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It is the author/institute/subscriber's responsibility to check and verify with the respective databases for the latest inclusion status and their policies before submission. Thank you for your understanding.</span></span></span></span></div> <hr /> <div style="text-align: center;"><strong><span style="font-family: arial,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: large;"><span style="line-height: 1.5; background-color: transparent;">Applied and Natural Science Foundation is </span>a registered not-for-profit organization</span></span></strong></div> <hr /> Identification of potential human chymase inhibitors using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation 2022-02-07T12:32:57+00:00 Asiya Rozindar Virupakshaiah DBM Bharati Meti Bajarang Vasant Kumbha Ajay Kumar oli <p>Chymase is a hydrolase class of enzymes that involves hydrolysis of peptide bonds. It is abundant in secretory granules of mast cells. Mast cell chymase is involved in the synthesis of angiotensin-II from its precursor protein. In addition, chymase is involved in converting TGF-β and matrix metalloproteinase to their active form. Chymase involved in heart failure has been proven, and its inhibition may reduce the progression. Hence, to identify the potential inhibitors against the chymase, the present study employed structure-based virtual screening, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation to identify potential chymase inhibitors. Initially, compounds were selected based on their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Further, the binding affinities using molecular docking and interaction analyses were performed to find potential chymase inhibitors. The study identified chymase inhibitor ZINC000008382327, bearing significant binding affinity, specificity, and efficacy towards the chymase. Next, the stability and binding mode of chymase with ZINC000008382327 were assessed using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation analysis using root mean square deviations and fluctuations revealed that inhibitor ZINC000008382327 affected the structure and dynamics of the chymase protein. It was also shown that the chymase forms a stable complex with ZINC000008382327 during the simulation. Thus, the present computational study put forward that the identified compound can be further exploited as a potential chemical scaffold to design and develop new human chymase inhibitors.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Asiya Rozindar, Virupakshaiah DBM, Bharati Meti, Bajarang Vasant Kumbha, Ajay Kumar oli Nutritional qualities and fluoride content of different date (Phoenix dactylifer) varieties consumed in Morocco 2022-09-14T11:14:02+00:00 Issam Essebbahi Chadia Ouazzani Abdellah Moustaghfir Azzedine Er-ramly Youssef El Baroudi Abdallah Dami Lhoussine Balouch <p>The date is a fruit of the palm family (<em>Phoenix dactylifer</em>), grown in Morocco in the southern regions. It is a very important fruit in the Moroccan table, especially during Ramadan (9th month of the Islamic calendar, a lunar calendar consisting of 354 days), where it becomes an essential food that is very nutritious and invigorating to the breaking of the fast added to milk. The present work aimed to determine the contents of mineral elements (fluorine, calcium, magnesium and chlorides) and sugar levels (Brix, glucose) of 12 varieties: Ajwa (Saudi Arabia), Deglet nour (Algeria), Anbara (Saudi Arabia), Anbara (United Arab Emirates), Boufeggous (Errachidia; Morocco), Aziza (Figuig; Morocco), Majhoul (Erfoud; Morocco) Majhoul (Errachidia; Morocco), Elkhalsse (Tafilalt; Morocco) Tarzawa (Tafilalt; Morocco), Deglet nour (Tunisia), Majhoul Sghir (Tafilalt; Morocco)) of dates marketed in Morocco of North African and Middle Eastern origin. Fluoride analyses were performed using a fluoride-specific ion electrode (HI-4110). The analyses of Ca, Mg, Cl and glucose levels were performed by Spectrophotometric methods. The results of the fluoride levels revealed in the different varieties of dates varied from 0.26 to 1.05 mg in 100g of fresh weight. The sucrose and glucose levels varied between 11.8 g to 17.75 g and 18 to 40.9 g in 100g of fresh date weight, respectively. The Mg, Ca and Cl levels varied between 46.89 to 93.71mg, 11.20 to 279.28 mg and 30.66 to 47.33 mg in 100g fresh date weight, respectively. Thus, it is possible to classify the varieties of dates on the basis of their nutritional qualities and mode of consumption and to warn the population about their consumption in excess with the risk (if any) of an attack of dental or osseous fluorosis.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Issam Essebbahi, Chadia Ouazzani, Abdellah Moustaghfir, Azzedine Er-ramly, Youssef El Baroudi, Abdallah Dami, Lhoussine Balouch Enhacment of biomass, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins content using co-culture of Glagah consortium and Lipomyces starkeyi 2022-11-29T05:57:33+00:00 Ni Made Sri Winasti Dita Aulia Yulyanita Ahmad Saifun Naser Eko Agus Suyono <p>Microorganisms have a high potential as biofuel sources. Co-culture of microalgae and yeasts can result in high lipid production as a modification treatment. The goal of this study was to see how the co-culture of the Glagah consortium (diversity of associated microalgae and bacteria from Glagah Lagoon, Yogyakarta) and <em>Lipomyces starkeyi</em> affected the production of biomass, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The culture was performed under airtight conditions on a shaker at 127 rpm, with a light intensity of 27.75 mol/m<sup>2</sup>/s and a temperature of 30°C. The culture was subjected to a dark: light (6:18) treatment. Biomass was measured by dry weight, lipids by the Bligh and Dyer method, proteins by the Bradford method and carbohydrates by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. On day 3, <em>L. starkey</em> culture produced the most biomass, yielding 2.21 g/L with a productivity of 0.49 g/L/day. On day 4, the highest lipids produced from co-culture treatment yielded 1.03 g/g with a productivity of 0.21 g/L/day. The highest protein yield was obtained from <em>L. starkeyi</em> culture treatment on day 4, yielding 0.60 g/g with a productivity of 0.12 g/L/day. On day 6, co-culture produced the total carbohydrates, yielding 4.78 g/g with a productivity of 0.68 g/L/day. The co-culture treatment produced the highest lipids and carbohydrates production (1.03 g/g and 4.78 g/g) and productivity (0.21 g/L/day and 0.68 g/L/day), while <em>L. starkeyi</em> culture produced the highest total biomass and protein production (2.21 g/L and 0.6 g/g) and productivity (0.49 g\L\day and 0.12 g/L/day). In microalgae culture, CO<sub>2 </sub>generally given directly through the aeration process. In this study, the source of CO<sub>2 </sub>was yeast, whereas yeast also obtained O<sub>2 </sub>from microalgae in the consortium for their metabolic process. This mutualism symbiosis will help in providing benefits in reducing the costs for the cultivation process, especially in optimizing the production of biomass an lipids. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ni Made Sri Winasti, Dita Aulia Yulyanita, Ahmad Saifun Naser, Eko Agus Suyono Physiological response and productivity of aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) to iron fertilization in typic Ustifluvents soil 2022-09-14T15:53:59+00:00 Chitteti Shalini R. Manivannan M.V. Sriramachandrasekharan P. Senthilvalavan C. Ravikumar <p>Aerobic rice is projected as a sustainable rice production technology for the immediate future to address water scarcity and environmental safety. Micronutrient deficiency, particularly iron is one of the main factors responsible for low productivity in aerobic rice. With this perspective, a field experiment was conducted at farmer’s field in 2022 at Kuttalam, Mayladuthurai district, Tamilnadu, in sandy clay loam (Padugai Series – Typic Ustifluvents) to predict the response of aerobic rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em>) to iron nutrition. The experiment was laid out in randomised block design with eleven treatments (Recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) NPK only (control)(T<sub>1</sub>), (RDF) + FeSO<sub>4 </sub> @ 25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (SA) (T<sub>2</sub>), RDF + FeSO<sub>4</sub> 37.5 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>(SA)(T<sub>3</sub>),RDF+ FeSO<sub>4</sub> @ 50 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>(SA)(T<sub>4</sub>), RDF+ FeSO<sub>4</sub> @ 25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (SA) + FeSO<sub>4</sub> @ 1% (FS)(T<sub>5</sub>), RDF+ FeSO<sub>4</sub> 37.5 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>(SA) + FeSO<sub>4</sub> @ 1% (FS)(T<sub>6</sub>) , RDF+ FeSO<sub>4</sub> @ 50 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>(SA) + FeSO<sub>4</sub> @ 1% (FS)(T<sub>7</sub>), RDF+ FeSO<sub>4</sub> @ 25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>(SA) + Fe-EDTA @ 0.5% (FS)(T<sub>8</sub>), RDF+ FeSO<sub>4</sub> 37.5 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>(SA) + Fe-EDTA @ 0.5% (FS)(T<sub>9</sub>), RDF+ FeSO<sub>4</sub> @ 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (SA) + Fe-EDTA @ 0.5% (FS) (T<sub>10</sub>) and RDF + Seed priming 0.05M Fe-EDTA(T<sub>11</sub>)) and replicated thrice. The results revealed that application of FeSO<sub>4</sub> @ 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (SA) + Fe-EDTA @ 0.5% (FS) with RDF recorded the highest growth and yield parameters and the highest grain (3438 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and straw yield (5078 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) compared to other treatments including control. This study concluded that iron fertilization through the soil and foliar application could enhance aerobic rice productivity.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Chitteti Shalini, R. Manivannan, M.V. Sriramachandrasekharan, P. Senthilvalavan, C. Ravikumar Evaluation of polyhalite on growth, yield attributes and yield of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) 2022-10-07T01:36:19+00:00 P. K. Karthikeyan R. Ranjani D. Gokul K. Swetha Reddy R Bhuvaneswari Ajish Muraleedharan <p>Potassium is involved in a diverse range of processes within plants that are needed for their growth, yield and better quality. The polyhalite as a hydrated evaporate mineral that can be used directly as a source of potassic fertilizer. However, research on polyhalite's appropriateness and effectiveness, the present investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of polyhalite on growth, yield attributes, and yield of blackgram variety ADT 5 at Chinnakandiankuppam village, Vriddhachalam, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, during 2021. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design consisting of ten treatments viz., T<sub>1</sub> (absolute control), T<sub>2</sub> (-K), T<sub>3</sub> (12.5 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup> as muriate of potash (MOP)), T<sub>4</sub> (25 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup>as MOP), T<sub>5</sub> (37.5 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup> as MOP), T<sub>6</sub> (50 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1 </sup>as MOP), T<sub>7</sub> (12.5 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1 </sup>as polyhalite), T<sub>8</sub> (25 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1 </sup>as polyhalite), T<sub>9</sub> (37.5 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1 </sup>as polyhalite), T<sub>10</sub> (50 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup> as polyhalite). The experiment revealed that the application of 37.5 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup> as polyhalite (T<sub>9</sub>) significantly (5%) enhanced the growth attributes (plant height (38.7 cm), number of branches plant<sup>-1 </sup>(12.97), leaf area index (2.13), number of nodules plant<sup>-1</sup> (18.76) and dry matter production (1972 hg ha<sup>-1</sup>), yield attributes (pod length (8.21 cm), number of pods plant<sup>-1 </sup>(20.05), number of seeds pod<sup>-1</sup> (7.14) and test weight (3.53 g)) and grain yield (1439 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), haulm yield (1876 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) of blackgram. Thus the study would be helpful to farmers for yield maximization of blackgram through polyhalite as potassic fertilizer. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 P. K. Karthikeyan, R. Ranjani , D. Gokul , K. Swetha Reddy, R Bhuvaneswari, Ajish Muraleedharan Evaluation of macro, micro, and toxic minerals in Dates fodder in Basra, Southern Iraq‏ 2022-11-29T09:29:08+00:00 Kadhim Fadhil Kadhim Mubeen Haseeb Inaam M.N. Alrubayae <p>Mineral concentrations in plants are affected by a number of factors, which in turn affect the amounts available directly or indirectly to animals, so the concentration of some nutrients may be insufficient for the needs of animals. The article aimed to evaluate a wide variety of chemical elements in date fodder often used to feed cows, buffaloes, and sheep in Basra Governorate, Southern Iraq. In addition, it establishes the acceptability of chemical element concentrations in the dates, which included macro-minerals, micro-elements, and hazardous metals. The feed was prepared to be digested and then all minerals were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment to determine the amounts of macro-minerals, micro-elements, and hazardous elements in the feed. Where macro-minerals included (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur) and micro-elements included (iron, copper, nickel, selenium, chromium, tin, silicon, vanadium, and molybdenum, while toxic elements included (aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, uranium, and lead). Most major and minor elements had low values compared to the critical level determined for their presence in fodders, as all elements did not reach the maximum tolerable(4.5% of macro-minerals and 40 ppm of micro-elements) and much less than the minimum limit(&lt;0.06 of macro-minerals and &lt;0.20ppm of micro-elements), whereas the toxic elements in the chosen dates fodder had low and acceptable concentrations compared to the risk index for their presence in fodder(100 mg Kg<sup>-1</sup>). The current study helps farmers in Basra Governorate in their understanding of the mineral nutritional needs of cattle while relying significantly on this type of fodder.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kadhim Fadhil Kadhim, Mubeen Haseeb , Inaam M.N. Alrubayae Temporal expression of thyroid hormone regulating genes (tsh-b, tsh-r, dio2 and dio3) and their correlation with annual reproductive cycle of the Indian freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). 2022-11-22T05:00:16+00:00 Dinesh Raj Pant Kumari Ila Uma Bharati Sahu Neeta Sehgal <p>Photoperiod and temperature are well-established environmental cues for gonadal growth in seasonally reproducing organisms. The photoperiod is known to regulate seasonal reproduction via induction of thyroid hormone regulating genes in the saccus vasculosus (SV) of fishes. However, SV is absent in many seasonally breeding fishes, including <em>Heteropneustes fossilis</em>. <em>H. fossilis</em> is a long-day breeding catfish in which gonadal recrudescence begins six months earlier than spawning. The present study attempted to analyse the expression of thyroid hormone-regulating genes (<em>tsh-b, tsh-r, dio2</em> and <em>dio3</em>) in the brain, liver and ovary. In the brain, upregulated expression of <em>thyrotropin-beta subunit</em> (<em>tsh-b</em>), <em>deiodinase2</em> (<em>dio2</em>) and <em>deiodinase3</em> (<em>dio3</em>) genes is concomitant with the increasing photoperiod and temperature in nature, which may appear to regulate seasonal reproduction. Both deiodinases, <em>dio2</em> and <em>dio3</em>, were also upregulated in the liver and ovarian tissue during the gonadal growth phase. The upregulation of deiodinases may enhance the metabolism and activity of tissues, thereby facilitating their respective roles. The expression of these genes was also assessed in the brain, liver, ovary, kidney, skin, spleen and gill tissues during the spawning period. The ubiquitous expression of deiodinases may point to enhanced activity in their organ-specific role. The present study speculates that expression of <em>tsh-b, tsh-r, dio2</em> and <em>dio3</em> genes during the reproductive phase of <em>H. fossilis </em>might be involved in the regulation of seasonal reproduction.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dinesh Raj Pant, Kumari Ila, Uma Bharati Sahu, Neeta Sehgal A proposed Fuzzy logic model for Electrospun nanofiber pressurised membranes for water treatment- A review 2022-11-06T07:57:52+00:00 A.Ganapathi Rao V.Pavan Kumari Manoj Kumar Karnena <p>Electrospun nanofiber membranes and nanocomposites for water treatment is an emerging concept growing faster in science, gaining more prominence among various scientists, and creating attention to improve water quality. The familiarity with fabricating these materials is increased, and researchers worldwide target more nanomaterial manufacturing and synthesis for several applications. The electrospinning process for nanofibers' preparation allows polymers to incorporate various functionalized materials. Scientists have recently proposed electrospun membranes using fluorinated compounds and polymers with hydrocarbons. The membranes prepared by the electrospun nanofiber to purify water created a primary research axis, and various laboratory experiments proved efficient. In recent years, the usage of fuzzy analysis in industries has increased, and these logics are applied in every unit process of the water industry. The present review primarily discusses the recent pressurized electrospun membrane technologies utilized in the water industries and machine learning methods that can be applied in the water industries. Further, it suggests a new novel way of integrating options to connect the fuzzy with water treatment to enhance the electrospun nanofiber prospects in the water industry. Implementing these fuzzy models in future by water industries might reduce maintenance costs and help in understanding the characteristics of the effluent quality in detail.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 A.Ganapathi Rao, V.Pavan Kumari, Manoj Kumar Karnena Impact of rhizobium inoculation and boron application on morphological alterations and biochemical triggers in pea (Pisum sativum L.) 2022-11-29T09:36:30+00:00 Zorinawmi Khiangte Akshaya Kalangutkar Vika Sinam Anaytullah Siddique <p><em>Rhizobium</em> is a bacterial culture that enhances the speed of biological nitrogen fixation in association with root nodules in pulse crops while boron act as a catalyst for cell division hence the size of nodules and sugar translocation in the plant. An experiment was conducted by considering <em>rhizobium</em> as a seed inoculant and boron as a soil applicant in two peas (<em>Pisum sativum</em> L.) varieties Arkel and Azad Pea-3 to know the morphological alterations in plant height (cm), fresh and dry weight g plant<sup>-1</sup>), number of leaves (plant<sup>-1</sup>), and days required for the first flowering and picking. However, the biochemical triggers were also observed for soil plant analysis development reading (SPAD), total chlorophyll (mg g<sup>-1</sup>) and derivative (chlorophyll a and b), protein (mg g<sup>-1</sup>), and proline content (µg g<sup>-1</sup>) in both varieties of pea (Arkel and Azad Pea-3). The performance of V<sub>2</sub> was superior to V<sub>1</sub> for most of the morphological and biochemical parameters. The combination of <em>rhizobium</em> + 2.0 kg boron ha<sup>-1 </sup>(T<sub>5</sub>) was observed as the best treatment compared to the rest of the treatments in V<sub>1,</sub> while the <em>rhizobium</em> + 1.5 kg boron ha<sup>-1</sup> (T<sub>4</sub>) in V<sub>2</sub>. Among the treatment combinations, T<sub>5</sub> and T<sub>4</sub> were recorded as minimum days for the first flowering (39.3 and 43.0), while the maximum days for the first picking (75 and 84) in V<sub>1</sub> and V<sub>2</sub>. The highest SPAD reading, total chlorophyll, and protein were also noticed in T<sub>5</sub> and T<sub>4, </sub>while chlorophyll a was recorded at maximum value in T<sub>4</sub> for both varieties. However, the value of chlorophyll b was recorded as maximum in T<sub>4</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> at 50 DAS, while T<sub>5 </sub>and T<sub>4</sub> were at 75 DAS. A trigger of proline content was also noticed in T<sub>5</sub> and T<sub>4</sub> of both varieties compared to the control set. The positive alteration in morphology and biochemical changes in pea plants due to the application of <em>rhizobium</em> in combination with boron interlink well for the betterment of yield via increasing the rate of photosynthesis. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Zorinawmi Khiangte , Akshaya Kalangutkar, Vika Sinam, Anaytullah Siddique Impact of alternate wetting and drying irrigation and brown manuring on water use, weed control and yield of drum seeded rice 2022-11-22T05:04:11+00:00 K. Vijay Aravinth S. Avudaithai T. Ramesh P. Balasubramaniam M. Sundar <p>Direct-seeded rice (DSR) is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of crop establishment. Weed menaces in DSR considerably reduce the yield potential, which can be addressed by effective irrigation and weed management practices. Information on the impact of various water-saving irrigations and brown manure (BM) on water use, weed studies, and the yield of drum-sown rice is very limited. A field investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alternate wetting and drying irrigation (AWDI) methods (10 cm, 15 cm dropped from FWT and farmers practices) and BM (<em>Sesbania</em> at 15, 20 and 25 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, Pretilachlor 0.45 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> as PE <em>fb</em>Bispyribac Na 25 g ha<sup>-1</sup> as PoE + hand weeding (HW) on 45 DAS, HW at 20 and 45 DAS, and weedy check. The results revealed that AWDI at 15 cm depletion of FWT with HW on 20 and 45 DAS increased the water use efficiency (5.3 kg ha mm<sup>-1</sup>), water productivity (0.53 kg m<sup>-3</sup>), water saving percentage (35.83%), and reduced the water consumption (770 mm). Continuous submergence with HW at 20 and 45 DAS significantly increased grain (4.4 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and straw yield (6.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). At the same time, it reduced the grasses (53.3 and 58.4%) and sedges (76 and 75%), density and dry weight, respectively, over AWDI at 10 cm dropped from FWT. Thus, irrigation at 10 cm below FWT with <em>sesbania</em> BM at 20 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> could be recommended for higher productivity of drum-sown rice under sodic soil conditions.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 K. Vijay Aravinth, S. Avudaithai, T. Ramesh, P. Balasubramaniam, M. Sundar Melatonin mediated high-temperature tolerance at seedling stage in green gram (Vigna radiata L.) 2022-11-23T11:50:11+00:00 K. Anitha A. Senthil M.K. Kalarani N. Senthil S. Marimuthu M. Umapathi <p>Global warming is predicted to have a generally negative effect on food grain production. The emergence of seedlings, blooming, pod-filling stages and yield of the mung bean are affected by high-temperature stress. Melatonin is a multifunctional signaling molecule with antioxidant properties that plays a vital role in plant stress defense mechanism. With this knowledge, the experiment was conducted to identify the optimum melatonin concentration to mitigate the adverse effects of high temperature in green gram var CO 8 with a completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments consisted of soaking seeds with different melatonin concentrations, <em>viz.,</em> 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μM. Seeds were sown in a pertidish and allowed to germinate. After 5 days, the seedlings were exposed to two different high-temperature stress following the temperature induction response (TIR) protocol in the growth chamber <em>viz.,</em> Ambient + 2°C (40°C) and Ambient + 4°C (42°C). After stress period, the seedlings were allowed to recover at room temperature for 2 days. At the end of the recovery period, observations on temperature tolerance-related traits <em>viz.,</em> survival percentage, per cent reduction of shoot and root growth, cell viability, mortality per cent, malondialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of green gram seedlings were assessed. Seeds pre-treated with melatonin of 100 and 80 µM exhibited higher survival percentage, shoot and root growth, cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity (like superoxide dismutase and catalase) with reduced mortality per cent and malondialdehyde content under high-temperature stress at both 40°C and 42°C. The results revealed that seeds treated with different melatonin concentrations significantly improved green gram germination and seedling health. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 K. Anitha, A. Senthil, M.K. Kalarani, N. Senthil, S. Marimuthu, M. Umapathi Management of Fusarium wilt of tomato (Pusa Ruby) by plant extracts and fungicides 2022-08-24T04:35:58+00:00 Rahul Gulya Sanjeev Kumar Shubham Mishra <p>Fusarium wilt disease of tomato caused by <em>Fusarium oxysporum </em>f. sp. <em>lycopersici</em> is one of the most important and widespread disease of the cultivated tomato.The yield loss in tomato in temperate region of India due to this disease is 10 to 90 percent. Investigation was undertaken to screen out the fungicides <em>viz</em>., Azoxystrobin(T<sub>1</sub>), Propineb(T<sub>2</sub>), Thiophanate Methyl (T<sub>3</sub>), Difenoconazole(T<sub>4</sub>), Mancozeb(T<sub>5</sub>), Mancozeb + Thiophanate Methyl(T<sub>6</sub>), Boscolid+Pyraclostrobin(T<sub>7</sub>) and control (T<sub>8</sub>) and plant extracts <em>viz</em>, onion bulb(T<sub>9</sub>), ,ginger rhizome(T<sub>10</sub>), garlic clove(T<sub>11</sub>), neem leaf (T<sub>12</sub>), ashwagandha leaf(T<sub>13</sub>), sarpgandha leaf(T<sub>14</sub>), ashok leaf(T<sub>15</sub>) and control (T<sub>16</sub>) , against wilt of tomato under <em>in vivo</em> and <em>in vivo</em> conditions. Ginger rhizome extract (T<sub>10</sub>) was found very promising as it produced 82.2 % growth inhibition of <em>F. oxysporum</em>f.sp. <em>lycopersici</em>at @t 15 % concentration followed by garlic clove(T<sub>11</sub>) (76.1%). Two soil drenching withgarlic clove(T<sub>11</sub>), @ 15 percent showed minimum disease incidence of (16.6%) with maximum yield (435.3 q/ha) followed by ginger rhizome(T<sub>10</sub>) extract (18.4% and 428.2 q/ha). Mancozeb + Thiophanate Methyl(T<sub>6</sub>), Difenoconazole(T<sub>4</sub>) and Thiophanate Methyl(T<sub>6</sub>) completely inhibited the radial growth and sporulation of <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em>f.sp. <em>lycopersici</em> after 144 hrs of incubation. Two soil drenching of Mancozeb +Thiophanate Methyl(T<sub>6</sub>), @ 15 per cent was also found the best for managing the disease as minimum disease incidence (5.3%) and highest yield (470.9 q/ha) was recorded.