolerance.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Remya Krishnan, Usha S. S., Murugan K. Study of potential activity of clove oil 10 % emulsifiable concentrate formulation on Two-spotted spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) 2021-10-30T08:23:39+00:00 Hisham I. Abd-Alla Saad E. S. Hamouda <p>Clove oil is reported to have a great range of biological activities against many species of pests; termites, cockroaches, aphids, weevils and moths, and many different usages such as perfume and food flavoring agent. This study aimed to determine the acaricidal activity of clove oil emulsifiable concentrate new formulation against two-spotted spider mites <em>Tetranychus urticae</em>. Clove oil was formulated as 10 % emulsifiable concentrate (EC). The new formula passed successfully all physical and chemical tests reported for emulsifiable concentrates. It was then tested biologically on the individuals of two-spotted spider mite <em>T. urticae</em> Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on two host plants beans and squash under laboratory conditions. In both cases, there were a direct relationship between the increase in the concentration of the formulation and the percentage of inhibition on the individuals of the two-spotted spider mite, after 72 hours of treatment, at concentrations of 20, 40, and 80 mg/ml the new formulation showed 10.30, 44.8, and 75 percent inhibition, respectively in case of beans, while squash at the same concentrations and for the same period of treatment showed 33.3, 40.7, and 51.9 percent inhibition, but the effect in case of beans was greater than that in case of squash as its EC<sub>50</sub> value was lower than that in case of squash. In the case of the former, it was 39.81 mg/ml, whereas in the case of the latter, it was 79.43 mg/ml. Therefore, the new clove oil formulation can be used to combat the two-spotted spider mite.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hisham I. Abd-Alla , Saad E. S. Hamouda Phytoremedial effect of fruit extract of Moringa oleifera on alloxan induced diabetic model in Swiss albino mice 2021-10-07T03:09:57+00:00 Roushan Kumari Arun Kumar Singh Ranjit Kumar Arun Kumar <p>Diabetes is a metabolic disorder and global health issue. It arises because of an absolute or relative insulin deficiency that causes hyperglycemia. The study aimed to assess the antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, and renal protective effects of ethanolic fruit extract of <em>Moringa oleifera</em>, on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Four mice were assigned to each group. Alloxan was injected at the dose of 10mg/kg/body weight intraperitoneally to make the diabetic model in mice. Control and diabetic control mice received drinking water as a placebo, while the diabetic model mice group was administered with ethanolic extract of moringa fruit at the dose of 150mg/kg/bodyweight for 12 weeks. After that, animals were sacrificed, and their blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological examination. The glucose level markedly (p&lt;0.0001) increased many folds in Group I (80.73± 1.24 to 221.5±13.4) and Group II (80.73 ± 1.24 from to 221.9±6.88). The level of insulin markedly (P&lt; 0.0001) decreased in both groups (6.8±0.42 to1.378±0.19) and (6.8±0.42 to1.138±0.08) respectively. Serum hepatic and renal marker enzymes increased in the diabetic group of mice. Glucose level was meaningfully (p&lt;0.0001) decreased in the <em>M</em><em>. </em><em>oleifera </em>administered group while serum insulin level significantly (p&lt;0.0001) increased. The level of liver marker enzyme and renal marker also decreased as compared to the diabetic control group. Histopathological study revealed that alloxan treatment caused damage to the liver, kidney, and pancreatic tissues while the<em> M. oleifera </em>administered group exhibited significant improvement in the architecture of the liver, kidney, and pancreas. Hence, <em>M. oleifera</em> has great potential to rejuvenate the damaged tissue and consequently can restore all the serum enzymatic and hormonal parameters.