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It is the author/institute/subscriber's responsibility to check and verify with the respective databases for the latest inclusion status and their policies before submission. Thank you for your understanding.</span></span></span></span></div> <hr /> <div style="text-align: center;"><strong><span style="font-family: arial,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: large;"><span style="line-height: 1.5; background-color: transparent;">Applied and Natural Science Foundation is </span>a registered not-for-profit organization</span></span></strong></div> <hr /> Applied and Natural Science Foundation en-US Journal of Applied and Natural Science 0974-9411 <p>This work is licensed under&nbsp;<a href=""><strong>Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</strong></a>&nbsp;<strong>© </strong>Author (s)</p> A modified sensitive palladium-copper oxide and multiwalled carbon nanotubes electrochemical sensor for detection of ametridione pesticide <p>Glassy carbon electrode modified sensitive Pd-CuO/MWCNTs electrochemical nanosensor was used for detection of ametridione pesticide in water samples. The morphology characteristics of Pd-CuO/MWCNTs are examined by scanning electron microscopy and EDX. The ametridione pesticide under voltammetric investigation involves irreversible, 4e<sup>?</sup> electron reduction based on the protonation of the two carbonyl groups (&gt;C=O). The voltammetric method was applied for the detection of ametridione in BR buffer solution at pH 5.0 as a supporting electrolyte. The detection limit, limit of quantification and concentration ranges of the proposed method were 0.0796 ?g?mL<sup>?1</sup> (signal/noise=3), 0.5560 ?g?mL<sup>?1</sup> and 0.1 to 10.0 ?g?mL<sup>?1</sup>, respectively. The electrochemical sensor was successfully applied for the detection of ametridione in tap, agricultural run-off and river water samples showing &gt;98% mean recoveries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> V. Bebi P. Reddy Prasad K. Sudheer P. Sandhya C. Nageswara Reddy N. Y. Sreedhar Copyright (c) 2021 V. Bebi, P. Reddy Prasad, K. Sudheer, P. Sandhya, C. Nageswara Reddy, N. Y. Sreedhar 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 798 806 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2531 An alternative approach for construction of strata using quantified sensitivity level <p>The study is investigated on an alternative method for the construction of strata using sensitivity level when the samples are selected with simple random sampling with replacement (SRSWR) and the data are collected by scrambled optional randomization technique on the sensitive characters. Thus, the optional randomized response model , where k is a random variable having value 1 if the response is scrambled and 0 otherwise, was considered for finding out Approximate Optimum Strata Boundaries by minimizing the variance of the estimator . The cum. was proposed for finding out Approximate Optimum Strata Boundary in Neyman allocation for the optional scrambled response. This is applicable for wider classes of sampling design and estimators in stratification. The proposed rule on optional scrambled randomized response is efficient and can be used effectively for the construction of optimum strata boundary via Rectangular, Right triangular and Exponential distribution. </p> <p> </p> Dejen Agegnehu P. K. Mahajan R. K. Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Dejen Agegnehu, P. K. Mahajan, R. K. Gupta 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 807 814 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2679 Estimation of ferulic acid from selected plant materials by Spectrophotometry and High performance liquid chromatography <p>Ferulic acid is an abundant phytophenolic compound present in plant cell wall. Ferulic acid possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-aging properties. A simple, sensitive and reproducible spectrophotometric method has been developed for quantitative estimation of ferulic acid from selected plant materials such as rice bran, wheat bran and bamboo shoot. The blue coloured chromogen obtained after the reaction was measured at wavelength of &nbsp;718 nm for ferulic acid against the blank reagent. The chromogen obeyed linearity over the range of 1?g/ml - 8?g/ml. An HPLC method was also developed for the estimation of ferulic acid from selected plant materials.</p> Saratchandran A. Divakaran Anitha CT Copyright (c) 2021 Saratchandran A. Divakaran, Anitha CT 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 815 819 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2732 Effect of frying on physicochemical properties of sesame and soybean oil blend <p>Most common cooking oil, such as soybean oil, can not be used for high-temperature applications, as they are highly susceptible to oxidation. Sesame seed oil rich in natural antioxidants provides high oxidative stability. Therefore, blending sesame oil with soybean oil offer improved oxidative stability. This study aims to determine the effect of frying on the physicochemical properties of sesame and soyabean oil blend. Soybean oil (SO) was blended with sesame seed oil (SSO) in the ratio of A-40:60, B-60:40 and C-50:50 so as to enhance its market acceptability. The changes occurring in soybean and sesame seed oil blend during repeated frying cycles were monitored. The parameters assessed were: Refractive index, specific gravity, viscosity, saponification value, free fatty acid (FFA) , peroxide value, and acid value. Fresh and fried oil blends were also characterised by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). No significant changes were observed for refractive index and specific gravity values in oil blends. Viscosity of blend B blend was the least, making it desirable for cooking purposes. However, FFA, acid value and peroxide value increased after each frying cycle. The increment of FFA and AV was found low for blend A (10% and 10%,) than blend B (27%,13%) and blend C (13%,13%). The peroxide value of all samples was within the acceptable range. The results of the present study definitely indicated that blending sesame oil with soybean oil could produce an oil blend which is economically feasible and provide desirable physicochemical properties for cooking purposes.</p> Meenakshi Garg Surabhi Wason Prem Lata Meena Rajni Chopra Susmita Dey Sadhu Akriti Dhyani Copyright (c) 2021 Meenakshi Garg, Surabhi Wason, Prem Lata Meena, Rajni Chopra, Susmita Dey Sadhu, Akriti Dhyani 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 820 829 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2744 Assessment of farmers’ indigenous knowledge of soil quality management practices in Ghana: A case study of crop farmers in Ada West District <p>The efforts to increase soil productivity has been ?eld-based experiments with little information on farmers’ indigenous knowledge of soil quality acquired through experience. This study assessed farmers’ indigenous knowledge on soil quality and fertility management practices in the Ada West District of Ghana. Two hundred-and-twelve farmers from five communities were interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires. Fifteen farmers each from four communities identified and classified their soil into high, medium and low soil quality. Thirty-six soil samples were collected based on farmers’ categorization and analysed to determine some physicochemical properties to determine the differences in soil quality categories. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to select effective indicators as the Minimum Data Set (MDS). Results showed that 89% of farmers’ use soil amendments out of which 71.1% combined organic and inorganic fertilizer, 19.6% applied only organic and 9.3% applied only inorganic fertilizer. The soil quality indicators used by farmers were based on visually observable indicators such as soil colour, presence of living organism, soil moisture, vigour plant growth, crop yield, soil texture, presence of plants and weeds, erosion and thickness of topsoil. Farmers’ soil quality categorization was contrary to the laboratory reports although soils from perceived high quality were relatively higher than medium and low. In PC<sub>1</sub> electrical conductivity, available phosphorus, organic carbon, organic matter, calcium, and magnesium had a higher positive loading. In PC<sub>2</sub>, sand and silt had the highest factor loading while clay and sodium had the highest factor loading for PC<sub>3</sub> and PC<sub>4</sub> respectively. Farmers have good knowledge on soil quality but did not know the rate of soil amendments to apply. Farmers’ indigenous knowledge should be supplemented with scientific soil information. There is need for more training and education on application rates of soil amendments.