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rahul Gulya, Sanjeev Kumar, Shubham Mishra Screening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) genotypes by inducing systemic resistance against early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani 2022-12-13T16:00:27+00:00 Rex B Gopu B Vinothini N Prabhu S <p>Early blight of tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicon</em> L.) incited by <em>Alternaria solani </em>is highly destructive disease in the world. Environmental factors significantly impact early blight epidemics, leading to the loss of up to 78 per cent of tomato production. Twenty tomato genotypes were used in this study to identify the early blight resistant and susceptible genotypes selected to represent a range of reactions when screened under field conditions. The tomato plants were evaluated for early blight disease by using Per cent Disease Index (PDI). Pusa Uphar (20.18%) and Sankaranti (20.18%) showed resistance to early blight disease among the twenty genotypes. Anaka Kerala (61.25%), Arka Vikas (61.76%), Pusa Rohini (53.65%), Ashoka (50.60%) and Paiyur1 (56.08%) genotypes were found highly susceptible based on early blight disease intensity. Spore inoculation of <em>A. solani</em> was sprayed into tomato plants, it was discovered that the number of defense-inducing compounds <em>viz.,</em> total phenols, peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) has increased. Among the genotypes, Pusa Uphar (T<sub>2</sub>) and Sankaranti (T<sub>1</sub>) genotypes showed a high level of defense enzyme production. After tomato plants were exposed to pathogens through artificial inoculation, the activity of these defensive enzymes and compounds was highly induced in the resistant and sensitive germplasm than in the control. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rex B, Gopu B, Vinothini N, Prabhu S Spectral signatures for iron ore deposits in Tirthamalai area, Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, India 2022-11-06T07:29:45+00:00 Cendrayan Kasilingam Arisiyappan Thirunavukkarasu Chandran Ramachandran <p>The demand for iron ore has increased recently and employing geochemical and hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for discovering new ore and mineral resources have primarily been concentrated on the economic phases. The present study aimed to characterize the hyperspectral spectral signatures of iron ores of field samples to map the deposits that occurred in the Tirthamalai hill region, which lies in the parts of Harur Taluk, Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu state, India The measurement and study of spectral signatures of the different samples of the deposits showed strong spectral absorptions near 500 nm, 900 nm and 2400 nm wavelength regions and were confirmed with the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method. The spectral absorption characteristics of the samples were evaluated by the study of the physical, optical, and chemical characteristics of the samples. The study of hyperspectral and FTIR spectral signatures with petrographic and major chemical elements revealed the best absorption characteristics of the iron ore deposits of the study region and can be used elsewhere in the world. This report presents preliminary findings on the use of hyperspectral imaging to characterize iron ore. The mineralogical products produced from hyperspectral images may improve in situ grade control on an iron ore mine face. It will be extremely useful for businesses in measuring large numbers of commodities quickly and objectively.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Cendrayan Kasilingam, Arisiyappan Thirunavukkarasu , Chandran Ramachandran Effect of organic mulches and foliar spray of kaolin on NPK uptake in enhancing yield and economics of dry land maize (Zea mays L.) 2022-11-23T12:18:13+00:00 Divya Vani Bhumi Reddy N. Ramesh S. Manimaran P. Thangavel <p>The hot and semi-arid region is prone to meteorological droughts; the lack of rain is frequently accompanied by hot temperatures, strong winds, and low humidity, which has the impact of limiting nutrient uptake and agricultural yields. To overcome this problem a field study conducted during June, 2020 <em>kharif</em> season at farmers field, Chinna Dudyala village, Muddanur, Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh aimed to determine the effect of organic mulches and foliar spray of kaolin on NPK uptake in enhancing yield and economics of dry land maize (<em>Zea mays</em>). One of the most important techniques for preserving soil moisture was mulching, which also reduces evapotranspiration when anti-transpirants are used. The experiment comprised nine treatments (T<sub>1</sub> to T<sub>9</sub>) with four types of organic mulches viz., Paddy straw, Ground-nut haulm, Coir-pith, and Sugarcane trash, with foliar spray of kaolin intervals on 40 DAS, 20 &amp; 40 DAS and farmers practice to minimize water stress and improve the nutrient uptake by plant. Among the application of the treatments, coir-pith mulch + foliar spray of kaolin @ 3.0% (T<sub>6</sub>) on 20 DAS &amp; 40 DAS had significant effect on NPK uptake with N (187.15 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), P (69.60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and K (156.22 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and enhanced grain yield (6976 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and stover yield (10980 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), highest gross returns (138034 ₹. ha<sup>-1</sup>) and BCR (2.63) and was superior to all the other treatments. The present study would help to effectively utilise the available resources, enhance growth and productivity in maize crop and to make economically viable to the farmers of semi-arid regions.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Divya Vani Bhumi Reddy, N. Ramesh, S. Manimaran, P. Thangavel Impact of age dominating over the pre-existing comorbidities influencing the D-Dimer levels in SARS-COV-2 infection 2022-12-12T04:43:48+00:00 Ibtisam Obaid Almatrooshi Nelofar Sami Khan <p>COVID-19-related disease severity is more commonly seen in elderly patients with comorbidities, and hypercoagulability has been demonstrated to be involved in the disease progression. This study aimed to evaluate the level of D-Dimer in hospitalized SARS-COV-2 infected patients and to determine the influence of age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), and comorbidities on D-dimer value and correlate it with disease severity. This case-control retrospective study retrieved patient data on demographic characteristics, vital functions, comorbidities, disease severity [National Institutes of Health (NIH) classification], and D-dimer from medical records of Thumbay University Hospital, Ajman, United Arab Emirates. SPSS-Version-28 was used for data analysis; a Chi-Square test was done to compare the distribution of comorbidities and disease severity between demographic categories. An independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were done to compare mean levels of D-Dimer between two or more categories, respectively. The majority of patients were males, ˃40 years of age, overweight/obese, with 30% having one comorbidity and 20% having ≥2 comorbidities. Among the total, three-quarters had moderate, and one-quarter had severe disease conditions, irrespective of gender or BMI, with an increasing trend of severe cases in the older age group and with comorbidities. Increased D-dimer levels were seen in the majority of SARS-COV-2-infected hospitalized patients, with age as the primary determinant, irrespective of absence or presence of comorbidity, though the trend of higher prevalence of elevated D-dimer value in the multiple comorbid groups and more severe condition was observed. Supporting SAR-COV-2 as a coagulopathic condition, D-dimer concentrations can be a helpful marker of disease progression and can be considered to guide the clinical treatment.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ibtisam Obaid Almatrooshi , Nelofar Sami Khan Evaluation of milk source on physicochemical, texture, rheological and sensory properties of yogurts 2022-12-13T09:11:06+00:00 Dhia I. J. Al-Bedrani Qausar H. ALKaisy Ashwaq K. Rahi ali M. Saadi <p>Yogurt is one of the world's most widely consumed dairy products and can be produced from different types of milk. The present research aimed to compare the effects of utilizing whole raw milk from cattle viz. cows, buffaloes, sheep, and goats in four different milk-type yogurts, T<sub>1</sub>- cow’s milk (CM), T<sub>2</sub>- buffalo’s milk (BM), T<sub>3</sub>- sheep’s milk (SM), and T<sub>4</sub>- goat’s milk (GM) on their physicochemical, texture, rheological, and sensory qualities. The physiochemical testing included estimating pH, the percentages of moisture, fat, protein, ash, and total acidity, and the sensory assessment of the yogurt. The rheological tests also included the viscosity test, spontaneous whey separation, water-holding capacity, firmness, cohesiveness, and springiness. The results showed that T<sub>2</sub>- BM yogurt and T<sub>3</sub>- SM yogurt excelled in the percentage of fat, protein, lactose, and ash, where the ratio (4.35, 8.4, 4.70, 0.8) (5.55, 7.45, 4.80, 1.1) was for each of T<sub>2</sub>- BM yogurt and T<sub>3</sub>- SM yogurt respectively. The rheological properties were the spontaneous whey separation for each of T1-CM, T<sub>2</sub>-BM, T<sub>3</sub>-SM, T<sub>4</sub>-GM yogurt were 4.1, 2.2, 2.1 and 5.3, respectively, while the water holding capacity was 55, 60, 71 and 53 and the viscosity was 7000, 8900, 6700 and 1510 respectively. The results of the texture properties were 126.2, 199.5, 176.3, and 38.9 for firmness, while the cohesiveness values were 0.41, 0.63, 0.65, and 0.4, respectively. Finally, T<sub>2</sub>-BM and T<sub>3</sub>-SM yogurt excelled in the value obtained for sensory evaluation. The importance of the present study lies in the fact that milk with a high percentage of total solids gives good-quality yogurt.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dhia I. J. Al-Bedrani, Qausar H. ALKaisy, Ashwaq K. Rahi, ali M. Saadi Selection and evaluation of Bradyrhizobium inoculum for peanut, Arachis hypogea production in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic 2022-12-13T09:05:41+00:00 Tarnee Phimphong Phoutthasone Sibounnavong Siviengkhek Phommalath Jenjira Wongdee Pongpan Songwattana Pongdet Piromyou Teerana Greetatorn Nantakorn Boonkerd Panlada Tittabutr Neung Teaumroong <p>The interaction between leguminous plants and <em>Bradyrhizobium</em> is limited, known as host specificity. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate <em>Bradyrhizobia</em> for use as biofertilizer inoculum for legumes is necessary. The <em>Arachis hypogea </em>L. is the most popular legume produced in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Therefore, this research aimed to obtain the appropriate <em>Bradyrhizobia </em>that provides high efficiency in <em>A. hypogea</em> production in the Lao PDR. The 14 isolates were obtained from root nodules of <em>A. hypogea</em> L. trapped with Lao PDR soil samples. Three were the top isolates PMVTL-01, SMVTL-02, and BLXBL-03 showing high efficiency for peanut growth promotion. Strains PMVTL-01 and SMVTL-02 were closely related to the <em>Bradyrhizobium</em> geno sp. SA-3 Rp7b and <em>B. zhanjiangense</em>, respectively, whilst strain BLXBL-03 was closely related to <em>Bradyrhizobium</em> sp. CCBAU51745 and <em>B. manausense</em> BR3351. The competitiveness of these strains with <em>Bradyrhizobium</em> sp. SUTN9-2::GFP was analyzed, and only <em>Bradyrhizobium</em> sp. SMVTL-02 performed a number of occupied nodules higher than SUTN9-2::GFP. In addition, the competitiveness of the selected strain <em>Bradyrhizobium</em> sp. SMVTL-02 in a soil sample from the Lao PDR in the pot level was employed by tagging the SMVTL-02 with the <em>DsRed</em> gene. The results demonstrated that the DsRed-expressing tagged strain showed higher nodule occupancy than indigenous strains. Moreover, the results of the acetylene reduction assay (ARA), nodule number, nodule dry weight, and total plant dry weight from the pot experiment that inoculated with the SMVTL-02::DsRed were presented as having high potential to promote peanut growth as compared to non-inoculation. Thus, <em>Bradyrhizobium</em> sp. SMVTL-02 could be considered a potential biofertilizer inoculum for <em>A. hypogea</em> production in the Lao PDR.