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Roushan Kumari, Arun Kumar Singh, Ranjit Kumar, Arun Kumar Short term effects of restricted food availability and peripheral leptin injections in redheaded bunting, Emberiza bruniceps 2021-11-06T04:13:51+00:00 Neelu Jain Gupta Samya Das Anit Kumar Sanjay Kumar Bhardwaj Nidhi Yadav <p>Migratory birds need continued food supply and efficient metabolic machinery to meet high energy demands of the magnanimous feat of flight. Two questions are important i.e. as to 1) how a bird adapts to a temporary food constrain on a daily basis, and 2) how peripheral leptin, an anorectic hormone, impacted feeding and migratory behaviour in buntings? The aim of this study was to induce a non-photoperiodic tweak in the physiology of redheaded buntings through exogenous leptin administration and study its effect on their food intake and migratory behaviour. Groups of male redheaded buntings, <em>Emberiza bruniceps</em> (n=17) were transferred from short (8L: 16D) to long (16L: 8D) days and presented with food only either for first (morning food presence, MFP) or second (evening food presence, EFP) half of the 16h lighted phase, while control group received food <em>ad libitum</em>. Total daily food intake (FI) did not differ significantly between the MFP, EFP and controls, but hourly FI in MFP and EFP indicated increased activity differences based on time of food availability and bird’s tendency to cache food/ recompense for food scarcity during migration. In another experiment, a chemical tweak in bird’s FI was induced by peripheral administration of leptin, to add to current understanding of transition in buntings’ metabolic efficiency during high energy demanding migratory journey. Exogenous leptin appeared to safeguard cadaveric effect of exogenous injection in migrating buntings through promoting blood cholesterol and reduced liver fibrosis. Food restriction in the morning was better responded by buntings than that in evening. Therefore, migratory buntings exhibited diurnal variation in response to food scarcity.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Neelu Jain Gupta, Samya Das, Anit Kumar, Sanjay Kumar Bhardwaj, Nidhi Yadav Pesticide residues analysis in farm gate vegetables of agricultural areas in Tumakuru district, Karnataka, India 2021-08-14T07:08:40+00:00 B. S. Shylesha Mahesh. M. V. N. Yoganandamurthy <p>The main purpose of this experiment was to understand pesticide residues persistence and their toxicity level in vegetables. In the present study pesticide residues in tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em>) and capsicum (<em>Capsium annuum</em> L.) vegetables cultivated in Tumakuru, Gubbi, Kunigal and Pavagada taluks in Tumkur district were analysed. In methodology, samples of 1 kg each were collected, cut into small pieces, macerated in a grinder and used for the analysis. Pesticides were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed tomato samples of Pavagada recorded acephate (0.346 mg/kg), dichlorvos (0.189 mg/kg), fenvalerate (0.057 mg/kg) and Tumakuru samples recorded phorate (0.072 mg/kg) residues higher than MRLs (Maximum residue levels). Chlorpyrifos, cyhalothrin-g and cypermethrin were below detection level (BDL) in all the samples. Cyfluthrin-β recorded highest in Kunigal samples (0.294 mg/kg), Tumakuru and Gubbi samples showed BDL. <br />Deltamethrin was highest in Pavagada (0.296 mg/kg) samples and Tumakuru and Kunigal samples revealed BDL. Pavagada samples (0.026 mg/kg) showed monocrotophos residues higher than MRLs. In capsicum samples, acephate residue was highest in Tumakuru samples (0.333 mg/kg), highest chlorpyrifos (0.153 mg/kg) in Kunigal samples, deltamethrin (0.381 mg/kg), fenvalerate (0.168 mg/kg) and phorate (0.089 mg/kg) residues were higher than MRLs in Pavagada samples. Cyfluthrin-β (0.045 mg/kg) was high in Tumakuru and dichlorvos (0.042 mg/kg) high in Pavagada samples. Cyhalothrin-g, cypermethrin and monocrotophos were BDL in all the samples. An attempt has been made to assess the different pesticides usage and their adverse impacts on vegetables, which are backbone to afford assistance for an extensive array of investigators.