</p> Benedicta Y. Fosu-Mensah Sarah Maku Adjovu Ted Yemoh Annang Michael Mensah Copyright (c) 2021 Benedicta Y. Fosu-Mensah, Sarah Maku Adjovu , Ted Yemoh Annang , Michael Mensah 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 830 839 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2704 Polyphenolic characterization of pollen grains of some medicinal plant species using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) <p>Polyphenols, the secondary metabolites distributed in different parts of a plant, have major role in protecting the plants from deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiations and various diseases caused by pathogens. Considering the fact that these metabolites possess tremendous medicinal properties, extensive research has been carried out during the past few decades to explore their potential health benefits. Further, polyphenols are documented to possess different activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiulcer. The present study pertained to analyze different polyphenolic compounds in pollen grains of 9 medicinally important plant species <em>viz</em>., <em>Bauhinia variegata, B.purpurea, Cassia biflora, C. fistula, C. glauca, C. saimea </em>and <em>Delonix regia </em>belonging to Fabaceae family,<em> Hibiscus rosa-sinensis </em>belonging to Malvaceae family and <em>Melia azadirach </em>belonging toMeliaceaefamily using Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Various polyphenolic compounds likecaffeic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, coumaric acid, ellagic acid, epicatechin, gallic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, <em>tert</em>-butyl hydroquinone andumbelliferonewere found to be present in the pollen grains of these plant species. The order of plant species in terms of maximum number of polyphenolic compounds was observed as <em>Cassia saimea </em>(10) &gt; <em>B. purpurea </em>(9) = <em>C. fistula</em> (9) = <em>Hibiscus rosa-sinensis</em> (9) &gt; <em>Delonix regia </em>(8) &gt; <em>B. variegata </em>(6) &gt; <em>C. glauca </em>(4) = <em>Melia Azadirach </em>(4) &gt; <em>C. biflora </em>(3). The plants such as <em>C. saimea, B. purpurea</em>, <em>C. fistula</em> and <em>H. rosa-sinensis</em> with different polyphenolic compounds indicated their potential forthe treatment of ailments.</p> Rajwant Kaur Manpreet Kaur Avinash Kaur Nagpal Jatinder kaur Katnoria Copyright (c) 2021 Rajwant Kaur, Manpreet Kaur , Avinash Kaur Nagpal , Jatinder kaur Katnoria 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 840 845 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2737 Use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for research in toxicological studies <p><em>Danio rerio,</em> commonly known as zebrafish, is a freshwater aquarium fish and is native to parts of South Asia. It is considered an important organism for analyzing the noxious effects of toxicants and pollutants of the environment. In terms of the molecular signaling pathway, molecular properties, organ functions and structures, and neurogenesis, zebrafish are similar to certain other higher-order vertebrates. The 3Rs, refinement,reduction, and replacement in researchhavegradually evolved with time. The accumulation of toxicants in the environment and the human health conditions from exposure to toxicants present in the environment is a serious concern, and zebrafish serves as an excellent model to research such effects. The three Rs are met by zebrafish, larvae can also be used to discover harmful medication compounds, permitting safer compounds to be explored in model organisms and it could also be used to substitute certain toxicological testing.Also, because embryos are fertilized outside and are visible during the initial days of life, the early larval model of zebrafish enables flexibility to animal research study, subsequently reducing the number of animals employed in experiments.For various experimentation studies, the larva of the zebrafish is proved to be a useful model for the system.Thus, being a good test system, zebrafish are used in environmental health and safety studies.This review focuses on the toxicological studiesin zebrafish and outlines the toxicological studies done on zebrafish with arsenic and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as well as microplastic toxicity.</p> Kalpana Singh Satyendra Kumar Kashyap Vandana Garg Copyright (c) 2021 Kalpana Singh, Satyendra Kumar Kashyap, Vandana Garg 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 846 852 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2767 Seasonal variations of indoor aerosols (PM2.5) in urban households of Jammu (J&K), India <p>Indoor pollution is more harmful as people spend more than 90% of their time indoors getting enhanced chances of penetrating aerosols (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) deeply into the lungs. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study seasonal variations of indoor aerosols (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) in urban households of Jammu(J&amp;K). in the northern region of India. The status of indoor aerosols (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) and their seasonal variations due to temperature and humidity conditions have been studied for the first time in urban households of Jammu (J&amp;K). The two year study period (2017-2019.) revealed that all types of households of urban areas with non-wood fuel as well as wood fuel burning practices exhibited significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher values of indoor PM <sub>2.5</sub> during summer season (74.36 µg/m<sup>3</sup> and 156.46 µg/m<sup>3</sup> ) followed by winter season (62.77 µg/m<sup>3</sup> and 143.5µg/m<sup>3</sup> ) and lower values during the rainy season (58.47 µg/m<sup>3</sup> and 132.52 µg/m<sup>3</sup> ). All these values were observed to be above the CPCB prescribed annual limit of 40 µg/m<sup>3</sup>, thereby exposing the residents to diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.<sup> </sup>The data generated in the present study will act as baseline data for future studies pertaining to indoor aerosols (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) as well as suggesting mitigation measures.</p> Nishu Raj Kumar Rampal Copyright (c) 2021 Nishu , Raj Kumar Rampal 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 853 860 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2731 Critical review on arsenic: Its occurrence, contamination and remediation from water and soil <p>With the increasing pollution in today’s world, importance is being given to solve a problem and do it in a sustainable, eco-friendly manner. Arsenic is a class-1 carcinogen and also causes many other side effects to humans, plants and animals. The utilization of arsenic as wood preservatives, pesticides, or its historical overuse by some military units for rice killing operations has led to the increase in the toxic effects of arsenic like its carcinogenicity, decreased immune response etc. Although conventional methods like coagulation, lime softening, adsorption, membrane technology are effective, they have their disadvantages like additional waste generation, causing increased pollution and are expensive. The better alternative is phytoremediation. Appropriate plants like <em>Brassica juncea</em>, <em>Hydrilla verticilata</em>, <em>Pteris vittata L.,</em> <em>Vallisneria natans, </em> can be chosen based on the method of the remediation like phytoextraction, phytostabilization and phytofiltration or phytovoltalization. This review provides the list of a few plants which can be likely chosen for the purpose of both water and soil remediation. Advancements are occurring in bioremediation studies with the development of transgenic plants like transgenic tobacco, transgenic <em>Arabidopsis thaliana</em> for better phytoremediation. Understanding the mechanism employed by the plant for its uptake/detoxification can aid in the enhancement of the process of remediation with the external supply of phosphorus. Along with this, the proper and safe disposal of plants is crucial for the remediation process. In addition, awareness of this solution to the general public is to be made for its effectiveness.</p> K M Meghana D Sayantan Copyright (c) 2021 K M Meghana, D Sayantan 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 861 879 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2757 A review on the important phytochemicals and their role in psoriasis <p>Psoriasis may emerge at any stage of life irrespective of age, sex or geographic location. It is identified as a chronic immune-linked inflammatory skin disease that affects all human races. Psoriasis is often more Caucasian than non-Caucasian groups of human races and in geographic areas, like higher latitudes and Western countries. Therefore, attention should be paid to both genetic and environmental causes of psoriasis. Natural products have significantly contributed and encouraged the advances in skin disease treatment like psoriasis. The maximum number of phytochemicals is now being used worldwide, including various plants, herbs, and formulations. In addition, some phytochemicals like psoralen, aloe-emodin, curcumin etc. have also been isolated in pure form and have also shown their efficacy in the management of psoriasis. The presence of such phytochemicals confirms the effectiveness of few herbal therapies. This paper reviews some of the promising phytochemicals and their potential molecular target sites and mechanism of action, which may aid in designing and producing more precise and selective antipsoriatic agents. Exploring and recognizing phytochemicals as to how they function will facilitate more site-specific delivery methods for psoriasis care.</p> Ashish Pandey Alok Kumar Shukla Ramesh Chandra Dubey Ravi Pratap Copyright (c) 2021 Ashish Pandey, Alok Kumar Shukla, Ramesh Chandra Dubey, Ravi Pratap 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 880 896 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2717 In vitro propagation of an economically important medicinal plant Lawsonia inermis L. through nodal segments <p>The present investigation aimed to standardize efficient plant regeneration protocol through <em>in vitro</em> culture by using nodal segment for mass multiplication of <em>Lawsonia inermis</em> an economically important medicinal plant species. Mass multiplication of shoots induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different growth regulators like auxins and cytokinins separately and in different combinations. The medium fortified with 6-Benzylaminopurine ( BAP) 1.0 mg/l + kinetin<strong> (</strong>KN) 1.5mg/l explained best compared to all other combinations<em>. In vitro</em> raised plantlets were excised and transferred in half strength MS medium supplemented with different growth regulators like Indole Butyric acid ( IBA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA ) (0.5-3.0 mg/l) in an experiment that gave rise to rooting. The half strength of MS medium additive with IBA in separate and in different combinations with NAA concentrations (0.5-3.0 mg/l) supported root development. The best response of rooting was obtained on half MS medium fortified with 1.0 mg/l IBA. The regenerated plantlets were successfully transplanted to pots. Regenerants were transferred to the field conditions and recorded the survival rate.. Among all the carbon sources and gelling agents used, sucrose (3%) in combination with 0.8 per cent agar-agar has proved significantly better. Multiple shoots formation with longer shoots were achieved on medium with 1.0mg/l BAP and 1.5mg/l Kn. Thus, it is possible to develop a large number of plants of <em>L. inermis </em>through shoot bud regeneration which can cater for the need of pharmaceutical as well as other industries.