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tarnee Phimphong, Phoutthasone Sibounnavong, Siviengkhek Phommalath, Jenjira Wongdee, Pongpan Songwattana, Pongdet Piromyou, Teerana Greetatorn, Nantakorn Boonkerd, Panlada Tittabutr , Neung Teaumroong Spatial-temporal assessment of Norovirus contamination in mussels from Cherrat estuary, Morocco, by real-time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction 2022-11-29T05:38:34+00:00 Hanaâ Bazir Najwa Hassou Fatiha El Mellouli Hasnae Zekhnini Moulay Mustapha Ennaji <p>Mussels filter large amounts of water to extract nutrients; therefore, they can concentrate and accumulate in their tissues infectious agents, and vectors of enteric diseases. The aim of this study was to assess mussel contamination by Norovirus genogroups I and II in the Cherrat estuary to determine the public health risk linked to their consumption. Mussels (<em>Mytilus galloprovincialis</em>) were collected (n=52 samples; 12 mussels/sample) at four sites (S1 and S2 located on the right rocky bank / S3 and S4, located on the rocky left bank) in the Cherrat estuary (Casa-Settat region), Morocco, during 13 months, from March 2019 to March 2020. Norovirus was detected and quantified by real-time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Norovirus genogroups I and II were detected in 17.30% and 94.23% of mussel samples, respectively. Contamination by Norovirus (genogroups I and II) was not correlated with seasonal factors (month and rainfall), and Norovirus prevalence was comparable among the four sampling sites. Consumption of raw or undercooked mussels contaminated with Norovirus can cause gastroenteritis, which represents a potential risk to human health. The present study would be helpful to control and manage the potential risk to the public health of the Moroccan population due to the degradation of water quality continuously impacted by runoff, the urban wastewater treatment system malfunctions, and overflows from nearby sewage systems. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Hanaâ Bazir, Najwa Hassou, Fatiha El Mellouli, Hasnae Zekhnini, Moulay Mustapha Ennaji Molecular docking studies of different phytochemicals obtained from medicinal Plants of Uttarakhand region for identification of potential inhibitors against mucormycosis causing fungal species 2022-11-05T05:08:46+00:00 Pallavi Singh P.K Sudhanshu K.G. Revathi M. Maheswari Shailejkumar D Bonde Bharanidharan R <p>Mucormycosis is an insidious fungal infection caused by members of Mucorales and zygomycotic species. During the last few years, mucormycosis has become the third most common invasive fungal infection in patients with haematological malignancies and organ transplantations. The incidence of mucormycosis is particularly high in patients with immunocompromised health. It has been reported that CotH receptor proteins have a potential role in binding <em>Rhizopus species</em> with the host cells. Further, CotH1, CotH2, and<strong> </strong>CotH3 are the spore-coating protein of mucormycosis, which are mostly responsible for the invasion of host cells and causing diseases. The present study aimed to predict the structure of CotH1, CotH2, and<strong> </strong>CotH3 receptors in <em>Rhizpous delemar</em> using homology modelling on SWISS Server and validated the model based on GMQE and QMEAN scores followed by analysis of the predicted model on Ramachandran plot. Further, molecular docking studies of the predominant 46 phytochemicals found in the medicinal plants of Uttarakhand region, India were done against these three receptors. Autodock vina results have shown that the binding energy value of Curcumin was -8.5 Kcal/mol against CotH1, and the binding energy value of Allosecurinin was -7.6 Kcal/mol against CotH2 and binding energy value of Isoquercetin was -7.7 Kcal/mol against CotH3. Evaluation of the ADMET parameters has shown the high efficacy of these compounds. The present Insilico study suggests that Curcumin, Allosecurinine, and Isoquercetin are effective lead molecules against the receptors CotH1, CotH2, and CotH3 in the mucormycosis caused by fungal species <em>R. delemar.</em></p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pallavi Singh, P.K Sudhanshu, K.G. Revathi, M. Maheswari, Shailejkumar D Bonde, Bharanidharan R Climate change effects on Chickpea yield and its variability in Andhra Pradesh, India 2022-10-12T06:24:28+00:00 K. Nirmal Ravi Kumar M. Jagan Mohan Reddy Suresh Chandra Babu <p>Farmers usually do not know the precise output that is affected by climatic factors such as temperature and rainfall and are characterized by inter-annual variability, part of which is caused by global climate change. No study covers the influences of climate factors on yield and yield risk in the context of chickpea farming in Andhra Pradesh, India. In this context, this study aimed to investigate the trends in climate change variables during <em>Rabi</em> season (October to January, 1996-2020) and evaluated their variability on chickpea yields across different agro-climatic zones in Andhra Pradesh by employing Just and Pope production function. Four non-parametric methods-Alexandersson’s Standard Normal Homogeneity Test, Buishand’s Range Test, Pettitt’s Test and Von Neumann’s Ratio Test are applied to detect homogeneity in the data. Mann–Kendall (MK) test and Sen’s slope (SS) method were employed to analyze monthly rainfall trends and minimum and maximum temperature trends. Results of Just and Pope (panel data) quadratic and Cobb-Douglas methods revealed that monthly minimum temperature positively influenced the mean yield of chickpea (0.22% and 0.16%, respectively). However, rainfall (-0.41% and -0.31%) and maximum temperature (-0.08% and -0.04%) negatively influenced the mean yield of chickpea under quadratic and Cobb-Douglas models, respectively. Accordingly, rainfall (0.08% and 0.06%) and maximum temperature (0.83% and 0.72%) positively influenced the yield variability and minimum temperature (-0.77% and -0.67%) reduced yield variability of chickpea under quadratic and Cobb-Douglas models respectively. In view of these findings, it is imperative to advocate the farmers about the importance of cultivating drought-tolerant chickpea varieties, drought-proofing and mitigation strategies, micro-irrigation practices and improving their access to agro-meteorological information towards sustainable chickpea cultivation in Andhra Pradesh.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 K. Nirmal Ravi Kumar, M. Jagan Mohan Reddy, Suresh Chandra Babu One pot chemical co-precipitation preparation of magnetic graphene oxide-deltamethrin nanoformulations for management of Aedes aegypti 2022-12-29T02:01:32+00:00 Drashya Gautam Roopa Rani Samal Sarita Kumar Sunita Hooda Neelu Dheer <p><em>Aedes-</em>borne diseases are of worldwide concern due to the lack of effective medicine and vaccination. Frequent use of chemical intervention has developed insecticide resistance in mosquitoes and posed health risks to humans and the environment, necessitating an effective and safer intervention. Graphene Oxide (GO) is an efficient material that can absorb pesticide particles and release pesticide macromolecules in a controlled manner. With the proposition that magnetic graphene oxide (MGO)-based nanoformulations can be an eco-safe and effective material for pesticide conjugation, the present study synthesized these nanoformulations conjugated with a pyrethroid, deltamethrin (DL) through chemical co-precipitation method. The formulations were validated using biophysical techniques and investigated for their efficacy against <em>Aedes aegypti</em>. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of nanocomposites showed six intense diffraction peaks of Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> particles, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) displayed the C1s, O1s, and Fe2p photoelectron lines in the MGO nanocomposite's spectra, while Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) revealed the small size and uniformity of Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> nanoparticles on the GO surface. The individual MGO and DL, as well as MGO-DL binary combinations (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3) imparted significant larval toxicity, demonstrating 30%, 50%, and 85% CTC (Co-toxicity coefficient), respectively. High corresponding Synergistic factor (SF) values indicated significant synergism increasing with the rise in deltamethrin proportion. The MGO-DL combinations also increased irritancy and flight response in adults, the notable synergistic effects imparted by the 1:3 combination. The effective actions of MGO-DL nanoformulations against mosquitoes suggest their possible use for mosquito management as a safer and more operative intervention.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Drashya Gautam, Roopa Rani Samal, Sarita Kumar, Sunita Hooda, Neelu Dheer Assessing the in vitro efficacy of biocontrol agents and oil cakes against basal rot of onion incited by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae 2022-11-05T04:55:41+00:00 Muthukumar G Udhayakumar R Ayyandurai M Muthukumar A Rahila R <p>Onions are an important vegetable crop, which is infected by many soils and foliar pathogens. Among them, <em>Fusarium</em> Basal Rot (FBR) causes yield losses of up to 50 per cent in the field and 30 to 40 per cent during post-harvest storage of bulbs. For management of basal rot of onion, the efficacy of native antagonists such as six different <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. (T<sub>1-</sub>T<sub>6</sub>), five different <em>Bacillus</em> sp. (B<sub>1</sub>-B<sub>5</sub>) and five different oil cakes was assessed against the <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f.sp. <em>cepae </em>under <em>in vitro</em> condition. Among them, T<sub>3</sub> collected from Kulithalai recorded maximum virulence as well as dark green sporulation with conidia length of 2.68–3.25 and breadth of 2.54-3.46µ. Among the tested isolates, In the case of <em>B</em>acillus <em>sp</em><em>.,</em> isolate B<sub>4</sub> recorded the maximum inhibition zone (66.16%), followed by <em>B. subtilis</em> (B<sub>5</sub>), which recorded a (59.03%) inhibition on the mycelial growth. Among the five different oil cakes, the filtrates of neem cake showed a maximum inhibition zone against <em>F. oxysporum</em> f.sp. <em>cepae</em> of 1.29 cm @ 15% concentration, followed by groundnut cake at 1.36 cm @ 30% concentration. Hence the different control measures, <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. showed critically acclaimed performance under <em>in vitro</em> than others. The combined application of <em>Trichoderma </em>sp<em>, Bacillus</em> sp and neem oilcake significantly inhibited the growth of basal rot of onion due to the presence of the antimicrobial property. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Muthukumar G, Udhayakumar R , Ayyandurai M , Muthukumar A, Rahila R Using food residues (potato peels) as an alternative to potato dextrose agar in the growth of edible food fungi 2022-10-07T11:57:04+00:00 Batool Shakir Abed Almjalawi Rukaibaa Ali Chechan Lamees Thamer AL-Hadedee <p>Due to the great importance of edible fungi, their rapid life cycle, and the possibility of their production throughout the year, their cultivation has become a vital resource that many countries depend on in their pursuit of economic growth and food security. The present study aimed to devise a local nutrient media for primary mycelium growth of nine species of fungi belonging to <em>Pleurotus eryngii</em><strong> , </strong><em>Pleurotus floridanus</em><strong> , </strong><em>Pleurotus ostreatus</em> (white strain)<strong> , </strong><em>Agaricus heterocystis</em><strong> ,</strong><em> Agaricus bispous </em>(brown strain )<strong>,</strong><em> Agaricus bispous </em>(white strain)<strong>,</strong><em> Lentinula edodes</em>strain No. 1<strong>,</strong><em> Lentinula edodes </em>strain No. 2<strong>, </strong><em>Flammulina velutipe</em> (yellow strain) using culture mycelium inoculation for reproduction and production of edible fungi. Different natural materials used for this purpose involved potato peels in a concentration ranging from 5 to 20 g/ L and compared with the commercial medium Potato Dextrose Agar at a rate of 39 g/Land according to the manufacturer's instructions. The study also focused on the effect of physical factors such as temperature and pH on the growth rate of fungal mycelium. The results showed that the media prepared from potato peels at 5 g/L and 10 g/L concentrations achieved the best growth rate for the studied fungi compared to Peptone Dextrose Agar (PDA). The increase in the growth rate of fungi on media prepared from potato peels was attributed to the effect of nutrients for the prepared medium because it contained effective and necessary compounds for the growth in addition to their ease of absorption and consumption to be ready for food for agricultural fungi. The effect on the growth and production of edible fungi or any other type of fungi has not previously been studied and compared to the commercial medium PDA.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Batool Shakir Abed Almjalawi, Rukaibaa Ali Chechan, Lamees Thamer AL-Hadedee Effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on yield, postharvest quality and shelf life of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. BARI Tomato-2 2022-12-12T04:24:27+00:00 Md. Asaduzzaman Sohag Md. Hassanur Rahman Md. Omar Kayess Mahzabin Fariha Ifty <p>Fruit bagging protects fruits from pest infestation and multiple biotic and abiotic stresses during development without reducing yield. It also can potentially improve the quality and market value of fruits. Hence, the present study aimed to determine the effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on the yield and quality of tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em>) cv. BARI Tomato-2. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications that constituted the various treatments- T<sub>0</sub>: Control (no bagging), T<sub>1</sub>: White paper bag (single layer), T<sub>2</sub>: Brown paper bag (double layer), T<sub>3</sub>: Non-woven fabric bag, and T<sub>4</sub>: Jute bag from October 2021 to March 2022. The results showed that the non-woven fabric bag had the highest fruit length (57.79 mm), diameter (57.81 mm), number of fruits plant<sup>-1</sup> (55.9), yield (4.06 kg plant<sup>-1</sup>), vitamin C (24.63mg/ 100g<sup>-1</sup>), and lycopene content (0.12 mg g<sup>-1</sup>). The maximum insect incidence (18.41%) was recorded in control and the minimum was counted in T<sub>3</sub> (2.17%). The highest total soluble solid (6.73%<sup>0</sup>Brix) and dry matter (8.63%) were observed in a white paper bag. The highest mean color score (6.08), firmness (26.81%), and shelf life (13 days) found in fabric bags outperformed non-bagged fruits. The fabric bag showed maximum net income (21.12 TK) and the highest benefit: cost ratio (2.36). Thus, the fabric bag was the best for improving the physical and chemical qualities of tomatoes (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em>) among the various fruit-covering materials.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Asaduzzaman Sohag, Md. Hassanur Rahman, Md. Omar Kayess, Mahzabin Fariha Ifty Influence of land preparation on weed dynamics and growth of traditional rice landraces in the diverged location of Tamil Nadu 2022-12-13T09:31:01+00:00 N Yoganandham Subbalakshmi Lokanadhan A Christopher Lourduraj N Thavaprakaash A Ramalakshmi <p>In recent years, traditional landraces are gaining importance due to its many health benefits. But the main drawback of the traditional rice variety is low productivity with increased water consumption. Therefore different rice establishment methods are to be evaluated. But weed infestation occurs in every establishment method. Hence the present study aimed to study the weed dynamics by evaluating the water-saving technologies compared with puddled transplanting using various landraces. The first field experiment was conducted during <em>Samba</em> (Aug-Sept) 2021 in the wetlands of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The second field experiment was at the Research Station, Melalathur in Tamil Nadu during <em>Navara</em> (Nov-Jan) season 2021. The experiment was laid out in split plot design comprising four establishment methods as main plots <em>viz</em>. Aerobic rice (M<sub>1</sub>), Puddled transplanting (M<sub>2</sub>), Unpuddled transplanting (M<sub>3</sub>), Direct seeded rice (M<sub>4</sub>) with traditional landraces <em>viz</em>. <em>Karuppu kavuni</em> (V<sub>1</sub>), <em>Mapillai samba</em> (V<sub>2</sub>) and <em>Seeraga samba</em> (V<sub>3</sub>) in sub plots. In this study, weed dynamics like weed density and weed dry weight were recorded along with plant height, leaf area index and total chlorophyll content. Weed density and weed dry weight was 87.82 % and 74.63 % higher in aerobic rice cultivation than puddled transplanting method during all the observations in both experiments. On comparing the land establishment methods, Direct seeded rice performed well with 40.61% of higher plant height, 89.38 % of higher LAI, 38.48 % of increased total chlorophyll content than Aerobic rice cultivation. The landrace <em>mapillai samba</em> showed a significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher plant height of 64.09±7.14 cm, Leaf area index of 2.05±0.992 and total chlorophyll content of 2.56±0.461 mg/g of fresh leaf. Hence this study provides evidence that in the initial stage of rice cultivation, direct seeded rice and the <em>mapillai samba </em>landrace performed well than the other establishment methods and the other two landraces. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 N Yoganandham, Subbalakshmi Lokanadhan, A Christopher Lourduraj, N Thavaprakaash, A Ramalakshmi Evaluation of selected promising land races of small cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton) in South India 2022-12-13T16:03:09+00:00 Jaison Paul Aishwarya G. Balarama Swamy Yadav P Pradip Kumar K. Rema Shree A.B. <p>Small cardamom (<em>Elettaria cardamomum</em> (L.) Maton.), often referred to as the 'queen of spices' is believed to have originated in the moist evergreen forests of the Western Ghats of South India. The present study was conducted at the Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Myladumpara, Idukki Dt. of Kerala. Different farmer's varieties, nine landraces viz., <em>Njallani Green Gold, Thiruthali, Panikulangara Green Bold No.1, Wonder Cardamom, Elarajan, Arjun, Pappalu</em>, <em>PNS Vaigai, Pachaikkai </em>and ICRI-5 as control were evaluated in the cardamom tract of Idukki District. The selected genotypes were evaluated in the field for three consecutive years. The data on growth and yield were recorded, pooled and analyzed. From the analysis, it was found that the genotype <em>Njallani Green Gold</em> performed well compared to other varieties with respect to the yield (1271.80 kg/ha) followed by <em>Panikulangara Green Bold No.1</em> (1134.67 kg/ha) and more tillers (74.46) were found in the same clone also. The plant height was significantly higher in <em>Elarajan</em> (316.24 cm), followed by <em>Panikulangara Green Bold No.1</em> (312.45 cm). The number of leaves was greater in <em>Elarajan</em> (16.72), followed by <em>Panikulangara Green Bold No.1</em> (16.43). More vegetative buds were observed in <em>Pappalu</em> followed by <em>Wonder Cardamom</em>. Panicles per clump were more in <em>Thiruthali</em> (47.98), followed by <em>Njallani Green Gold</em> (46.59). Racemes per panicle were greater in <em>Pachaikkai</em> (26.57), followed by <em>Njallani Green Gold</em> (26.19). The number of capsules per racemes was more in <em>Njallani Green Gold</em> (9.59) followed by <em>Panikulangara Green Bold No.1</em> (8.59). The results pointed out that each clone in the trial differs from another with respect to the characters studied. The findings could be used for further breeding studies in small cardamom.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Jaison Paul, Aishwarya G. , Balarama Swamy Yadav P, Pradip Kumar K., Rema Shree A.B. Assessing spatial variability of soil and drawing location-specific management zones for coastal saline soils in Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu 2022-11-22T05:52:44+00:00 S. Nagaraj P. Saravana Pandian P. Christy Nirmala Mary R. Geetha A. Gurusamy <p>The production of crops in saline and alkali-degraded areas is difficult due to the heterogeneous and spatial variation of soil fertility. First, their spatial variability was analyzed and maps of the spatial distribution were created using Geostatistical techniques. The fuzzy k-mean clustering analysis was then used to define Management zones in the coastal saline soils of Ramanathapuram district in Tamil Nadu. One hundred and fifty geo-referenced soil samples (30 cm depth) were taken and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (ECe) in the saturated paste extract (USSL method), organic carbon (OC) (Walkley-Black chromic acid wet oxidation method), calcium carbonate (CaCO<sub>3</sub>) (Rapid titration method) and available phosphorus and extractable micronutrients (Multinutrients extraction method), revealing significant variation in soil characteristics throughout the coastal saline soils of Ramanathapuram district. The most significant factors, which together accounted for four principal components and 69% of the overall variability, were pH, electrical conductivity (ECe), calcium Carbonate and available zinc. According to Geostatistical analysis, the Exponential (pH, OC (organic carbon), P, Fe, Mn and Zn) and Stable (ECe) was the best fit semivariogram ordinary kriging model with weak to moderate spatial dependence. Fuzzy k-mean clustering was also used to identify zone 1, zone 2 and zone 3. For every soil property, there was a significant difference between MZ1(zone 1), MZ2(zone 2) and MZ3(zone 3). These results also showed that cluster analysis gave farmers a chance to use location-specific nutrient management strategies by minimizing variability within the zone. The management zones can decrease agricultural inputs and environmental pollutants while increasing crop productivity. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 S. Nagaraj, P. Saravana Pandian, P. Christy Nirmala Mary, R. Geetha, A. Gurusamy A study on coating of Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose incorporated with a nano-emulsion of Piper betel leaf essential oil to enhance shelf-life and improve postharvest quality of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) 2023-01-08T03:11:28+00:00 Poovai P D Kumaran N Ashok Iyengar Kalpana P Ramasubramaniyan M R <p>Edible coating films derived from essential oils effectively preserve farm produce, especially fruits and vegetables, and the technology is widely prevalent in improving their shelf life. The present study aimed to reduce the post-harvest loss and extend the shelf life of tomatoes using edible coatings based on Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) containing Piper betel leaf essential oil nano-emulsion as an antibacterial and bioactive compound. It also aimed for optimal extraction of essential oils (EO) from Piper betel leaves which contain various medicinal, antimicrobial, and antioxidant compounds such as chavibetol, eugenol, and other compounds. The essential oils were extracted, and nano-emulsion was prepared by a low-energy emulsification method and incorporated into edible HPMC composite to determine whether the edible coatings of the nano-emulsion of Piper betel leaf could delay the changes that lead to deterioration of the fruit. Results showed that the coatings delayed 5 % changes in color, 8% weight loss, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, soluble solids concentration, lycopene, and decay percentage, compared to uncoated control fruits. It was inferred that tomatoes that were coated with 15% nano-emulsion containing dipping solution showed a significant increase in the shelf life of tomatoes up to 8 days. Therefore, it is suggested to use HPMC containing the <em>Piper betel</em> oil nano-emulsion as an edible coating, extending the shelf-life of tomato fruits post-harvest.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Poovai P D, Kumaran N, Ashok Iyengar, Kalpana P, Ramasubramaniyan M R Factors affecting the ecological habitat of Benthic macro-invertebrate assemblages in Asan wetland, Dehradun in Garhwal Himalaya 2022-11-29T06:12:30+00:00 D. S. Malik Ruchika Chauhan Prachi Rathi <p>The Himalayan region has several freshwater resources, such as rivers, lakes, and wetlands. These freshwater resources have been adversely affected by environmental factors. Freshwater biological systems are defenseless against outcomes of environmental changes that might prompt the irreversible disintegration of these natural surroundings. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on the Benthic macro-invertebrate assemblages of the Asan wetland, Dehradun in Garhwal Himalaya. A determination of the physico-chemical health status of the Asan wetland viz., electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and nutrients parameters like nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus were investigated during this study. Three sampling sites (Site 1, Site 2 and Site 3) of wetland were selected and the water samples were collected seasonally, i.e., summer, winter, and monsoon from April 2021-March 2022. Maximum values of EC(163.75 µS/cm), TDS (232.78 (mg/l), alkalinity (141.20 mg/l) and pH(7.8) were recorded in the monsoon season (June-September) and minimum values of EC( 135.80µS/cm), TDS (196.80 (mg/l), alkalinity (119.80mg/l) and pH(7.2) were recorded in the winter season (November–February). An overall total of 18 macrobenthos genera belonging to four classes was identified. Maximum communities of macrobenthos were observed during the winter and minimum communities during the monsoon season. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to determine whether microbenthic genera and habitat ecological parameters and showed a positive or negative correlation. Thus, the present study contributed to the status of various factors and their impacts on the Benthic macro-invertebrate structure of the Asan wetland. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 D. S. Malik, Ruchika Chauhan, Prachi Rathi Response of flower quality and physiological characters of Jasminum sambac (L.) to modified planting system and pruning schedule 2022-12-29T02:50:05+00:00 S. Suganya K. Rajamani M. Ganga M. R. Latha P. Jeyakumar <p>Increasing planting density in <em>Jasminum sambac </em>(L.) is a recent trend among farmers and an effective strategy for improving flower productivity without affecting the standard of flower buds. This study aimed to establish the effect of varied plant density with different pruning levels on the flower quality during off, peak and lean seasons in <em>J. sambac</em> during 2021-‘22. The treatments comprised of four levels of plant density <em>viz.