</p> <p> </p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 B. S. Shylesha , Mahesh. M. , V. N. Yoganandamurthy A pragmatic approach for analysis of long-term climate trends for apple growing regions of Himachal Pradesh, India 2021-10-31T11:34:32+00:00 Arundhati R. M. Bhagat <p>The study assessed the long-term climate as well as the area and production trends for four representative decades (1985-2020) in three apple growing districts of Himachal Pradesh, India with the objective of understanding the impact of climate change on apple crop. A long term database was prepared for minimum temperature (T<sub>min</sub>), maximum temperature (T<sub>max</sub>) and rainfall, besides area and production for four decades for three districts of Himachal Pradesh, India. Trend analysis indicated that the temperature in apple growing regions of generally showed an increasing trend, whereas, decreasing trend was observed in the precipitation. The minimum temperature in apple growing regions of Kullu, Shimla and Kinnaur districts has shown an increase of 0.82º C, 1.09 º C and 0.03 ºC, respectively and the precipitation (rainfall) in the Kullu, Shimla and Kinnaur districts has shown a decrease by 5.3 mm, 3.3 mm and 0.9 mm, respectively. Increased warming in the mountain regions is elevating temperatures resulting in the reduction of chilling hours, pre-requisite for apple fruiting. However, in the higher elevation of Shimla, Kullu and Kinnaur districts, in spite of the increase in temperature, the areas are still suitable for apple farming. The study indicated that the area and production of all three districts of study are increasing because growers are slowly shifting to low chilling varieties (Varieties having chilling hours requirement less than 1000 hours). Also, the present ecosystem at lower elevations will not support high chilling requirement varieties and apple growers will have to shift to either low chilling varieties or alternate crops.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Arundhati, R. M. Bhagat Utilizing neural networks for image downscaling and water quality monitoring 2021-11-06T04:35:52+00:00 R. S. Makar M. Faisal <p>Remotely sensed images are becoming highly required for various applications, especially those related to natural resource management. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data has the advantages of its high spectral and temporal resolutions but remains inadequate in providing the required high spatial resolution. On the other hand, Sentinel-2 is more advantageous in spatial and temporal resolution but lacks a solid historical database. In this study, four MODIS bands in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and their matching Sentinel-2 bands were used to monitor the turbidity in Lake Nasser, Egypt. The MODIS data were downscaled to Sentinel-2, which enhanced its spatial resolution from 250 and 500m to 10m.Furthermore, it provided a historical database that was used to monitor the changes in lake turbidity. Spatial approach based on neural networks was presented to downscale MODIS bands to the spatial resolution of the Sentinel-2 bands. The correlation coefficient between the predicted and actual images exceeded 0.70 for the four bands. Applying this approach, the downscaled MODIS images were developed and the neural networks were further employed to these images to develop a model for predicting the turbidity in the lake. The correlation coefficient between the predicted and actual measurements reached 0.83. The study suggests neural networks as a comparatively simplified and accurate method for image downscaling compared to other methods. It also demonstrated the possibility of utilizing neural networks to accurately predict lake water quality parameters such as turbidity from remote sensing data compared to statistical methods.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 R. S. Makar, M. Faisal Influence of nitrogen application on direct seeded rice in old and new Cauvery Delta zone of Tamil Nadu, India 2021-10-02T15:38:06+00:00 K. Sathiya Bama K. R. Babu R. Sharmila A. Anuradha <p>Direct seeded rice is a boon to farmers where the water release from the reservoir is delayed. Nitrogen fertiliser management is one of the strategies bto rectify the nutrient-related issue in Direct seeded rice. The present study aimed to optimize the nitrogen dose for direct-seeded rice in the new and old Cauvery delta zone of Tamil Nadu. Field experiments were conducted during kuruvai and samba seasons at Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai and Agricultural research station Thanjavur representing old and new Cauvery delta regions during 2019-20 and 2020-21. Totally from eight experiments, the results of four field experiments in each location revealed