</p> Amit Rajkumar Narender Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Amit, Rajkumar , Narender Singh 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 897 906 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2612 Forecast and error analysis of vegetable production in Haryana by various modeling techniques <p>Crop forecasting is a formidable challenge for every nation. The Government of India has developed a number of forecasting systems. The national and state governments need such pre-harvest forecasts for various policy decisions on storage, distribution, pricing, marketing, import-export and many more. In this paper, univariate forecasting models such as random walk, random walk with drift, moving average, simple exponential smoothing and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models are considered and analyzed for their efficiency for forecasting vegetable production in the Haryana state. The State annual data on vegetable production were divided into the training data set from 1966-67 to 2013-14 and the test data set from 2014-15 to 2018-19. Suitable models were selected on the basis of error analysis on the training data and a percent error deviation test on the test data. Model diagnostic checking was carried out on ACF and PACF in residual terms through runs above and below the median, runs up and down and Ljung-Box tests. It is inferred that ARIMA (2,1,1) was found to be optimal and that the forecast values for the years 2019-20 to 2023-24 were estimated on the basis of this model, which were 7.82,8.23,8.72,9.2 and 9.72 million tonnes for the year 2019-20 to 2023-24, respectively. The significance of the mode is that we can forecast the values using this best fit model and forecast values are very important for the policymakers and other government agencies for proper policy decision regarding food security.</p> Manoj Kumar P. K. Muhammed Jaslam Sunil Kumar Ashok Dhillon Copyright (c) 2021 Manoj Kumar, P. K. Muhammed Jaslam , Sunil Kumar, Ashok Dhillon 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 907 912 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2629 Assessment of Anwai river water quality using the weighted arithmetic water quality index (WQI) in Delta State, Nigeria <p>The weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to assess the water quality of anthropogenically-laden Anwai-river within the Asaba-capital territory of Delta State, Nigeria, in Stations 1(Otulu<strong>)</strong>, 2(Isele- asagba) and 3(Anwai-Asaba) using pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity, phosphates, nitrates, total hardness (TH) and coliforms, to determine its water quality status and its suitability for humans and aquatic biota. Aside from TDS, turbidity, and TH, other parameters such as pH (5.3-8.2), DO (2.0-2.8 mg/L), BOD (1.02-2.4 mg/L), EC (110-113 µS/cm), turbidity(2.3-5.2 NTU), TDS (8.0-16.0 mg/L), TH (30-62 mg/L), phosphates (0.13-0.28 mg/L), nitrates (0.05-0.27 mg/L) and Coliform (25.75-45.5 cfu/ml) indicated non-significant variableness (p&gt;0.05<em>) </em>between Stations. Water depth, TDS, turbidity, TH, phosphate, nitrate and total coliform were significant contributors to the Anwai-river's water quality by Principal component analysis (PCA). The first principal component (PC1) exhibited 94.1% variance and a 0.1860 loading factor, while the second showed 5.9% variance and 0.0117 loading factor implying depth, flooding, excessive human activities and sewage disposal as important contaminants. Although the individual physiochemical-based water qualities were below the WHO recommended drinking water values translated into poor water quality by the weighted arithmetic water quality index at the three Stations; 86.83, 75.02 and 81.27 in Station's 1, 2 and 3 respectively, correspondingly poor to very poor based on Water quality index. The water of Anwai-river is a serious health threat to humans and aquatic organisms and thus, it should not be utilized untreated.</p> Kate Isioma Iloba Nelson Owese Akawo Perry Irouoghene Godwin Copyright (c) 2021 Kate Isioma Iloba, Nelson Owese Akawo, Perry Irouoghene Godwin 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 913 922 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2758 Mapping of the urban tree population in gardens of Ulhasnagar, District Thane, Maharashtra using Geographic information system (GIS) <p>Urban trees today are a crucial component that defines the healthy and liveable environment of a city. A city’s database includes streets, building, footprints, overhead and underground utilities, workforce areas, pest/disease quarantine zones, parks, and pending development areas in addition to the tree database such as tree location, species, diameter at breast height (DBH), and canopy width. The present study aimed at mapping the tree population of some selected gardens and parks in Ulhasnagar using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS is an integrated system of computer hardware, software, data and trained personnel for analyzing and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. GIS-based map shows the location for each tree species found in the selected 12 gardens of Ulhasnagar. Green colour represents dense green canopy represented by the above-ground biomass, and yellow represents moderate, while red indicates scarce or limited above-ground biomass. The green colour actually represents the volume of biomass and not the density or the number of trees and shows the concentration of carbon pools in the study area. Updating data in GIS is much more cost-efficient and less time consuming than having to redraw maps manually. Urban foresters and urban planners can work together using GIS for better management of this resource. This study is one of the pioneering footsteps towards appreciative resources and thus enabling the researchers in developing an appropriate management strategy. The data will help us to analyze and interpret better and eventually conceptualize the above-ground biomass in the entire area of gardens.</p> Geetha Menon Shital Gharge Copyright (c) 2021 Geetha Menon, Shital Gharge 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 923 928 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2736 Changes in soil exchangeable nutrients across different land uses in steep slopes of Mizoram, North-east India <p>Land use change resulting from anthropogenic pressure on land has led to degraded soil quality, especially in the hilly tropical regions where ecosystems are generally fragile and susceptible to soil degradation from cultivation. Hence, sustainable land uses and management practices are crucial for agricultural production and ecological balance, particularly in these regions. The present study investigates the impact of various hill land uses (Natural forest-NAF, <em>Jhum</em> fallow-JF, Home garden-HG, <em>Acacia pennata</em> plantation-AP and Current <em>Jhum</em>-CJ) on soil exchangeable nutrients in steeply sloping agro-ecosystems of Mizoram, North-east India. Soil samples were collected from three different depths (0-10, 10-20 &amp; 20-30 cm) and analyzed for pH, P<sub>avail</sub>, Na, K, Mg, Mn and Ca. Our results indicated that land use and soil depths had a significant impact on soil pH, P<sub>avail</sub> and soil exchangeable cations (p&lt;0.05). Conversion of native forests for cultivation negatively affected soil properties as indicated by the reduced soil exchangeable cations in cultivated lands (AP &amp; CJ) in relation to the natural forest (NAF) and <em>Jhum</em> fallow (JF). Soils under longer periods of fallow (&gt;12 years) led to increases in soil available nutrients indicating the role of vegetation cover in conserving and enhancing soil available nutrients and vice-versa. In addition, Home garden (HG) showed moderately higher available soil nutrients signifying the role of sustainable management practices such as the addition of organic amendments and mixed cropping, leading to increased soil available nutrient content.