</em>, D<sub>1</sub>- one plant pit<sup>-1 </sup>(control), D<sub>2 </sub>- two plants pit<sup>-1</sup>, D<sub>3 </sub>- three plants pit<sup>-1</sup>, D<sub>4 </sub>- four plants pit<sup>-1</sup> and two levels of pruning viz., P<sub>1 </sub>- one pruning year<sup>-1</sup>(control), P<sub>2 </sub>- two prunings year<sup>-1</sup>. The trial was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with three replications. The important traits on flower quality parameters namely the total length of the flower bud, length of the flower bud without corolla tube and corolla tube length, were influenced significantly (P&lt;0.05) by three plants pit<sup>-1</sup> (D<sub>3</sub>) and two prunings year<sup>-1</sup> (P<sub>2</sub>). But there was no interaction effect between plant density and pruning frequency for these flower quality parameters. The interaction effect was also significantly (P&lt;0.05) influenced by the physiological and biochemical traits, namely chlorophyll content, total phenol content, soluble protein and Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) oxidase activity. The pooled analysis data of the treatment T<sub>6 </sub>(D<sub>3</sub>P<sub>2</sub>) was found superior due to increased plant density combined with alteration in pruning. This performed better with enhanced number of new shoots and produced good quality flower buds through enhancement of physiological activity in all three seasons (off, peak and lean) when compared to conventional planting T<sub>1 </sub>(D<sub>1</sub>P<sub>1</sub>) method.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 S. Suganya , K. Rajamani, M. Ganga, M. R. Latha, P. Jeyakumar Screening and evaluation of phenol utilization and growth in Acinetobacter baumannii W29 of wastewater 2022-05-15T07:24:13+00:00 Vinod Kumar Mishra Rakesh Kumar Gupta Sumit Kunar Verma Uttam Kumar <p>Phenols are ubiquitous pollutants, mainly from industrial effluent, causing pollution of natural water resources. The research focused on screening efficient phenol-degrading bacteria and kinetic modelling of phenol biodegradation and growth. Membrane filtration was used for the isolation of bacteria from the wastewater sample. The screening of phenol-degrading bacteria was based on the efficiency of phenol utilization. The strain with efficient phenol degradation capacity was characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and designated <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> W29. Biomass growth and phenol utilization rate of the strain were evaluated at different initial phenol concentrations (100-800 mgL<sup>-1</sup>). Specific growth rate data were fitted to five models, i.e. Monod, Haldane, Aiba, Teisser, and Webb model. The yield coefficient at different initial phenol concentrations was calculated from the slope of the specific growth rate (μ) versus the specific phenol utilization rate (q). The strain showed complete phenol degradation potential up to 1000 mgL<sup>-1</sup>. The maximal growth rate was achieved at 400 mgL<sup>-1 </sup>, which coincided with the maximum substrate utilization rate at the same concentration. The specific growth rate showed the best fit with the Haldane model. The strain had a yield coefficient of 0.70 (mg cell mg<sup>-1</sup> phenol). The value of µ and K<sub>s</sub> revealed the affinity of the strain for high-concentration phenol and the its ability to withstand high phenol concentrations. The kinetic growth behaviour of the strain fitted well with the Haldane model. The findings of the study could be applied to wastewater treatment with a high phenol load.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Vinod Kumar Mishra, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Sumit Kunar Verma, Uttam Kumar Effect of zinc concentration on the growth performance of White leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei Boone 2022-09-09T05:27:58+00:00 Khushbu Sharma Rachna Gulati Karuna Bamel Sushma <p>Awareness about healthy organic food is increasing, leading to research on contaminants/pollutants and their effect on aquatic fauna and mankind. The effect of zinc sulphate on the growth performance of White leg shrimp, <em>Litopenaeus vannamei</em> (Boone) was evaluated under six doses viz; 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/l in <em>in vitro</em> study conducted from June to October 2021. The results revealed that higher doses of zinc sulphate showed toxicity against <em>L. vannamei</em>. The weight (3.12gm), length (8.95cm), weight gain per shrimp (4.11g), average daily weight gain (0.032), and specific growth rate (1.1g) were significantly (5%) lower at the higher dose (8mg/l) of zinc sulphate than control 11.73g, 16.22cm, 19.75g, 0.156g, and 2.20g respectively. With an increase in zinc sulphate dose from 0 mg/l in control to 8 mg/l, survival of shrimp decreased from 100 % to 7%. The Lethal concentration (LC<sub>50</sub>) for zinc sulphate treatments was recorded at 0.71 ppm for shrimp<em>.</em> The water quality parameter pH (7.17-8.09), dissolved oxygen (6.13-7.58mg/l), hardness (4000-4772mg/l<em>)</em>, and total alkalinity (162-231mg/l) were in an optimum range<em>. </em>The variation in Nitrite- Nitrogen, Nitrate- Nitrogen and Ammonical-Nitrogen (0-0.018, 0-0.4, 0-0.018mg/l) were within a permissible range. Thus, the present study revealed that zinc had a negative potential effect on <em>L. vannamei</em> at higher concentrations and may lead to serious economic loss to farmers if ignored.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Khushbu Sharma, Rachna Gulati, Karuna Bamel, Sushma Response of preservative chemicals on the shelf life of cut lilium (Lilium spp.) flower cv. ‘Pavia’ 2022-11-05T05:09:49+00:00 B. J. Brahma R. S. Antil S. K. Yadav N. Kaushik <p>Lilium cut flowers have commercial importance and extending their vase life is vital. An increase in the vase life quality and quantity can directly increase the viability and price realization of commercially important flowers like lilium. Shelf life of cut lilium flower is influenced by using different preservative chemicals and sucrose added in vase solution. Such an extension of vase life can be achieved via chemical treatment. The trial was carried out to examine the effect of various concentration of two chemicals, AgNO<sub>3</sub> (silver nitrate) and 8-HQC (8-Hydroxyquinoline citrate) along with sucrose on the shelf life of lilium cut flower cv. ‘Pavia’ (cross between Asiatic and Longiflorum lilies). In the experiment, sucrose (20%), 8-HQC at 3 concentrations (100, 150, 200 ppm) and AgNO<sub>3</sub> at 3 concentrations (50, 75, 100 ppm) and water (distilled) as control were tested alone and with combinations. Cut flowers of lilium were treated at one bud opening stage. The trial was carried out in a completely randomized design (CRD) having 16 treatments and one control in three (3) replications. The fresh weight and relative fresh weight of the cut flower spike, opening of all flowers on a spike, vase solution uptake on a day, total vase solution uptake and vase life of lilium cut flower spike showed the best outcome with AgNO<sub>3</sub> (50 ppm) and 20% sucrose treatment combination. Out of the two chemicals, silver nitrate showed better results than 8-HQC as a preservative in enhancing the shelf life of cut Lilium flower cv. ‘Pavia’. Analysis of this new and exciting method will be useful to research institutes, commercial producers, wholesalers, retailers, consumers or anyone to choose right chemical and concentration of holding solution to maximize the post-harvest life of lilium cut flowers.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 B. J. Brahma, R. S. Antil, S. K. Yadav, N. Kaushik An assessment of seasonal, monthly and diurnal variations of ambient air quality in the Gurugram city (Haryana) 2022-11-05T05:03:19+00:00 Neha Bhadauria Abhishek Chauhan Rajnish Ranjan Tanu Jindal <p>Gurugram is emerging as one of India's most advanced cities. The combined impact of industrial and vehicular emissions makes the environment toxic. Recently, Gurugram has experienced severe air quality. In the present work, an assessment of seasonal, monthly, and diurnal variations of ambient air quality was carried out in Gurugram during the period of March 2021 to 2022 February. Seasonal and monthly concentrations of key air pollutants like particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>), nitrogen dioxide (NO<sub>2</sub>), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O<sub>3</sub>) were examined at Vikas sadan, Gwal Pahari and Teri Gram in Gurugram city to study the most polluted seasons and months. Significantly higher mean concentrations of Particulate matter PM<sub>2.5 </sub>(406.94 μgm<sup>−3</sup>) and NO<sub>2 </sub>(353.96ppb) were seen during the colder months and seasons. O<sub>3</sub> showed a consistent trend with variations during the year, with the highest concentration in winter (106.35µg/m<sup>3</sup>). PM<sub>2.5</sub> and NO<sub>2</sub> concentrations during the night were greater for all seasons when compared to diurnal values. O<sub>3</sub> concentrations displayed diurnal tendencies that were the opposite of those of NO<sub>2</sub> concentrations. The highest concentrations of ambient PM<sub>2.5</sub>, NO<sub>2</sub>, and CO were observed at the Vikas Sadan Monitoring Station. While the NISE Gwal Pahari station showed greater O<sub>3</sub> values. The findings highlight the necessity of efficient air pollution control in Gurugram. To prevent public exposure to air pollutants, preventive measures like green spaces, using public transport, etc. must be adopted. The study contributes to a better understanding of air pollution by seasonal, monthly and diurnal assessment in the city of Gurugram.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Abhishek Chauhan, Neha Bhadauria, Rajnish Ranjan , Tanu Jindal Impact of the orientation of seed placement and depth of its sowing on germination: A review 2022-12-12T04:34:03+00:00 Poomaruthai Masilamani Subramanian Venkatesan K. Nelson Navamaniraj Palanivel Rajarathinam Arumugam Alagesan Krishnasamy Thiagu <p>Seed orientation and its impacts on germination and seedling establishment mainly depend on the type of germination (hypogeal (or) epigeal), seed size and shape. Higher germination per cent is noticed when seeds are sown in the horizontal position. Planting seeds in a downward position can lead to a variety of physiological, chemical and morphological changes in seedlings. Consequences are usually manifested as noticeable modifications in their development. Vigorous seeds have strong, resilient seedlings due to their well-balanced metabolism and coordinated subcellular activity, making them well-suited for tough environments. Proper plumule and radicle growth require additional hormones and energy to ensure seedling survival. Four necessary factors must be considered while deciding the sowing depth <em>viz.,</em> soil moisture, optimum soil temperature, soil aeration and atmospheric humidity required for seed germination, emergence and seedling growth. Variations are observed in germination behaviour and seedling growth for different sowing depths. The necessary factors are very much important for efficient nursery seedlings production. This review looks at the effects of seed depth and orientation on the germination and growth of important agricultural, horticultural and silvicultural crops.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Poomaruthai Masilamani, Subramanian Venkatesan, K. Nelson Navamaniraj, Palanivel Rajarathinam, Arumugam Alagesan, Krishnasamy Thiagu An empirical analysis of Delhi's air quality throughout different COVID-19 pandemic waves 2023-01-01T13:08:06+00:00 Abhishek Dutta Wanida Jinsart Utpal Chandra Das Gautam Dutta <p>Delhi was one of India's COVID-19 hotspots, with significant death rates during the year 2021. This study looked at the link between COVID-19 cases in Delhi, and key meteorological variables. The study found that COVID-19 cases during the second wave (P2-March- May 2021) were much higher than during the first wave (P1-Jan-Feb 2021) in Delhi. During P1 (Jan-Feb 2021) the mean PM<sub>2.5, </sub>PM<sub>10, </sub>NO<sub>2</sub> and CO concentrations were greater than that of P2 (March-May 2021) while the reverse happened for SO<sub>2</sub> and O<sub>3</sub>. Spearman correlation test indicated that COVID-19 cases maintained a significant positive correlation with the high temperature of P2 (March-May 2021) and high humidity of P1 (Jan-Feb 2021) in line with the accepted notion that COVID-19 transmitted favourably in hot and humid climates. The Multilayer perceptron (MLP) model indicated that COVID-19 spread was supported by air pollutants and climate variables like PM<sub>2.5</sub>, NO<sub>2</sub>, RH, and WS in P1(Jan-Feb 2021) and PM<sub>2.5 </sub>and O<sub>3</sub> in P2 (March-May 2021). Owing to chemical coupling, across all six monitoring stations, O<sub>3</sub> maintained an inverse relationship with NO<sub>2</sub> throughout the COVID-19 phases in Delhi. The city dwellers had health risks also due to PM pollution at varying degrees, indicated by high hazard quotients (HQs), requiring lowering of air pollution concentrations on an urgent basis.