the highest grain yield in the treatment T6 -application of 150 kg Nha<sup>-1</sup> (5596kg/ha) which was statistically on par with treatment T5 -125kg N/ha (5326 kg/ha) in old delta and new delta. The higher grain yield was recorded in the T6 (5140 kg/ha), statistically on par with T5 (4550 kg/ha). The higher available nitrogen content of 312 kg/ ha,292 kg/ha was recorded for N application @ 150kg/ha, which was statistically on par with 309 kg/ha and 289 kg/ha, respectively, both the kuruvai and samba seasons for N application of 125 kg/ha. In the new CDZ, the same trend was followed as that of the old delta. Based on economics, N applied @125 kg/ha recorded a higher BC ratio for direct-seeded rice. For the benefit of farmers of both deltaic regions, the nitrogen application of 125 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> for direct-seeded rice is recommended.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 K. Sathiya Bama, K. R. Babu , R. Sharmila, R. Anuradha Crosstalk between circadian rhythms, sleep and eating habits to improve public health 2021-11-09T15:51:01+00:00 Bovinder Chand Chandrapal Sharma Sweekriti Malik Neelu Jain Gupta <p>Lifestyle changes in the past few decades have resulted in irregularity in sleep and meal timings. People are taking less sleep and resorting more to unhealthy food and eating habits. These factors are the most important health determinants. Sleep, food choices and eating habits are closely associated with each other. Thus, the crosstalk between circadian rhythms, sleep, and food needs urgent attention and discussion for better health management. Various research studies indicate that a healthy trend in sleep augments the regularity in meal timings and good eating habits. Healthy food and eating habits, in turn, boost sleep quality. Deterioration in the quality of anyone adversely affects the other. Several health disorders like obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular problems, and low immunity can be linked to these disturbances. The present review considers several previous studies to point out the inter-relationship between sleep and eating habits and the various health disorders arising from poor attention. Poor sleep promotes the tendency to eat junk food or eat at odd times, such as snacking late at night, leading to weight gain and other health problems. Junk food and unhealthy eating habits cause sleep disturbances. This inter-relationship of sleep and food preferences is important as it can have important treatment implications for health disorders arising due to these modifiable behavioural factors. Circadian alignment, improvements in sleep timings, and healthy eating habits have positive effects on other health behaviours as well. </p> <p> </p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bovinder Chand, Chandrapal Sharma, Sweekriti Malik, Dr. Neelu Jain Gupta Effect of drought on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of groundnut genotypes 2021-11-06T04:25:12+00:00 K. Manojkumar S. Vincent M. Raveendran R. Anandham V. Babu Rajendra Prasad A. Mothilal S. Anandakumar <p>Drought is one of the major threats to groundnut productivity, causing a greater loss than any other abiotic factor. Water stress conditions alter plant photosynthetic activity, impacting future growth and assimilating mobilization towards sink tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate how drought impacts the photosynthesis of plants and its links to drought tolerance. The influence of reproductive stage drought on photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll fluorescence of groundnut is well studied. The experiment was conducted in Kharif 2019 (Jul-Sep), where recent series in groundnut genotypes (60 nos) sown under rainfed conditions and water stress was created by withholding irrigation for 20 days between 35-55 days after sowing in the field to simulate drought conditions. Imposition of water deficit stress reduced PS II efficiency, which significantly altered the photosynthetic rate in the leaf. Observation of gas exchange parameters <em>viz</em>., photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate after 20 days of stress imposition revealed that of all 60 genotypes, 20 genotypes (VG 17008, VG 17046VG 18005, VG 18102, VG 18077, VG 19572, VG 19709, VG 18111, VG19561, VG19576, VG 19620, VG 19681, VG 19688, etc.,) had better Photosynthetic rate, Stomatal conductance. Similarly, PS II efficiency analyzed through fluorescence meter revealed that among the 60 and all the genotypes given above recorded higher value in Fv/Fm. Results obtained from Cluster analysis and PCA confirmed that photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm is useful parameter in screening adapted cultivars under drought stress. These findings lay the groundwork for a future study to decipher the molecular pathways underpinning groundnut drought resistance.