</p> Etsoshan Y Ovung S. K. Tripathi Francis Q Brearley Copyright (c) 2021 Etsoshan Y Ovung, S. K. Tripathi, Francis Q Brearley 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 929 936 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2795 Mathematical modelling for solar cell, panel and array for photovoltaic system <p>Renewable energy is considered as next alternative to fossil fuels and nowadays, it attracts much attention in agriculture and environmental protection. Application of solar photovoltaic system is drying and dehydration of products, heating, irrigation, greenhouse and power generation etc. Temperature and sun radiation varies nonlinearly. Power generation varies with reference to radiation and temperature in photo-voltaic (PV) system. PV characteristic is nonlinear and PV cell is the basic unit for electricity generation. To get the characteristic response of PV, it aimed to develop a solar cell/panel model and array on a platform like MATLAB. In this research paper, step by step procedure has been defined for modelling solar cell, panel, and array models of the photovoltaic system. Kyocera solar KC-200GT 200W solar panel is used as a reference model for further modelling. The PV array characteristic are simulated for different irradiance(200W/m<sup>2</sup>,400 W/m<sup>2 </sup>,600 W/m<sup>2 ,</sup>800W/m<sup>2 </sup>,1000W/m<sup>2</sup>)and temperature variation(25°C, 35°C, 45°C, 55°C, 75°C). The output characteristic of the reference model matches with simulated results. The output reduced when the solar irradiation reduced from 1000 to 200 W/m<sup>2</sup>. As the temperature increased, the output voltage decreases, whereas the output current increases slightly. This model would be useful for investigating the effect of different parameters like series resistance, shunt resistance, thermal voltage, solar cell temperature coefficient of short circuit current etc. It would also be useful for investigating the working parameters like temperature &amp; radiation condition and different series and parallel combinations of panels. This modelling is useful in investigating the performance of solar arrays in different applications of solar power generation, as well as modelling provides a major role in the mounting of PV panels. </p> Hina N. Kadeval V. K. Patel Copyright (c) 2021 Hina N. Kadeval, V. K. Patel 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 937 943 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2529 A study on chromium accumulation in Labeo rohita in the river Yamuna ecosystem in Mathura-Agra region in Uttar Pradesh, India <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>The present study revealed the chromium toxicity and its health measures in <em>L. rohita</em> from the Yamuna river at Mathura- Agra region. Samples were taken in triplicate from both sites i.e. Vrindavan (Bihar ghat) and Agra (Renuka Ghat). The study was carried out on Four different organs (i.e. gills, muscles, liver, and kidney) of the fish sample. The sampling was done from Oct 2018 to January 2020. Chromium concentration in different organs of the fish was analyzed by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer(AAS). The average Cr concentration in gills was highest (9.64&nbsp; mg/l) at the Mathura site followed byAgra sites (7.78 mg/l) for the month of April 2019. The concentration of Cr was highest in samples taken in the month of April 2019 and it was lowest in October 2018. The significantly high Cr concentration values were observed in the Mathura region than the Agra region for both seasons. In all samples, Cr concentration was above the standards stated by WHO except in the Kidney. In the present study, the bioaccumulation factor showed the chromium concentration in the tissues followed the order of gill &gt; liver &gt; muscle &gt; kidney. HPI, MQI, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis were also done in which HPI was observed very high and there was a positive correlation between all the samples.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong>Chromium, BCF, HPI, MQI, AAS, Fish Organs</p> Jyoti Sharma Gaurav Pant Alka Singh Rashmi Tripathi Copyright (c) 2021 Jyoti Sharma, Gaurav Pant, Alka Singh, Rashmi Tripathi 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 944 953 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2600 Ground and surface water quality assessment of Palladam Taluk using Geographical Information System and Modified National Sanitation Foundation -Water Quality Index <p>In this work, the assessment of surface and ground water quality of Palladam Taluk, Tiruppur, district, Tamil Nadu, India were carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) and Modified National Sanitation Foundation -Water Quality Index (MNSF-WQI). Four samples from surface and twenty seven samples from ground water sources were taken from Palladam Taluk, Tiruppur District. In the current study, the surface and ground water samples were analysed for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD), turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), faecal coliforms (FC), total phosphate (TP), total nitrate (TN), chlorides (Cl<sup>-</sup>), sodium (Na<sup>+</sup>) and fluoride (F<sup>-</sup>) ions to investigate the suitability of surface and ground water for drinking and agricultural purposes through Geographic information system (GIS) and modified national sanitation foundation water quality index (MNSF-WQI) technique. The concentrations of TH, TDS, Cl<sup>-</sup> and Na<sup>+</sup> were observed to be above the desirable limit of World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). whereas F<sup>-</sup>, BOD, DO, EC, TP, TN, FC and temperature were within the acceptable limits. The GIS-based WQI map analysis indicated that 45% of the study area having good water quality index and the remaining area showed medium quality water. Dyeing and textile industries in the study area are responsible for deteriorating the quality to medium quality of water which was not appropriate for direct utilization and needed prior treatment. There is no detailed report on assessment of the surface and ground water quality of Palladam Taluk in Tamil Nadu using GIS and MNSF-WQI techniques.</p> R. Chitradevi P. N. Magudeswaran Vikas D. Ghadamode K. Poonkodi V. Anitha Copyright (c) 2021 R. Chitradevi , P. N. Magudeswaran, Vikas D. Ghadamode, K. Poonkodi, V. Anitha 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 954 961 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2752 In vitro anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and antioxidant potential of Cissus quadrangularis along with its orexigenic activity in Drosophila melanogaster <p>Plants with diverse pharmacological activities are actively being explored for human health. <em>Cissus quadrangularis</em> (L) has been reported to possess numerous phytochemicals and is used to relieve various disorders. This article aims at providing evidence of the diverse pharmacological activities in terms of orexigenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities of <em>C. quadrangularis</em> for further application in clinical development. The results revealed that inhibition of hemolysis was within the range of 8-9-25.6% at concentrations of 12.5-200 µg/ml. Methanol extract of <em>C. </em><em>quadrangularis</em> stems exhibited porcine pancreatic ?-amylase (PPA) inhibition (p?0.05) at concentrations of 0.25 and 0.30 mg/ml. The glucose adsorption capacity of the <em>C. </em><em>quadrangularis</em> was observed to be inversely proportional to the molar concentration of glucose. The higher food intake by <em>Drosophila</em> in food medium with plant extract is presumably related to orexigenic property of <em>C. </em><em>quadrangularis.</em> Protease activity of <em>C.</em> <em>quadrangularis </em>stem extract revealed total activity 975 U/ml and specific activity as 3768 U/mg. The absorbance of <em>C.</em> <em>quadrangularis</em> in reducing power assay were between 0.91and 1.85. Highest total antioxidant activity of 67.2 µg TE/g was observed and the hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity was observed in a dose dependent manner. The results provide supporting data that <em>C.</em> <em>quadrangularis </em>may contain active compounds useful in treating anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic disorders.</p> Sadiya Zaki Chaithra M L Sonu Bansal Latha V Monika Bajpai Malathi R Sibi G Copyright (c) 2021 Sadiya Zaki, Chaithra M L, Sonu Bansal, Latha V , Monika Bajpai , Malathi R , Sibi G 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 962 969 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2835 Aquaporins and their implications on seeds: A brief review <p>Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channel proteins. They play a key role in maintaining water balance and homeostasis in cells under stress conditions in living organisms. AQPs are pore forming transmembrane proteins that facilitate water movement and various small neutral solutes across cellular membranes. Aquaporin expression and transport functions are modulated by various phytohormones mediated signalling in plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed the role of aquaporins in regulating hydraulic conductance in plant roots and leaves. Different AQPs found in the seed system have individual functions that are more time and tissue specific, ultimately helping in the seed imbibition process to complete seed germination. Seed specific TIP3s aquaporin helps to maintain seed longevity under expressional control of ABI3 during seed maturation and heat shock proteins and late embryogenic abundant proteins. Under stress circumstances, the major significance of aquaporin expression in seeds is to maintain water influx and efflux rates, as well as protein modification, post translational alterations, nutritional acquisition and allocation, subcellular trafficking and CO<sub>2</sub> transport. The present review mainly focused on aquaporin structure, classification, role and functional activity during solute transport, reproductive organs development, plant growth development, abiotic stress response and also various roles in seeds such as seed biology, seed development and maturation, seed dormancy, seed germination and longevity.</p> G. P. Chinnasamy S. Sundareswaran K. S. Subramanian K. Raja P. R. Renganayaki S. Marimuthu Copyright (c) 2021 G. P. Chinnasamy, S. Sundareswaran, K. S. Subramanian , K. Raja , P. R. Renganayaki , S. Marimuthu 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 970 980 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2830 Assessment of tree species diversity and above-ground biomass in two disturbed tropical dry evergreen forests of Coromandel coast of India <p>The tree diversity and carbon stock of all woody plants were investigated in two-hectare square plots (100 m x 100 m) were established in Suryanpet (SP) and Velleripet (VP) which is tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) sites on the Coromandel Coast of peninsular India. All trees ? 10 cm girth at breast height measured at 1.3 m from the rooting point were enumerated. A total of 35 tree species (? 