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Abhishek Dutta, Wanida Jinsart, Utpal Chandra Das, Gautam Dutta Evaluating the seasonal accumulation of Heat units as an agroclimatic indicator on Baby corn (Zea mays L.) under different sowing windows 2023-01-02T06:11:55+00:00 Sankar T SP. Ramanathan S. Kokilavani K. Chandrakumar M. K. Kalarani <p>Temperature determines the plant's growth and development, which decides the onset of different phenophasic stages of the Baby corn. This study aimed to evaluate the phenological behaviour and yield of Baby corn (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) influenced by sowing windows and heat units with the field investigations carried out during winter (January – April) and <em>kharif</em> (June – September) 2022 at Eastern Block Farm of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Growing Degree Days (GDD), Photo Thermal Units (PTU), Helio Thermal Units (HTU), Relative Temperature Disparity (RTD), Heat Unit Efficiency (HUE) and seasonal efficiency were calculated at different phenological stages. The results revealed that early attainment of phenophases was noticed during winter (62.5 days - January 21<sup>st</sup> to 27<sup>th</sup> April) than <em>kharif</em> (77.1 days – 15<sup>th</sup> June to 4<sup>th</sup> October). Among seasons, higher accumulation of GDD (1553) and PTU (19099) was observed during <em>kharif </em>2022, whereas maximum accumulation of HTU (9923) and RTD (2146) was observed in winter 2022. Seasonal efficiency was higher during <em>kharif </em>(118) than during the winter season (81). The sowing windows significantly influenced the higher accumulation of heat units and yield attributes. Hence, higher yield (11922.7 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and HUE (7.3) were obtained during <em>kharif</em> than in winter 2022 (yield – 7849 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and HUE – 5.8). Weather parameters showed a negative correlation except RH-I, WS, SR and HUE during winter 2022 (R<sup>2</sup>=0.802) and RH-II, WS, RF, Daylength, HUE during <em>kharif </em>2022, which had a positive correlation (R<sup>2</sup>=0.795). Baby corn is highly sensitive to increasing temperature. Hence, the study expresses the effect of varying ambient temperature on the duration between the phenological stages and yield. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sankar. T, SP. Ramanathan, S. Kokilavani , K. Chandrakumar, M. K. Kalarani Agricultural bio-waste recycling through efficient microbial consortia 2023-01-05T15:36:14+00:00 Santosh Kumar Meena R. Durai Singh M. Raju P. Saravana Pandian N. Sritharan S. Selvam <p>In India and other countries, rice straw, a byproduct of rice production, is burned in enormous amounts, which contributes to environmental pollution and climate change by releasing greenhouse gases <em>viz.,</em> CO<sub>2</sub>, N<sub>2</sub>O, CH<sub>4,</sub> into the atmosphere. This study aimed to accelerate the degradation of this enormous amount of agricultural biomass via microbial inoculants. Four treatments—rice straw (RS), rice straw plus water (RSW), rice straw plus water plus Pusa decomposer (RSWF), and rice straw plus water plus Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) biomineralizer (RSWB) were used in the current investigation. The study's findings demonstrated that rice straw treated with microorganisms decomposed more quickly than RS and RSW treatments. According to EDAX spectra of elemental composition, the carbon content of rice straw in the RS, RSW, RSWF, and RSWB treatments was 33.66%, 29.75%, 13.33%, and 20.65% w/w, respectively. The RSWF treatment of rice straw was found to have the highest nitrogen concentration (0.64% w/w), followed by RSWB (0.61% w/w), RSW (0.45%) w/w, and RS (0.43% w/w). Treatments RSWF and RSWB had lower C/N ratios 20.83, and 33.85, respectively, than that RSW (66.11) and RS (78.28). The RSWF and RSWB treatments' porous, distorted, and rough surface structures provided further evidence that both microbial consortia could decompose rice straw more quickly than the RSW and RS treatments. Therefore, the results of this study imply that rice straw could be added to the soil to improve soil fertility for sustainable crop production rather than being burned.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Santosh Kumar Meena, R. Durai Singh, M. Raju, P. Saravana Pandian, N. Sritharan, S. Selvam Physicochemical evaluation of common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions through correlation and regression 2022-12-29T02:12:37+00:00 G. Sajiv C. Muruganandam S. Rameshkumar <p>It is important to look at the physicochemical qualities of Portulaca, a weed species used as a vegetable and a herb for medical and therapeutic purposes. India has a wide range of variations in this species' morphology and nutraceutical value. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of various purslane accessions from different regions of Tamil Nadu. A total of 15 purslane accessions (PA 1, PA 2, PA 3, PA 4, PA 5, PA 6, PA 7, PA 8, PA 9, PA 10, PA 11, PA 12, PA 13, PA 14 and PA 15) were collected and evaluated. Physical traits like colour of the leaves and stems were quantified as hue angle and chroma value, which showed a degree of variation. Estimates suggested that phytochemical properties related the hue and chroma of leaf and stem to the pigments in plants. Among the accessions, PA 3 has recorded the highest phytochemical properties <em>viz</em>., leaf total chlorophyll content 1.43±0.16 mg g<sup>-1</sup>, leaf total carotenoid content 0.24±0.03 mg g<sup>-1</sup>, stem total chlorophyll content 0.49±0.05 mg g<sup>-1</sup>, stem total carotenoid content 0.12±0.01 mg g<sup>-1</sup> and total anthocyanin content 19.25±1.54 µg g<sup>-1</sup>. The multiple regression model suggested that the values can predict the estimated values. The evaluation of physicochemical properties along with the regression model helps in the breeding programme to select the traits; phytochemical analysis proved the ample supply of chlorophylls, carotenoids and anthocyanins, so these wild species could be a cheap source to alleviate several diseases. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 G. Sajiv , C. Muruganandam , S. Rameshkumar Influence of different types of soils on the growth and yield of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.) 2022-12-29T02:38:50+00:00 S. Mobeena N. Thavaprakaash K. Vaiyapuri M. Djanaguiraman S. Geethanjali P. Geetha <p>Quinoa is a resilient high-yielding pseudo cereal, gaining attention because of its high nutritional value, strong growth potential, and tremendous source of essential amino acids, micronutrients, vitamins, phenolic compounds, and minerals. The main aim of this investigation was to find the best suitable soil type for maximizing the growth and yield of Quinoa. The pot study was undertaken at the Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, during the Kharif 2022 season. Eight soil samples (clay loam soils of wetlands of TNAU, sandy loam soils of eastern block of TNAU, sandy loam soils of Mettupalayam, sandy clay loam soils of 36 B eastern block of TNAU, sandy clay loam soils of 37 B eastern block of TNAU, clay loam soils of Ooty, sandy clay loam soils of Govindanaickenpalayam and sandy clay loam soils of Annur) were collected round Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu and tested in a complete randomized design with three replications. The pot study results revealed that growth parameters <em>viz.</em> Plant height (81.5 cm), number of leaves plant<sup>-1 </sup>(164.8), leaf area (317.7 cm<sup>2</sup>), number of branches plant<sup>-1 </sup>(38.0) and dry matter production (22.78 g) were significantly higher in the clay loam soils of Ooty than all other soil types. Similarly, yield attributes such as the number of panicles plant<sup>-1 </sup>(21.7), panicle length (13.08 cm), number of grains panicle<sup>-1</sup> (3050) and grain yield plant<sup>-1</sup> (9.60 g) of Quinoa were also higher in the same clay loam soils followed by that in sandy clay loam soils of Govindanaickenpalayam. Red soils of Mettupalayam had shown the lowest growth, yield and yield attributes of Quinoa. Based on the above results, it was concluded that the clay loam soil of Ooty was the best suited for cultivating Quinoa crops.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 S. Mobeena, N. Thavaprakaash, K. Vaiyapuri, M. Djanaguiraman, S. Geethanjali, P. Geetha Study of antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of the bioactive compound of Bacillus megaterium L2 strains isolated from the oral cavity of hospital workers and visitors at Dental Health Centre, Babylon, Iraq 2022-12-29T02:22:25+00:00 Yazi Abdullah Jassim Zahraa A.N. Al-Yassiry Eman Fadhel Abbas Awadh <p>Because of the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics, there is an urgent necessity to search for new antibiotics produced by <em>Bacillus spp</em>., which are characterized by their capability to produce secondary metabolites with high efficacy against numerous types of pathogenic bacteria. A total of 40 <em>Bacillus </em>isolates were isolated from the mouths of 150 volunteers from the Dental Health Center in Babylon and diagnosed based on phenotypic characteristics and biochemical and physiological reaction tests with a colorimetric reagent card using the VITEK2 analyzer. The active compounds were extracted from <em>Bacillus</em> <em>megaterium L2</em> and their antibacterial activity was tested against a group of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was estimated, whereas 16 isolates showed high effectiveness against pathogenic bacteria, with the zone of inhibition ranging from 8-22 mm and the MIC ranging from 0.25–6.25 mg/ml. The active compounds were extracted, purified, and detected by Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was studied using the MCF7 cell line. This showed that cytotoxicity effects on valid object count, nuclear morphology, and total nuclear intensity ranged from 17.245-441.24 and the cytotoxic effect on cell membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome C ranged from 49.04-601.79 Among the isolates, <em>Bacillus megaterium L2(B9)</em> was the best isolated strain of bacteria that was the most effective against anti-pathogenic bacterial strains- Gram positive (<em>Staphylococcus pyogenes</em> NCTC 8198 and<em> St. aureus</em> ATCC 29213) and gram negative (<em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa RW109, Escherichia coli O157, and Salmonella typhi</em> Ty2) and was non-toxic to human cells (MCF7).</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Yazi Abdullah Jassim, Zahraa A.N. Al-Yassiry, Eman Fadhel Abbas Awadh Evaluation of water quality of Mundeswari River in eastern India: a water quality index (WQI) based approach 2022-12-29T08:08:28+00:00 Pratyush Ghosh A.K. Panigrahi <p>The Mundeswari River is the western distributary of the Damodar River system in eastern India. The water of this river is extensively used for domestic purposes and agricultural irrigation. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial and temporal water quality variation of the Mundeswari River and assess the water quality status of this river using the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI). Water quality was monitored monthly at four selected sampling stations (M1, M2, M3, and M4) during 2020-2022, considering twelve selected water quality indicators. The obtained water quality data were analysed using different statistical techniques. Water quality at different monitoring stations was appraised through the use of CCME-WQI. The results revealed that the overall water quality of most of the monitoring stations based on CCME-WQI values was “marginal.” The highest WQI value (82.01) was observed at M1, and the lowest WQI (41.24) was recorded at M3. One-way ANOVA indicated a statistically significant difference in WQI values between sampling sites (P &lt;0.05). The water quality of the M3 sampling station was found to be in degraded condition throughout the study period. Cluster analysis from the perspective of WQI values revealed two distinct clusters of the sampling stations. Substantial seasonal variation in water quality was also observed. This river had putrid water quality during the pre-monsoon period, and relatively better water quality was evident after the monsoon. This study revealed that the water of the Mundeswari River is utterly unsafe for human consumption and it requires significant treatments before it can be safely used for domestic purposes like cooking, washing etc.