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 K. Manojkumar, S. Vincent, M. Raveendran, R. Anandham, V. Babu Rajendra Prasad, A. Mothilal, S. Anandakumar Effect of organic and inorganic nutrients on rice (Oryza sativa var. CO 51) productivity and soil fertility in the Western zone of Tamil Nadu, India 2021-10-25T09:22:32+00:00 V. R. Senthamizhkumaran P. Santhy D. Selvi N. Maragatham T. Kalaiselvi K. G. Sabarinathan <p>In sustainable agriculture, to ensure high-quality food production, a combination of organic and inorganic nutrient sources are required. During the winter season of 2020, a field experiment was undertaken in the western zone of Tamil Nadu to assess the effects of organics and inorganics on the growth, yield, and soil properties of rice<em>, Oryza sativa</em> var. CO 51. The experiment was framed in Random Block Design (RBD) comprising of 8 treatments viz., Recommended dose of fertilizer Soil Test Crop Response (STCR) approach (T<sub>1</sub>), RDF 75 % + Farm yard manure @ 12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (T<sub>2</sub>), T<sub>2 </sub>+ Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi (T<sub>3</sub>), RDF 75 % + Vermicompost @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (T<sub>4</sub>), T<sub>4</sub> + Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi (T<sub>5</sub>), FYM @ 12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi (T<sub>6</sub>), Vermicompost @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>+ Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi (T<sub>7</sub>) and absolute control (T<sub>8</sub>) , replicated thrice. Among the integrated nutrient management practices, T<sub>5 </sub>proved its superiority over other treatments with respect to growth and physiological parameters followed by T<sub>3</sub>. This would have been because of the solubilization of phosphorus in the soil by AM organisms which is made accessible for crop growth. Utilization of biofertilizer enhanced the N availability and solubilized the inaccessible phosphorus, which thus recorded higher N accessibility and better phosphorus uptake when applied along with a recommended dose of fertilizer for rice.</p> <p> </p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 V. R. Senthamizhkumaran, P. Santhy, D. Selvi , N. Maragatham, T. Kalaiselvi, K. G. Sabarinathan Bioremediation of arsenic contamination from the environment: New approach to sustainable resource management 2021-09-15T11:17:22+00:00 Dheeraj Pandey Harbans Kaur Kehri Ifra Zoomi Ovaid Akhtar Shweta Chaturvedi <p>Present acceleration of Arsenic [As] exposure leads to severe health problems. Modern scientific approaches look towards potent bio-agents for the removal of such types of contaminations in sustainable ways. Microbes can potentially change the redox potential, solubility, pH by different complex reactions during bioremediation. There are many enzymes present in the microbial system which are involved in methylation such as As (V) reductase, monomethyl arsonic acid reductase, As (III) methyltransferase, and MMA (III) methyltransferase. On the other hand, microbes have As transformation ability and changed into different extractable forms with sulfide minerals such as arsenopyrite (FeAsS), enargite (Cu<sub>3</sub>AsS<sub>4</sub>) and realgar (As<sub>4</sub>S<sub>4</sub>). In some bacteria, the As-operon machinery thiol group bind with As, itdetoxifies its toxicity. <em>Ars R</em> gene and arsenic reductase enzyme (Ars C) play the key role in the reduction of As (V) to As (III) and detoxify by being transported outside of the cell by Ars AB As chemiosmotic efflux system. In fungi, As (V) is reduced to As (III) by the arsenate reductase and GSH glutathione converted into GSSH glutathione disulfide. In plants, As (III) conjugates with phytochelatin (PC) or GSH glutathione and accumulates in the vacuole or is converted into less toxic forms in the presence of arsenic reductase enzyme. This review focused on the potentiality and mechanisms of different microbes for As-detoxification in a sustainable manner.