10 cm gbh) belonging to 34 genera and 23 families were recorded in tropical dry evergreen forests. Tree species richness in 27 (dominant species <em>Dimorphocalyx glabellus</em> Thw.) and 18 (dominant species <em>Strychnos nux-vomica</em>&nbsp;L.) in SP and VP respectively. A total density of woody plants 671 and 1154 individuals in SP and VP respectively. The basal area of trees in the two study sites SP (40.70 m<sup>2</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup>) and VP (45.46 m<sup>2</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup>). Most abundant families are Loganiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Rutaceae and its family index value (FIV) is 56.14, 39.12 and 21.40 respectively. The aboveground biomass (AGB) of trees totaled in site SP (405.3 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and VP (721.3 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The extent of tree species diversity and estimated carbon stock of the TDEF sites, which provides the baseline data on the floristic structure and diversity of this forest for better management and conservation.</p> Elumalai Pandian Narayanaswamy Parthasarathy Balaraman Tamil Selvan Copyright (c) 2021 Elumalai Pandian, Narayanaswamy Parthasarathy, Balaraman Tamil Selvan 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 981 992 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2832 A study on ectoparasites in Indian Mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1817) of Thiruvananthapuram coast, South India <p>Parasitic infestation in marine fish requires urgent attention, especially those that infect economically important fishes, which affect their aesthetic quality and palatability. Ectoparasites in Indian Mackerel, <em>Rastrelliger kanagurta</em> (Cuvier, 1817), have not been studied well. Morphological and seasonal study of ectoparasites in <em>R. kanagurta</em> from the Thiruvananthapuram coast was conducted during March-August 2018. The study investigated three parasitic groups: Trichodinids, Digenean cysts (<em>Centrocestus </em>Looss, 1899), and Cymothoids (<em>Norileca indica</em> Milne Edwards, 1840 and <em>Nerocila phaiopleura</em> Bleeker, 1857) from <em>R. kanagurta</em> during the present study. Of the 240 fishes examined, the Trichodinids and digeneans showed 100% prevalence on the gill samples. Seasons had no significant effect on trichodinids and digeneans prevalence. However, parasitic Cmothoids fluctuated significantly according to the season. They showed greater prevalence during the pre-monsoon (45%) and least in monsoon (25%) due to environmental parameters like rainfall, salinity, and temperature. Trichodinids parasitized gills of <em>R. kanagurta </em>showed increased mucus production, paleness in the gills, and multifocal whitish areas. The Cymothoid infested fish showed lesions with the erosion of the epidermis and underlying dermis at the site of attachment. The noticeable changes were observed in the gill epithelium due to the encystment of digeneans. The Trichodinid ciliates and Heterophyid digenean cysts (<em>Centrocestus </em>Looss, 1899) are reported for the first time in <em>R. kanagurta</em>.</p> Amrutha Shyla Suresh Suresh Balamurali Raghavan Pillai Sreekumaran Nair Arya Unni Binumon Thankachan Mangalathettu Copyright (c) 2021 Amrutha Shyla Suresh Suresh, Balamurali Raghavan Pillai Sreekumaran Nair, Arya Unni, Binumon Thankachan Mangalathettu 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 993 1002 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2833 Characterization of multi-trait plant growth promoting Pseudomonas aeruginosa from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) rhizosphere <p>In the current perusal, 12 isolates of <em>Pseudomonas</em> were segregated by rhizospheric soil of chickpea (<em>Cicer arietinum</em>) of Madhya Pradesh, India. Isolated test organisms were characterized morphologically, biochemically and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Out of 12, one isolate designated as P4 was identified as <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> through 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which revealed 100% homology with the strains DSM 50071 and NBRC 12689. The phylogenetic examination was accomplished utilizing MEGA-X to confirm the identity of isolate P4. The nucleotide hierarchy of the 16S rRNA gene from P4 isolate was submitted in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database under gene bank with accession number MT116414. The P4 isolate exhibited multiple plant growth promotion properties like phosphate solubility, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, siderophores, ammonia (NH<sub>3</sub>) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) activities, and biocontrol activities against phytopathogenic fungi <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> and <em>Macrophomina phaseolina</em>.</p> Monika Soni Kamlesh Choure Copyright (c) 2021 Monika Soni , Kamlesh Choure 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1003 1010 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2782 Analysis of deposition of heavy metal dust on the leaves of few selected tree species in Kanchipuram town, Tamil Nadu, India <p>Biomonitoring of heavy metals is one of the economic methods to identify and improve the quality of air. The aim of this work was to identify the concentration of nine heavy metals viz. Fe, Pb, Cu, Zn, Al, Cd, As, Cr and Mn in the ambient air deposited on the leaves of five tree species such as <em>Saraca asoca, Terminalia catappa, Syzygium cumini, Ficus religiosa and Pongamia glabra </em>collected from six sites such as Pallavarmedu (Site I), CSI hospital (Site II), Moongilmandapam (Site III), Collectrate (Site IV), Near Cancer Institute (Site V) and VellaGate (Site VI) of the Kanchipuram town of TamilNadu State, in the months of February - March 2019. Even with some differences in the concentration of nine heavy metals on the species, few were identified with significant correlation, suggesting that these pollutants were emitted from similar sources. The deposition of iron (235.53mg/kg) and aluminium (157.91mg/kg) were higher on the leaves of <em>S.asoca</em> compared with other species. The metals such as Cu, Cd, As, Pb and Cr were nil and not detected on the leaves, but Pb concentration was high (185.79 mg/kg) only on <em>P. glabra</em> at Site 2 and Cr (2.37 mg/kg) was found on the leaves of <em>S. asoca</em> at Site 1. The heavy metal dust deposited on the leaf surface was probably due to vehicular emission and other anthropogenic activities. The analysis showed that all the selected tree species acted as a biomonitor and should be grown that may help to improve the air quality of the area.</p> Sumathi Ramesh Sriram Gopalsamy Copyright (c) 2021 Sumathi Ramesh, Sriram Gopalsamy 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1011 1019 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2739 Physiological and biochemical responses of seedlings of six contrasting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars grown under salt-stressed conditions <p>Salinity stress affects plant growth and development and underlying metabolisms. To mitigate the effects of the stress, plants responded by changing their physiological and biochemical activities and withstand the stress. The present study aimed to determine barley's (<em>Hordeum vulgare </em>L.) physiological and biochemical response to salinity stress conditions for 7 days and 14 days. Six barley cultivars (Alfa93, DWRB73, DL88, NB1, NB3, NDB1173) were grown under controlled conditions, and different level of salinity stress was applied. In addition, seedling growth, physiological and biochemical parameters, plant leaves RWC, and electrolyte leakage were analyzed. The overall seedling growth, RWC, and electrolyte leakage in salt susceptible lines Alfa93 and DWRB73 were low than the salt-tolerant barley lines (DL88, NB1, NB3, and NDB1173). Electrolyte leakage was 26.0 and 20.6% in Alfa93 and DWRB73, whereas it was 17.6, 14.6, 15.3, and 10.4% in DL88, NB1, NB3, and NDB1173, respectively at 300 mM salinity stress. The loss of photosynthetic pigments under salt stress was high in susceptible lines, salinity treated (300 mM NaCl) Alfa93 plants exhibit 49.5% and 59.5% of Chl-a than control plants after 7 and 14 days of treatment, respectively. However, at 300 mM stress level, NB1 (ST) showed less Chl-a loss after 7 days, whereas NDB1173 showed less reduction in Chl-a after 14 days. Antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POX, CAT, and APX activities in susceptible line Alfa93 and DWRB73 were lower than tolerant lines. PCA analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between antioxidant enzyme activities and genotypes under salinity stress. PCA analysis described DL88 as the most tolerant, and DWRB73 was the most salt susceptible genotype among the studied barley genotypes. The present findings suggest that barley cultivars' physiological and biochemical activities under salinity stress conditions may be used to screen salt-tolerant crops.</p> Jitendra Kumar Sharma Monika Sihmar Anita Rani Santal Nater Pal Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Jitendra Kumar Sharma, Monika Sihmar, Anita Rani Santal, Nater Pal Singh 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1020 1031 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2863 Microbial succession and changes in carbon and nitrogen during decomposition of leaf litters of Tephrosia candida (Roxb.) DC. and Oryza sativa L. under shifting cultivation in Mizoram, northeast India <p>The present study aims to understand microbial succession and dynamics of dry matter, carbon and nitrogen during the decomposition of leaf litters of<em> Tephrosia candida </em>(Roxb.) DC. and <em>Oryza sativa </em>L. in two fallow lands (FL) of 3 years (FL-3) and 8 years (FL-8) following shifting cultivation in Mizoram. A total of 64 microorganisms were isolated from two leaf litters by serial dilution method, out of which 13 microbes were identified as decomposers as they exhibited a positive response towards the enzyme activity. Among these 13 microorganisms, 4 (SKT 02, SKT 05, SKT 09 and SKT 020) were bacteria (<em>Streptobacillus sp. and Bacillus sp.