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pratyush Ghosh, A.K. Panigrahi Influence of the downwash airflow in Hexacopter Drone on the spray distribution pattern of boom sprayer 2023-01-08T04:51:28+00:00 Yallappa D. R. Kavitha A. Surendrakumar B. Suthakar A P. Mohan Kumar Balaji Kannan M K Kalarani <p>The spray characteristics of drone sprayers are significantly influenced by the downwash airflow produced by Drone multi-rotors. The present study aimed to study the influence of downwash airflow and the operational parameters of Drone sprayer, <em>viz., </em>flight height, travel speed, rotor configuration, payload and wind velocity on the spray distribution pattern for boom sprayer attachment to Drone. The boom type sprayer consisted of four numbers of flat fan nozzles placed at three different spacing <em>viz.,</em> 30, 45 and 60 cm between each nozzle. The spray distribution pattern of the Hexacopter Drone was studied at three different operating pressures, <em>viz.,</em> 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kg cm<sup>-2</sup>. A spray patternator of 5 m x 5 m was developed per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) standard to study the spray uniformity of volume distribution pattern. The best spray uniformity was found as 0.37 % CV value at 60 cm nozzle spacing and 4 kg cm<sup>-2</sup> operating pressure. The optimised parameters <em>viz.,</em> 60 cm of nozzle spacing and 4 kg cm<sup>-2</sup> operating pressure, the influence of downwash airflow on the spray volume distribution of hexacopter Drone with boom spray attachment were studied. The Drone hovered at three different heights, <em>viz.,</em> 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 m from the top of the patternator and spray operating pressure was maintained at 4 kg cm<sup>-2</sup>. It was observed that less volume of spray was collected at the middle portion when the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was hovered at 1.0 m height due to the direct impact of downwash airflow of rotors. The uniform spray volume distribution pattern was observed when Drone hovered from 1.0 m to 3.0 m height. A round vertex pattern of spray pattern was generated with boom type nozzles configuration due to the direct impact of downwash airflow of rotors. This study will be helpful in the configuration of nozzles attached to the drone sprayers, optimization of spray operational parameters, and revealing spray volume distribution pattern.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Yallappa D., R. Kavitha, A. Surendrakumar, B. Suthakar, A P. Mohan Kumar, Balaji Kannan, M K Kalarani Insecticidal activity and changes in midgut histology of the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in response to seed extract of Annona squamosa Linn. 2023-01-19T04:39:25+00:00 R. Muthu Vishnupriya R Jeyarajan Nelson S Uma D Santhanakrishnan V. P. <p>The tobacco caterpillar, <em>Spodoptera litura </em>F., is one of the most devastating, cosmopolitan polyphagous pests affecting major crops that significantly impact agricultural productivity. The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effect of seed extract of the medicinal plant, <em>Annona squamosa </em>L. and the histological effect on the midgut of <em>Spodoptera litura</em> F., under laboratory conditions. The crude methanolic extract of <em>A. squamosa</em> seed was tested against the third instar larvae of <em>S. litura</em> at five different concentrations <em>viz.,</em> 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5 % by leaf dip bioassay method. The seed extract exhibited larval mortality of 96.67%, 83.37 %,70%, 53.33% and 40 % at the concentrations 2.5 %, 2.0%, 1.5%, 1.0% and 0.5%, respectively.The results indicated that the response of larval mortality to the seed extract was dose-dependent. The dose of 0.5% showed the lowest mortality (40.00%), while the dose of 2.5 % showed maximum larval mortality (96.67%). Hence they were subjected to histological analysis. The anatomical sectioning of <em>S. litura</em> larval midgut treated with 0.5% concentration showed disruption in the peritrophic membrane and striated border of epithelial cells. The midgut of larvae treated with 2.5 % concentration showed an irregular epithelium and high vacuolization in the cytoplasmic cells. The results indicated that methanol extract of <em>A. squamosa</em> seed extract has the ability to cause changes in the midgut region, thereby affecting the digestion and nutrient absorption of <em>S. litura </em>larvae, which will lead to a debilitating effect on the development of larvae. Based on the present study <em>A. squamosa</em> seed extract will be a potential biopesticide for managing <em>S. litura</em>.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 R. Muthu, Vishnupriya R, Jeyarajan Nelson S, Uma D , Santhanakrishnan V. P. Avian Community Composition in and around Mandothi Wetlands, Haryana, India 2023-01-20T07:57:50+00:00 Deepak Rai Aruna Yadav <p>Comprising an area of approximately 1000 acres, Mandothi wetlands are located in Bahadurgarh tehsil of Jhajjar district of <br />Haryana, India and provide an important wintering ground for migratory birds. From December 2021 to June 2022, fortnightly surveys were made to document the avian community composition of the study area in Mandothi wetlands using point-count and line-transect methods. A total of 124 species belonging to 90 genera, 38 families, and 15 orders were recorded. Passeriformes was the most represented avian order, with 38 species and 15 families. Feeding guild analysis revealed that carnivore was the most dominant feeding guild in the study area. Of the recorded 124 avian species, 73 species were residents, 44 species were winter migrants and 7 species were summer migrants. As per the IUCN Red List 8 species were classified as Near Threatened (Ferruginous Duck <em>Aythya nyroca</em>, Black-tailed Godwit <em>Limosa limosa, </em>Eurasian Curlew<em> Numenius arquata, </em>Painted Stork<em> Mycteria leucocephala</em>, Woolly-necked Stork <em>Ciconia episcopus, </em>Black-necked Stork<em> Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus, </em>Black-headed Ibis <em>Threskiornis melanocephalus, </em>Darter<em> Anhinga melanogaster</em>) and 2 species were classified as Vulnerable (Sarus Crane <em>Antigone antigone </em>and River Tern<em> Sterna aurantia</em>)<em>.</em> In addition to the present survey, 17 species were also reported from secondary sources, resulting in a checklist of 141 bird species. The occurrence of migratory and species of global conservation priority documents the importance of this wetland as a potential habitat for avifauna in Haryana.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Deepak Rai, Aruna Yadav Effect of different concentrations of molasses and forage with Bacillus lechniformis on the growth of Macrobrachium nipponense in vitro 2023-01-20T08:52:04+00:00 Taraq H. Y. Al-Maliky Eman A. AL-Imara Mahmood S. Hashim P. N. Geetha <p>The rearing of juvenile shrimp, <em>Macrobrachium nipponense</em> is of importance in the development of aquaculture, especially by using molasses and <em>Bacillus lechniformis</em> to promote growth. The present study aimed to evaluate the rearing of juvenile shrimp, <em>M. nipponense</em> in laboratory breeding ponds without replacing the water in the presence of <em>B. lechniformis</em> using two strategies: i) Use of molasses (10=A, 50=B, and 100=C mg) with 1 × 10 ⁸ CFUml<sup>-1</sup> <em>B. lechniformis</em> to the ponds, with shrimp in initial weight rates (650.00 ± 68.09, 639.67 ± 74.81, 639.67 ± 67.02) mg and final weight rates (695.67 ± 57.33, 825.00 ± 90.14, 761.33 ± 111.02) mg, ii) Use of feed (100=A, 250-B, and 500=C) mg, with shrimp initial weight rates (107.67 ± 21.94, 106.67 ± 20.82, 103.33 ± 18.93) mg and final weight rates (208.33 ± 16.07, 381.67 ± 36.17, 283.33 ± 15.28) mg. Results of statistical analysis for molasses showed significant differences (p &lt; 0.05) in each daily growth (DG), Specific growth rate (SGR), and no significant differences (p &gt; 0.05) in survival rates. As food conversion ratio (FCR), significant differences (p &lt; 0.05) were found between A and B, contrary to C, which showed no significant differences. There were significant differences (p &lt; 0.05) in DG among A, B, and C in using feed. While SGR showed significant differences (p &lt; 0.05) between A and B but did not have significant differences with C and no significant differences (p &gt; 0.05) in the survival rates. FCR showed significant differences (p &lt; 0.05) between C and both A and B, which showed no significant difference (p &gt; 0.05) between them. The study will help to reduce the cost and waste of water. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Taraq H. Y. Al-Maliky, Eman A. AL-Imara, Mahmood S. Hashim , P. N. Geetha Staphylococcal variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)-spa genotyping and their role in phylogenic study 2022-12-29T08:04:04+00:00 Ruqaya Fadhel Gazi Maysaa S.M. Al-shukri Zainab Adil Ghani Chabuck Saade Abdalkareem Jasim <p><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> protein A is considered a vital virulence element determinant of its pathogenicity. Its sequence diversity aids in staphylococcal typing and phylogeny. The present study aimed to study the genotyping method for <em>S</em>. <em>aureus</em> isolates by applying Spa typing (variable number tandem repeat) and their role in the phylogenic study. Twenty <em>S. aureus </em>isolates were achieved from various clinical isolates and subjected for complete identification and diagnosis. Later on, these isolates were subjected to DNA extraction and PCR for amplification and sequencing of SPA gene. Spa genotyping showed that out of 20 isolates and their amplified <em>spa</em> gene, 8 different types among the 18/20 isolates were detected and 2/20 isolates could not be typed, as the most commonly observed Spa were t304 (35%), t491 (15%) followed by t078 and t059 (10%). Finally, depending on the bacterial phylogenetic relationships, <em>S. aureus </em>isolates were categorized into 2 clades. The first one contained 18 isolates and the second one contained 2 isolates. Most Spa types were included in clade A (18 isolates) whereas only 2 isolates were involved in clade B. The isolates in clade A were grouped into 3 different groups established on the dissimilarity in tandem repeats of the Spa gene. Cluster 1 contained t304, t078, t044 Spa types, cluster 2 contained t059, t4870 and t386 Spa types and cluster 3 contained t491 and t091 Spa types. Clade B contained 2 Spa types (unknown). The utility of the present work is the application of repetitive tandem repeats within the spa gene for phylogenetic analysis of Staph aureus clinical isolates. </p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ruqaya Fadhel Gazi, Maysaa S.M. Al-shukri, Zainab Adil Ghani Chabuck, Saade Abdalkareem Jasim Anti-putrefying properties of the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Manihot esculenta (cassava) on dead laboratory Sprague Dawley rats 2023-01-28T02:39:54+00:00 Saviour Kweku Adjenti Becky Annan Gloria Amo Aidoo Isaac Julius Asiedu-Gyekye <p>The leaves of <em>Manihot</em><em> esculenta</em> (ME) have been used by ancestors, apart from food, to preserve human bodies before burial. Formalin remains the chemical agent of choice in modern times to preserve corpses. However, cost, associated health hazards and recent public health concerns meant that researchers must explore alternative means of continuing this age-long process of preservation of human remains. The present study aimed to explore the effectiveness of extracts from cassava <em>(Manihot esculenta)</em> leaves in the preservation of dead remains of corpses. Aqueous extracts from fresh leaves of <em>M. esculenta</em> (MELE) were used to preserve euthanised rats and the internal organs were harvested after 7 days for histological analysis. The histological sections of the stomach and liver were compared with those of control rats treated with 6 ml of formalin (10%). The low and intermediate doses of MELE preserved the tissues of the dead rats beyond 7 days, as evidenced by histological sections of the stomach and liver. Concentrations of MELE between 300 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg showed adequate potency in preserving dead rats compared to formalin. However, the dead rats treated with doses of MELE greater than 1500 mg/kg showed rapid putrefaction after 7 days.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Isaac Julius Asiedu-Gyekye, Saviour Kweku Adjenti, Becky Annan, Gloria Amo Aidoo Improvement in yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) with combination treatments of bio-organic fertilizers 2023-01-30T03:37:08+00:00 Halim Laode Sabaruddin Nini Mila Rahni Makmur Jaya Arma Imran Subair Eka Febrianti Andi Awaluddin Wa Ode Nuraida Waode Siti Anima Hisein <p>Peanut is a plant food with high economic value because of their nutritional content, especially protein, and high fat. The nut land needs from year to year continue to increase in line with the increase in number population, nutritional needs of the community, food diversification, and increasing feed and food industry capacity. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of bio-organic fertilizers in producing local peanuts (Wadaga) from Muna Island, Indonesia. The randomized block design (RBD) was done with 12 bio-organic fertilizer treatments (T<sub>1</sub> to T<sub>12</sub>) based on arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) and cow manure fertilizer (CMF). The variables were viz. pod weight, total pod number, filled pod number, percentage of empty pods, seed number, the weight of 100 seeds, dry seed weight, and productivity were observed. The results of the study showed that the highest average pod weight (55.0 g), total pod number (50.3 pods), filled pod number (46.3 pods), and seed number (84.3 seeds) occurred with the treatment of T<sub>8</sub>: A<sub>2</sub>B<sub>1 </sub>( AMF 10 g per plant + CMF 3 kg per plot). The highest average productivity was obtained with T<sub>3</sub>: A<sub>0</sub>B<sub>2 </sub>(without AMF + CMF 6 kg per plot) as 3.97 tons ha<sup>-1</sup>. The use of mycorrhizal fungi combined with organic fertilizers can improve the growth of peanut plants which has a positive impact on their production.</p> 2023-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Halim, Laode Sabaruddin, Nini Mila Rahni, Makmur Jaya Arma, Imran Subair, Eka Febrianti, Andi Awaluddin, Wa Ode Nuraida, Waode Siti Anima Hisein