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dheeraj Pandey, Harbans Kaur Kehri, Ifra Zoomi, Ovaid Akhtar Seasonal incidence and efficacy of botanical insecticides against Painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea genotype RH 725) 2021-11-24T04:30:36+00:00 Hemant Kumar Sumer Singh Amit Yadav Mahesh Kumar <p><em>Bagrada hilaris</em> (Burmeister) is a serious pest of <em>Brassica</em> crops in the North-Western region of India, inflicting crop yield losses. Therefore, the present study was conducted on seasonal incidence and management of <em>B. hilaris</em> in <em>Brassica juncea</em> genotype RH 725 at farmer’s field, Kolana village, Aravalli Hills Region, Rewari, Haryana, India during <em>Rabi</em>, 2019-20 and 2020-21. This study laid out the trial in a randomized block design with three replications and six treatments viz., Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) @ 7%, Nimbecidine @ 0.03%, Neem oil @ 5%, NSKE @ 5%, Neem oil @ 7% and control (unsprayed). Observations on the incidence of <em>B. hilaris</em> showed that it appeared from 5<sup>th</sup> Standard Meteorological Week (SMW) (0.34 bugs plant<sup>-1</sup>) and attained peak during 10<sup>th</sup> SMW with 5.77 bugs plant<sup>-1</sup>. The incidence of <em>B. hilaris</em> exhibited significant positive correlation with maximum (r=0.852, p&lt;0.05) and minimum (r=0.900, p&lt;0.05) temperature, rainfall (r=0.763, p&lt;0.05) and wind velocity (r=0.959, p&lt;0.05). Spray of Neem oil @ 7% (83.01 %) was the most effective in reducing the <em>B. hilaris</em> population over control followed by NSKE @ 7% (81.48 %), while NSKE @ 5% (68.85 %) confirmed least effective. Seed yield in different treatments varied from 1440.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (NSKE @ 5%) to 1590 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (Neem oil @ 7%) against 1216 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> in control. The highest incremental cost-benefit ratio was registered with NSKE @ 7% (1: 7.70) followed by Nimbecidine @ 0.03% (1: 7.41) and NSKE @ 5% (1: 6.25). The present investigation signified that the study on the seasonal incidence of <em>B. hilaris</em> in relation to weather parameters could provide information for planning pest control and management strategies. The botanicals could be used as eco-friendly and economical substitutes for chemical insecticides at farmer’s fields against this insect pest.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hemant Kumar, Sumer Singh, Amit Yadav, Mahesh Kumar Effect of chemical and bio-fertilizers on the life table attributes of Eisenia fetida 2021-09-18T10:34:15+00:00 Mamta Passi Vineeta Shukla Pinky Deswal <p>Earthworms are important soil invertebrates and play an important role in improving soil quality. Indiscrete use of chemical fertilizers poses a threat to soil quality. Alteration in the soil chemistry is known to negatively impact the macrofauna of soil, especially, epigeic earthworms. The study aimed to understand the effect of chemical and biological fertilizers on the life table attributes of earthworm, <em>Eisenia fetida</em>. Laboratory adapted <em>E. fetida</em> were reared on artificial soil supplemented with chemical fertilizers, Urea and DAP, and biofertilizers, vermicompost and Rutoz®.It was observed that the presence of urea in soil proved to be detrimental to the biomass accumulation, life span, as well as reproductive potential of the earthworms. Application of urea to the soil harbouring earthworms reduced the weight of individual earthworms from 286±14.24 mg in the control group to 242±12.047 mg as soon as 15 days of the application, while the DAP diminished the earthworm weight to 272±13.54 mg. The effect was more pronounced on the total biomass of the culture owing to the high toxicity of urea. The total mass diminished to one-third,i.e., 1.02±0.05 g on Day 60 as compared to the corresponding control (3.46±0.172 g). The urea and DAP treatment decreased the percent survival of the earthworms by 70% and 40%, respectively.On the other hand, the bio-fertilizers had a positive effect on the earthworms and the biology is comparable to that of the control group. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to understand the effect of chemical fertilizers on the survival and reproductive fitness of the worms.</p> <p> </p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mamta Passi, Vineeta Shukla, Pinky Deswal In silico investigation of antioxidant interaction and effect of probiotic fermentation on antioxidant profiling of pearl millet-based rabadi beverage 2021-11-09T15:45:32+00:00 Prakash Yadav Adarsh Kumar Shukla Tejpal Dhewa Ashwani Kumar <p>Pearl millet-based food products can be used for weight control and minimize the possibility of chronic diseases. They have protein, minerals, fat, phenolic compounds, and a diminutive glycemic index. Moreover, Probiotic fermentation can bring specific additional benefits in addition to nutritional improvements. In silico analysis of the chemical-protein interaction of tannic acid and ascorbic acid of pearl millet was undertaken. Further, the role of fortification of rabadi beverage by probiotic culture was also assessed in this study at different temperatures (35, 42, and 45°C) of fermentation. In silico study has predicted the association of both tannic acid and ascorbic acid with the various human proteins responsible for the growth and development of the human immune system. In all used probiotic (<em>Lactobacillus</em><em> rhamnosus, Lactobacillus sp. </em>and <em> Streptococcus</em><em> faecalis</em>), <em>L.</em><em> rhamnosus</em> fortified rabadi beverage at continuous increasing temperature (35, 42, 45 °C) of non-autoclaved batch showed high content of TAC (36.83 ± 5.41 µg mL<sup>-1</sup>), TPC (46.1 ± 8.28 µg mL<sup>-1</sup>) and TFC (29.91 ± 7.73 µg mL<sup>-1</sup>); while decrease in tannins content (14.84 ± 4.64 µg mL<sup>-1</sup>) as compared to control [TAC (29.32 ± 3.17 µg mL<sup>-1</sup>), TPC (25.53 ± 5.75 µg mL<sup>-1</sup>), TFC (21.91 ± 5.95 µg mL<sup>-1</sup>), and Tannins (20.74 ± 3.43 µg mL<sup>-1</sup>)]. <em>L.</em><em> rhamnosus </em>fortified rabadi beverage of non-autoclaved batch showed better results than <em>Lactobacillus sp. </em>and <em>S.</em><em> faecalis</em> fortified rabadi beverage of both batches (autoclaved and non-autoclaved); which in turn expressed the enhanced therapeutic activity of probiotic fortified rabadi beverage.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Prakash Yadav, Adarsh Kumar Shukla, Tejpal Dhewa, Ashwani Kumar Extrapolation of post-harvest soil test values in barnyard millet-based cropping sequence through multivariate analysis 2021-10-25T07:40:49+00:00 R. Selvam R. Santhi S. Maragatham C.N. Chandrasekhar Patil Santosh Ganapathi <p>The soil test value is based on the soil test-based fertilizer prescription/ recommendation equation. Each crop harvesting after the next crop is necessary to analyze the soil. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an alternative technique to predict postharvest soil tests after the harvest of every crop. For that a study was conducted in mixed black calcareous soils at Tamil Nadu agricultural University, Coimbatore to develop the post-harvest prediction equations for available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in barnyard millet cropping sequence based on a multiple regression model by considering post-harvest soil test value as the dependent variable and initial available nutrients, fertilizer doses and crop yield or crop nutrient uptake as an independent variables. The developed model was validated by computing R<sup>2</sup> value, RMSE (root means square error), RE (relative error), and the ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) and the developed model was found to be valid. Using the validated model, post-harvest soil test values were predicted. A fertilizer recommendation was made for blackgram based on predicted post-harvest soil test values in the barnyard millet-blackgram cropping sequence. The predicted soil test values were compared with actual soil test values and it revealed that the developed model is fairly accurate and best-fitted with more precision. The predicted post-harvest soil test values of barnyard millet could be used in order to prescribe fertilizer for desired yield targets for subsequent crops.