</em>), 5 (SKT 033, SKT 034, SKT 035, SKT 040 and SKT045) were fungi (<em>Microsporum sp., Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus sp.</em>) and 4 (SKT 030, SKT 052, SKT 053 and SKT 060) were actinomycetes (<em>Streptomycetes sp.</em>). <em>T. candida </em>leaf litter possessed low initial Carbon/Nitrogen (8.77) and Lignin/Nitrogen ratio (2.29) and considered a high-quality resource exhibiting higher decomposition rate. Mass loss of carbon and nitrogen (~ 40-80%) was maximum during the initial two months, which slowed down in the later period of decomposition. It was concluded that the number of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes regulate organic matter and nutrient dynamics in the soil through various enzymatic actions on high- and low-quality litters. The combination of <em>O. sativa</em> and <em>T. candida</em> litter is recommended to manage soil fertility in shifting cultivation of Mizoram,Northeast India.</p> Shrayosee Ghosh Shri Kant Tripathi Copyright (c) 2021 Shrayosee Ghosh, Shri Kant Tripathi 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1032 1040 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2855 Standardized method to extract phenolic compounds from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (Jarul) for enhanced antioxidant activity <p>Phenolic compounds contribute to the antioxidant property of plants and the efficient extraction of plant phenolics could enhance its antioxidant potential. <em>Lagerstroemia speciosa</em> (L.) Pers. has been investigated for its pharmacological activities, but comparing its antioxidant activities of phenolics derived from its various parts has a key role in developing natural antioxidants. This study was conducted to standardize the extraction of phenolics from leaves, pods and branches of <em>L. speciosa</em> plant, followed by determination of antioxidant activities of their solvent fractions. Phenolic compounds were extracted from the leaves, pods and branches under different parameters such as temperature, pH, type of solvent and volume of the solvent. The extracted phenolic compounds were subjected to solvent fractions and antioxidant assays were performed. Among the various extraction methods tested, the best method was 50% ethanol +1% HCl, refluxing temperature, 100 ml of solvent and 1 hour extraction time. The best solvent fractions were determined as NaHCO<sub>3</sub> + ethyl acetate for pods and ethyl acetate alone for leaves and branches with extracted phenolics content of 150.2 mg/g, 136.2 mg/g and 82.9 mg/g, respectively. The chloroform fraction was best among the fractions with maximum ascorbic acid equivalent (ASE) in all the parts of <em>L. speciosa </em>tested. Ferrous ion chelating capacity indicated that butanol fraction had the highest chelation and the same was recorded in ferric ion chelating assay with an EC50 value of 28.2. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the fractions indicated that NaHCO<sub>3</sub> + EtOAc fraction of pods had potential activity. Thus, the phenolic compounds from <em>L. speciosa</em> are excellent sources for future investigation on potent natural antioxidant compounds.</p> Monika Bajpai Madhusudan S Sibi G Copyright (c) 2021 Monika Bajpai , Madhusudan S , Sibi G 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1041 1047 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2870 First record of Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) (Octopodidae) in the Iraqi coastal waters, NW Arabian Gulf <p>The present study identifies one species of the genus Octopus in the order: Octopoda (Cephalopoda: Mollusca), recorded for<br />the first time in the Iraqi coastal waters and Arabian-Persian Gulf. The study extended from January 2019 to December of the<br />same year. The Octopus specimens were seasonally obtained from the fishing trawlers operating in the Iraqi coastal waters in<br />the South of Al- Fao District, Basrah- Iraq, NW Arabian Gulf. The Octopus was identified as O. vulgaris in Iraqi coastal waters<br />depending on morphological features. The habitats of living specimens are briefly described. Some observations were reported on the occurrence of this species and the measurement of some environmental factors. The species was identified up to spe-<br />cies level using standard literature. This species looks similar morphologically to the species which is already identified from the other areas around the world. The present study records significant expansion in the distribution range of this species.</p> Anwar M.J. Al-Maliky Khaled Kh. Al-Khafaji Tariq H. Al-Maliky Copyright (c) 2021 Anwar M.J. Al-Maliky, Khaled Kh. Al-Khafaji, Tariq H. Al-Maliky 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1048 1051 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2815 Enhancement of agronomic traits and yield of rice var. ADT 43 grown in typic ustifluvent soil through silicon fertilization <p>Rice is a rich accumulator of silicon and its supply is essential for the growth and economic yield of rice. Hence, a field experiment was conducted in sandy clay loam soil belonging to Padugai series (Typic ustifluvent) at farmers holding in Kuttalam block, Mayiladuthurai district, Tamil Nadu to assess the role of silicon in improving agronomic characters and yield of rice ADT 43, <em>Oryza sativa</em>. The treatments included T<sub>1 </sub>- Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), T<sub>2 </sub>- RDF + Potassium silicate (FS) - 0.25%, T<sub>3</sub>- RDF + FS - 0.50%, T<sub>4 </sub>- RDF +FS - 1.00%, T<sub>5­ </sub>-RDF + FS - 0.25%, T<sub>6 </sub>- RDF + FS - 0.50%, T<sub>7­ </sub>- RDF + FS - 1.00%, T<sub>8 </sub>- RDF + SA - 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, T<sub>9 </sub>- RDF + SA - 100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and T<sub>10 </sub>- RDF + SA- 150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. From T<sub>2</sub> to T<sub>4,</sub> the foliar spray was done at tillering stage and from T<sub>5 to </sub>T<sub>7</sub>, the foliar spray was done at tillering and panicle initiation stage. The silicon was applied through FS with the rice crop. The soil application of silicon relatively recorded higher growth and yield compared to foliar application. Besides improving different agronomic characters of the rice, the soil application of 50 kg Si ha<sup>-1</sup> registered the highest grain yield (6183.3 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and straw yield (6740 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and was comparable with a single foliar spray of 1% Si. Growth and rice yield increased with Si concentration of 0.25% to 1%. Thus, the soil application of silicon @50 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>through potassium silicate is advocated to realize maximum rice yield.</p> Arthi V M. V. Sriramachandrasekharan R. Manivannan Arumugam Shakila Copyright (c) 2021 Arthi V , M. V. Sriramachandrasekharan, R. Manivannan , Arumugam Shakila 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1052 1058 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2803 Deep Convolutional neural network (CNN) in tea leaf chlorophyll estimation: A new direction of modern tea farming in Assam, India <p>This study presents the uprising of leaf chlorophyll estimation from traditional mechanical method to machine learning-based method. Earlier chlorophyll estimation techniques such as Spectrophotometer and Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) meter demand cost, time, labour, skill, and expertise. A small-scale tea farmer may not afford these devices. The present study reports a low-cost digital method to predict the tea leaf chlorophyll using 1-D Convolutional Neural Network (1-D CNN). After capturing the tea leaf images using a digital camera in a natural light condition, a total of 12 different colour features were extracted from tea leaf images. A SPAD was used to estimate the original chlorophyll value of the tea leaves. The paper shows the correlation of original tea leaf chlorophyll with the extracted colour features of the tea leaf images. Apart from 1-D CNN, the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) were also applied to predict the tea leaf chlorophyll and compared their results with the 1-D CNN. The 1-D CNN model outperformed with an accuracy of 81.1%, Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 3.01, and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 4.18. The investigation system is very simple and cost-effective. It can be used in tea farming as a digital SPAD for faster and accurate leaf chlorophyll estimation in an easy way.</p> Utpal Barman Copyright (c) 2021 Utpal Barman 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1059 1064 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2892 Inductive cum targeted yield model based Integrated fertilizer prescriptions for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under drip fertigation on an alfisol <p>Soil test crop response (STCR) correlation studies under Integrated Plant Nutrition System were conducted in the western agro-climatic zone of Tamil Nadu during 2020-2021 to devise the fertilizer prescription equations for tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicum </em>L.) under drip fertigation on an alfisol. The equations were derived by following Ramamoorthy’s Inductive cum targeted yield model. The nutrient requirement of N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>and K<sub>2</sub>O for producing one quintal of tomato fruit was found to be 0.22, 0.11, 0.27 kg respectively. The per cent contribution of nutrients were 37.93, 46.73 and 29.53 of N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>and K<sub>2</sub>O from soil (Cs) and 47.84, 31.12 and 74.13 of N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>and K<sub>2</sub>O from fertilizers (Cf) respectively. Two organic sources were applied viz., FYM (Farm Yard Manure) and Biocompost and the per cent contribution of nutrients from FYM were 38.36, 13.22 and 52.17 of N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>and K<sub>2</sub>O and from biocompost were 43.34, 10.90 and 57.00 of N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>and K<sub>2</sub>O respectively. Fertilizer adjustment equations were formulated for STCR-NPK alone, STCR-IPNS (FYM) and STCR-IPNS (Biocompost) by applying the basic parameters such as NR, Cs, Cf, Cfym, Cbiocompost. A ready reckoner of fertilizer doses for a set of soil test values at yield targets 80 and 90 t ha<sup>-1</sup> was computed. The findings also showed that the adoption of STCR-IPNS could save more fertilizers.</p> A. Agila R. Santhi S. Maragatham R. Swarna priya Copyright (c) 2021 A. Agila, R. Santhi, S. Maragatham, R. Swarna priya 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1065 1071 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2883 Performance of imputation-based models in predicting breeding population trend of a near-threatened bird in changing water regime: A 36-year long-term case study of Painted Stork, Mycteria leucocephala <p>The breeding population of birds are dynamic and are affected by multiple factors including climate and local environmental conditions. However, often to understand such relations requires long-term data modelling. Such long-term population data is either lacking or has data gaps. This study demonstrates the use of Multiple Imputation Chained Equation (MICE) to overcome the problem of missing data population census. This is also the first comprehensive study, modelling the 36-year (1980-2015) long-term breeding population data of a near-threatened bird, Painted Stork, from Keoladeo National Park, India. It tests the effect of local water availability, i.e., water released to the park, and regional rainfall, i.e, climatic condition, on the breeding population using Generalised Additive Model (GAM). Both imputation and observed data series-based GAM models identified the local water availability as the most important factor influencing the breeding population of Painted Stork. More than 80% population decline was observed, despite a slight increase in the rainfall at regional scale, suggesting local hydrological conditions are limiting to the breeding population and not the climate. According to the visual assessment of partial plot of GAM, minimum 200-300 million cubic feet of water is needed each nesting season to ensure sustenance of breeding population. Post-1989, the breeding population was unable to match the long-term mean (~726) except in 1992, 1995, and 1996. The maximum decline was observed between 2000-2009, a decade of frequent droughts. The breeding population was stable until the end of this study, but it was far below the long term mean.</p> Rajneesh Dwevedi Vishal Deo Janmejay Sethy Renuka Gupta Mahendiran Mylswamy Copyright (c) 2021 Rajneesh Dwevedi, Vishal Deo, Janmejay Sethy, Renuka Gupta, Mahendiran Mylswamy 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1072 1082 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2876 Therapeutic effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds extract against arsenic induced toxicity in Charles Foster rats <p>The prime objective of the present study was to establish fenugreek (<em>Trigonella foenum-graecum </em>L.) seeds extract as an antidote against arsenic induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats. The male Charles Foster rats (weighing 160-180 g) were selected to make arsenic intoxicated model. The arsenic treated group of rats were orally treated with sodium arsenite at the dose of 8 mg/kg body weight/day for 90 days. Thereafter, the arsenic pretreated rats were further administered with fenugreek ethanolic seeds extract at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight/day for 90 days. After the completion of the treatment, animals of all the groups were sacrificed for the biochemical and histopathological estimation. The arsenic treated rats showed significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.0001) alterations at the various hepatic and renal biomarker parameters and at serum MDA levels in comparison to the control rats. Significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.0001) arsenic accumulation was also observed in the blood, liver and kidney tissues of the arsenic treated rats. However, after the administration with fenugreek seeds extract, significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.0001) restoration was observed in the liver and kidney biomarker parameters and at haematological variables. Fenugreek seeds extract administration also significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.0001) reduced the serum MDA levels and arsenic concentration levels in blood, liver and kidney tissues, along with considerable restorations at the cellular architecture of liver and kidney tissues. The study concluded that fenugreek seeds possessed potential hepato-renal ameliorative effect against sodium arsenite induced toxicity in rats, and can be used for its therapeutic value against arsenic poisoning.</p> Vikas Kumar Vivek Akhouri Sushil Kumar Singh Arun Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Vikas Kumar, Vivek Akhouri, Sushil Kumar Singh, Arun Kumar 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1083 1093 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2899 Development of soil test crop response based fertilizer prescriptions through integrated plant nutrition system for aggregatum onion (Allium cepa L.) under drip fertigation <p>An insight into the balanced crop nutrition and efficient irrigation will be rewarding to attain profitable bulb yield of shallow-rooted and high nutrient requiring aggregatum onion. To develop fertilizer prescription equations(FPEs) for aggregatum onion under drip fertigation by encompassing the Soil Test Crop Response approach (STCR), a field experiment was conducted in Palaviduthi soil series with 15 treatments viz., Absolute control (T<sub>1</sub>), Blanket recommendation (60:60:30) + Farm Yard Manure (FYM) @ 12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>(T<sub>2</sub>), STCR based NPK fertilizer recommendation (STCR-NPK) for the targeted yield of 14 (T<sub>3</sub>),15 (T<sub>4</sub>),16 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>(T<sub>5</sub>), FYM @ 6.25 (T<sub>6</sub>), 12.5 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>(T<sub>7</sub>), STCR–NPK+FYM @ 12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> for the targeted yield of 14 (T<sub>8</sub>),15 (T<sub>9</sub>),16 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>(T<sub>10</sub>), Biocompost @ 2.5 (T<sub>11</sub>), 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (T<sub>12</sub>) and STCR–NPK+Biocompost @ 5 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>for the targeted yield of 14 (T<sub>13</sub>),15 (T<sub>14</sub>),16 t ha<sup>-1</sup> (T<sub>15</sub>). The results revealed that T<sub>10</sub> was more supercilious than others. The basic parameters were deliberated from the experimental data on total nutrient uptake, initial soil fertility status, applied fertilizer doses. The aggregatum onion (variety CO 4) required 0.43, 0.32, 0.45 Kg of N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, K<sub>2</sub>O to produce one quintal of bulb yield. The percent contribution of nutrients from soil and fertilizer was 14.01, 54.57 for N, 35.11,50.50 for P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> and 12.69, 70.12 for K<sub>2</sub>O, respectively. The contribution of N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, K<sub>2</sub>O from FYM and biocompost were 41.02, 16.23, 41.53 and 47.98, 15.87, 49.56 percent sequentially. Based on the above parameters, the fertilizer prescription equations were formulated for aggregatum onion under drip fertigation in Palaviduthi soil series.</p> M. Parvathi Sugumari S. Maragatham R. Santhi R. Swarna Priya Copyright (c) 2021 M. Parvathi Sugumari, S. Maragatham, R. Santhi, R. Swarna Priya 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1094 1101 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2907 Validation of phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and characterization of green synthesized iron nanoparticles: A comparison <p>Research on green synthesis in nanotechnology is a forthcoming field in the modern material science area. Potentiality utilization of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an area of vast research that makes them a suitable candidate for expanding highly innovative technologies. This study evaluated the effect of the drying method for leaves of the plant, <em>Azadirachta indica</em> on phytochemicals characteristics of extracts, bioactivity attributes and characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs) accommodating varied keen compounds. Synthesis of iron (Fe) nanoparticles was done using the green bottom-up method, in which aqueous extract of <em>A. indica</em> leaves acted as an extremely promising reducing and stabilizing agent. Various characterization techniques such as EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis), FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy), FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), UV-VIS spectroscopy, XRD <strong>(</strong>X-Ray Diffraction<strong>) </strong>crystallography, Zeta potential and sizer confirmed the fabrication of iron nanoparticles. The quantification results established that oven-dried leaves extract had a higher total phenolic content (108.23 mg GAE/g) and free radical scavenging capacity (250.165 mg GAE/g) than air-dried leaves extract. Characterization results endorsed that air-dried leaves extract acted as an advanced reducing agent that can swap the time consuming and perilous chemical synthesis of nanoparticles for a scalable formulation. The clear, intense XRD peaks revealed the crystalline nature of NPs, EDX results confirmed the purity of samples and finally, FT-IR analysis exhibited the presence of phytomolecules along with Fe NPs in final product obtained.