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 R. Selvam, R. Santhi, S. Maragatham, C.N. Chandrasekhar, Patil Santosh Ganapathi Effect of bio-seed priming and nano zinc oxide foliar application on quality and productivity of finger millet + greengram intercropping system 2021-11-17T08:38:44+00:00 C. Mohanasundar K. Ramamoorthy K. R. Latha P. Santhy C. N. Chandrasekhar A. Lakshmanan <p>A critical stage of the plant's life cycle is germination and insufficient seedling emergence contributes to the lower productivity of finger millet. Priming improves seedling emergence, reduces stand establishment time, and improves seedling germination. There is a need to develop a new technology like Nanotechnology that can precisely detect and deliver the right amount of nutrients or other inputs to safe crops for the environment and maximising productivity. A field experiment was conducted during <em>Kharif</em> season to evaluate the response of effective farming practice for sole finger millet + greengram intercropping system under rainfed conditions to varied levels of bio-seed priming and foliar application of nanoparticles on crop growth and productivity. The results of the experiment revealed that finger millet (<em>Eleusine coracana</em>) intercropped with greengram (<em>Vigna radiata</em>) (2:1) had a significant level (&lt;0.05) increase in growth and yield parameter of finger millet compared to sole finger millet. Application of <em>Prosopis juliflora</em> leaf extract 1 per cent alone + Foliar ZnO nanoparticle @ 500 ppm showed a significant level (&lt;0.05) increase in growth and yield parameter like grain yield (3238.84 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), finger millet equivalent yield (FMEY) (3483.84 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and straw yield (7393.83 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) compared to <em>Pogamia pinnata</em> leaf extract 1% alone + Foliar ZnO nanoparticle @ 500 ppm. The present study mainly focussed on cropping system, bio seed priming, and foliar application of nano zinc oxide utilized during rainfed conditions to increase uniform germination, drought resistance and improve crop yield along with nutrient content in seeds.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 C. Mohanasundar, K. Ramamoorthy , K. R. Latha, P. Santhy, C. N. Chandrasekhar, A. Lakshmanan Evaluation of different traps for the invasive leaf miner, Liriomyza huidobrensis in potato (Solanum tuberosum) fields of the Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India 2021-10-02T15:27:05+00:00 S. S. Monica B. Vinothkumar S.V. Krishnamoorthy L. Rajendran <p>Potatoes are currently threatened by the pea leaf miner (<em>Liriomyza huidobrensis</em> Blanchard), an exotic, exceedingly polyphagous, and chemically resistant pest that attacks a wide range of crops, ornamental plants, and weeds. The present work was conducted to study the attractiveness of various traps to <em>Liriomyza</em> leaf miner, one of the invasive pests recently observed in potato fields of Kotagiri and Ooty in Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu. A trial was conducted at these two different locations, the Nilgiris district, in 2021. The results revealed that among different traps tested for their efficacy in attracting the leaf miner, <em>L. huidobrensis, </em>yellow sticky trap was found to be more efficient in attracting adult leaf miner flies with the mean trap catches of 40.49 and 36.64 adult flies/ 10 cm<sup>2 </sup>areas at Kotagiri and Ooty respectively. The peak population of leaf miners was recorded in the last week of April (45.67 adult flies/ 10 cm<sup>2 </sup>areas) at Ooty and during the 3<sup>rd </sup>week of June (52.33 adult flies/ 10 cm<sup>2 </sup>areas) at Kotagiri. The correlation study revealed a significant positive correlation of the trap catches with maximum temperature, diurnal variation (DV) and growing day degrees (GDD). Multiple regression equation was also developed, where the abiotic factors contributed 46.1% and 65.5% to the <em>Liriomyza </em>leaf miner population fluctuation in the potato ecosystem. The trappers may be used to determine the initial presence of a leaf miners’ population and in projecting their future population through pest management models and management decisions.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 S. S. Monica, B. Vinothkumar , S.V. Krishnamoorthy , L. Rajendran