</p> Tamanna Kumari Vineeta Shukla Copyright (c) 2021 Tamanna Kumari, Vineeta Shukla 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1102 1110 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2894 Effect of seaweed extract on rice (Oryza sativa var. ADT53) productivity and soil fertility in Cauvery delta zone of Tamil Nadu, India <p>The monocropping of rice in the Deltaic zone deteriorates soil health and crop productivity. Seaweeds are marine resources easily available at negligible cost and also rich in bioactive compounds. A field experiment was conducted at Cauvery Delta zone of Tamil Nadu during summer season2021 to evaluate the bio-efficacy of Seaweed extract on growth, yield, and soil properties of rice, <em>Oryza sativa</em> var. ADT53. The experiment was framed in RBD comprising of 12 treatments viz., soil application of Seaweed extract(SWE) @ 12.5kg/ha,25kg/ha, 37.5kg/ha , foliar spraying of SWE gel &amp; liquid @ 0.5% twice at tillering and panicle initiation stages, a combination of soil application and foliar spray and fertilizer alone. Experimental findings revealed that the soil application of SWE @ 12.5kg/ha along with a foliar spray of seaweed liquid recorded higher plant height (121.1cm),dry matter production (11390kg/ha),yield attributes <em>viz</em>., number of grains per panicle (166), panicle length (21.8 cm), thousand grain weight (14.7g), number of productive tillers per m<sup>2</sup> (275), grain yield (5612 kg/ha)and straw yield (7829 kg/ha). However, The soil application of SWE @ 25kg/ha recorded higher soil available nutrients <em>viz</em>.,N(260 kg/ha);P(42kg/ha); K(170kg/ha);Ca(27.7meq/100g); Mg(5.5meq/100g);S(18.2mg/kg);Zn (1.17ppm); Fe (33.82ppm); Cu(1.61ppm);Mn(18.97ppm)<strong>.</strong>The study will help sustain rice productivity and soil fertility in the deltaic zone of Tamil Nadu. The soil application of seaweed extract @ 12.5kg/ha along with foliar spraying (0.5% twice) could be a promising option in the rice ecosystem.</p> P. Deepana K. Sathiya Bama P. Santhy T. Sivasankari Devi Copyright (c) 2021 P. Deepana, K. Sathiya Bama, P. Santhy, T. Sivasankari Devi 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1111 1120 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2906 Growth and physiological potential of Terminalia arjuna under elevated CO2 levels in Open top chamber condition <p><em>Terminalia arjuna</em> is native to India and occurs naturally along the banks of streams and rivers. The species is characterized to dry deciduous forests. The present study was carried out for the growth and physiological changes of <em>T. arjuna</em> in different elevated CO<sub>2</sub> levels. Open top chambers were used to expose plants to ambient and elevated CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations (400 and 800 ppm). The experiment was conducted in the month of March to August in 2019 for six months. The results showed that the growth parameters, i.e. plant height, collar diameter, the number of leaves, were found to be increased in elevated CO<sub>2</sub> conditions. The percentage increase in physiological parameters like photosynthetic rate (28.82), mesophyll efficiency (60 % more in elevated CO<sub>2</sub> condition), CO<sub>2 </sub>concentration (55 % more in elevated CO<sub>2</sub>), vapour pressure deficit (4.83 at 800 ppm) and water use efficiency (5.94 at ppm) increased. In contrast, transpiration rate (5.38 at 800 ppm and 10.11 ppm at ambient condition) and stomatal conductance (30% less in 800 ppm) decreased under elevated CO<sub>2</sub> compared to ambient conditions. The study concluded that changing climatic conditions and significantly elevated CO<sub>2</sub> in future may profoundly influence plant growth and the physiological response of <em>T. arjuna</em>.</p> Kamla Dhyani Hind Bhushan Kuniyal Hukum Singh Sobha Copyright (c) 2021 Kamla Dhyani, Hind Bhushan Kuniyal, Hukum Singh, Sobha 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1121 1126 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2490 A karyotype study in two fish species belonging to Genus Neolissochilus found in Meghalaya, India <p>The karyomorphological study of two species of Mahseer belonging to the genus <em>Neolissochilus,</em> namely <em>Neolissochilus hexagonolepis</em> and <em>N. hexastichus</em> were carried out. The study revealed the basic chromosome number in both the Masheer species was observed to be 100. However, the karyotype formula number varied among the species. <em>N. hexagonolepis </em>had a diploid chromosome number of 42 metacentric (m), 20 submetacentric (sm), 8 subtelocentric (st) and 30 telocentric (t) and <em>N. hexastichus </em>had a karyotypic formula of 32 metacentric (m), 22 submetacentric (sm), 4 subtelocentric (st) and 42 telocentric (t). This finding removed taxonomic confusion due to the differences in the chromosome number, the morphology of the chromosomes and chromosome formula between the two fish species of the genus and helped in distinctive and unblemished identification of the two species belonging to the genus <em>Neolissochilus</em> from Meghalaya, though they have a morphological similarity.</p> Raffealla Nongrum Rabindra Nath Bhuyan Copyright (c) 2021 Raffealla Nongrum, Rabindra Nath Bhuyan 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1127 1134 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2764 Relationship between macrobenthos and abiotic characteristics of river Alaknanda in a stretch from Chamoli to Devprayag in Garhwal Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India <p>Macrobenthos is the best water quality indicator for ecosystem health assessment. The present study aimed to examine the interrelationship between macrobenthos and different water quality parameters of the river Alaknanda at Garhwal Himalaya. Four demarcated sampling zones viz. zone-A (Chamoli to Nandprayag), zone-B (Karanprayag to Rudraprayag), zone-C (Rudraprayag to Srinagar) and zone-D (Srinagar to Devprayag) were taken from its approximately 170 km long stretch during 2016-2018. River water characteristics were analyzed for the important parameters viz. substratum, water temperature (WT), water velocity, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) using standard methods. The results indicated that the river water velocity was the highest 1.02 m/s at zone-C, TDS of 114.19 mgl<sup>-1</sup> was <br />maximum at zone-A ; and Ca and Mg were recorded highest 23.17 mgl<sup>-1</sup> and 5.44 mgl<sup>-1</sup> at zone-A and zone-B, respectively. All <br />abiotic parameters (pH, EC, TDS, DO, Ca and Mg) were recorded to be below BIS/WHO limits. A total of 27 macrobenthos taxa belonging to the five orders such as Coleoptera (6 ind./m<sup>2</sup>), Diptera (5 ind./m<sup>2</sup>), Ephemeroptera (8 ind./m<sup>2</sup>), Hemiptera (4 ind./m<sup>2</sup>), and Odonata (4 ind./m<sup>2</sup>) were recorded. Macrobenthos represented an important relationship between the water current and water temperature. The lowest number was reported at zone-C due to the river's high water velocity (1.02 m/s). The changes like biota loss, presence of some pollution indicator species (<em>Cloeon sp., Bateis sp., Emphemera sp.</em>) at zone-C, in sediment structure of habitat were due to the anthropogenic activities on the riverbank of different zones. The study will help in the conservation of macrobenthos diversity of the river Alaknanda. </p> Garima Tomar D. S. Malik C. K. Jain Copyright (c) 2021 Garima Tomar, D. S. Malik , C. K. Jain 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1135 1142 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2721 Assessment of roof water harvesting potential of Navsari city of Gujarat State, India by Remote sensing and Geographic information system (GIS) <p>Due to the water scarcity scenario in many parts of the Navsari city, Gujarat State in India, it is imperative to adopt cost-effective technologies that could harvest rainwater for satisfying drinking water requirements. The study was conducted with the aim of assessing the rainwater harvesting potential of Navsari city using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS). The built-up areas of Navsari that could harness rainwater were identified by remote sensing and GIS. The effective built-up area contributing to rainwater harvesting was found to be 3.37 km<sup>2</sup>. The classification was carried out using “Remap” to assess the extent of the built-up area. The city was divided into equal grids and classification of each grid was implemented. The ground truth data was used for the evaluation of the built-up area. The roof water harvesting potential was estimated considering the average annual rainfall of 1621 mm and adopting suitable runoff coefficients. The rainwater harvesting potential of roofs for rainfall of different probabilities was estimated. For return periods of 10 years, 25 years, 50 years and 100 years, the roof water harvesting potentials were estimated to be 0.226, 0.261, 0.287 and 0.312 Million Cubic Metres (MCM), respectively. The estimated average roof water harvesting potential of Navsari city was 164 million litres per year, capable of satisfying the drinking water demand of approximately 1.12 lakh people annually. The rainwater harnessed from the rooftop could augment the current water supply and immensely help in fulfilling the drinking water demand of Navsari.</p> D. K. Dwivedi P. K. Shrivastava Copyright (c) 2021 D. K. Dwivedi, P. K. Shrivastava 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 13 3 1143 1150 10.31018/jans.v13i3.2798