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Thank you for your understanding.</span></span></span></span></div> <hr /> <div style="text-align: center;"><strong><span style="font-family: arial,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: large;"><span style="line-height: 1.5; background-color: transparent;">Applied and Natural Science Foundation is </span>a registered not-for-profit organization</span></span></strong></div> <hr /> en-US <p>This work is licensed under&nbsp;<a href=""><strong>Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</strong></a>&nbsp;<strong>© </strong>Author (s)</p> (Editorial Secretary) (Editorial Secretary) Sun, 19 Jun 2022 16:31:05 +0000 OJS 60 Alpha amylase and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory potential of aqueous extract of Azanza garckeana fruit <p>Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are common diseases affecting a lot of people. Alpha amylase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are used to treat type II diabetes and hypertension respectively. This study investigated the alpha amylase and ACE inhibitory potential of <em>Azanza garckeana </em>fruits. Phytochemical screening, α-amylase and ACE inhibitory potential of the aqueous extract of <em>A. garckeana </em>fruit was determined using standard procedures. The mode of inhibition of α-amylase by <em>A. garckeana </em>fruit was determined from the Lineweaver-Burk plot. Alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, steroids, tannins, phenols and terpenoids were present in the aqueous extract of <em>A. garkeana </em>fruit. The percent inhibition of α-amylase was greater than 50%. The IC<sub>50</sub> values were 2.6 ± 0.02 and 0.04 ± 0.09 for the extract and acarbose (standard drug) respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plot showed that extract Vmax did not change when compared to the no inhibitor (no extract) but the km increased. The percent inhibition of ACE by <em>A. garckeana</em> was also greater than 50%. Its IC<sub>50</sub> was 0.625 ± 0.03 while that of the standard drug (captopril) was 0.875 ± 0.07. Thus <em>A. garckeana </em>inhibited α-amylase and ACE and can be used to treat type II diabetes and hypertension. It is a competitive inhibitor of α-amylase.</p> Maryam Usman Ahmed, Martha Ignatus, Benjamin Yakubu, Isaac John Umaru, Zuhairah Ismail Muhammad, Bilyaminu Habibu, Chikodiri Emmanuel Okoli, Dawoye Yusufu Copyright (c) 2022 Maryam Usman Ahmed, Martha Ignatus, Benjamin Yakubu, Isaac John Umaru, Zuhairah Ismail Muhammad, Bilyaminu Habibu, Chikodiri Emmanuel Okoli, Dawoye Yusufu Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Dogielius kaelensis n. sp. (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae), a gill parasite of Garra annandalei Hora, 1921 (Cyprinidae, Labeoninae) in Arunachal Pradesh, India <p>Parasite biodiversity of fish in Arunachal Pradesh of northeast India is still unexplored. We describe here a new species of&nbsp;<em>Dogielius</em>&nbsp;(Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from the gill filaments of <em>Garra annandalei</em>(Cyprinidae), collected from the River Kael, Arunachal Pradesh.&nbsp;<em>Dogielius kaelensis</em> n. sp. is distinguished from its congeners by two key features: (i) a robust ventral bar with a medial part twisted forward, and ii) an accessory piece with a ring to help guide the copulatory tube. This is only the second time a member of the genus <em>Dogielius</em> has been found parasitizing a <em>Garra</em> species.</p> Dobiam Narba, Chawan Matey, Amit Tripathi Copyright (c) 2022 Dobiam Narba, Chawan Matey, Amit Tripathi Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment and impact of alien species - Mimosa invisa L. on the biodiversity and pattern of vegetation at Dhoni hills, Western Ghats of Palakkad, Kerala-A case study <p><em>Mimosa invisa</em> is a widely adapted weed from tropical America that has invaded the Dhoni hills of Palakkad District, Kerala. They were established as monocultures in grasslands, agricultural fields, plantations and forest areas of Palakkad, causing threats to other species. In this juncture, the present study was conducted to evaluate the impact <em>of Mimosa invisa</em> on the natural biodiversity and floristic compositions of native species of Dhoni hills, Palakkad. Vegetation analysis was carried out using random-systematic design and gradient methods, including the importance value index, species richness, dominance index, diversity, similarity and dissimilarity index, using standard protocols, followed by soil parameters such as pH and nutrient content and phenols in the invaded and uninvaded areas. It was noticed that in the <em>Mimosa </em>invaded area, the mean species number and the α diversity declined by 32.10% and 41.21%, respectively. Similarly, fresh and dry plant weight displayed remarkable variation (decreased by 35.9 and 49.9%, respectively) in the intruded zones. Out of 135 species recorded, 63 species were common in the control and intruded zones. Eleven species were growing exclusively in the invaded areas. The total phenolic content was 45%, the ion conductivity was 32%, the % of organic carbon and organic matter was 51%, the nitrogen content was 55.7%, and the phosphorus, potassium and sodium contents were 48, 38.5 and 24.4%, respectively, in the invaded soil compared to the control. Similarly, the calcium, magnesium and chloride contents were increased by 38.4, 30.6 and 33.5% respectively. Hence, it could be concluded that the invasion of <em>M. invisa</em> drastically affected the productivity and diversity of the invaded areas in the Dhoni hills of Palakkad.</p> Remya Krishnan, Bosco Lawarence, K. Murugan Copyright (c) 2022 Remya Krishnan, Bosco Lawarence, K. Murugan Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Phytoremedial effect of Asparagus racemosus on sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in Charles Foster rats <p>Arsenic poisoning has recently resulted in significant health problems in the exposed population. In India, the Indo-Gangetic plains are the region where the arsenic threat has increased. In Bihar, it is estimated that 10 million people are exposed to arsenic poisoning. The present study aims to develop a novel drug as an antidote against arsenic-induced toxicity in rats. In the present study, arsenic in sodium arsenite at a dose of 8 mg/kg body weight per day was induced (Group-II) in Charles Foster rats at 2 or 6 months to observe chronic exposure. In the arsenic pretreated group (Group-III), <em>Asparagus racemosus </em>was administered at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight per day for 8 weeks. Normal control group (Group I) was taken without any treatment. After completion of the entire experiment, the animals were sacrificed, and their blood samples were obtained for hematological and biochemical evaluation. At the same time, vital tissues, such as the liver and kidney, were fixed in preservatives for the histopathological study. The study showed that the hematological levels, such as RBC, WBC, platelet counts and hemoglobin percentage, were significantly restored by administering <em>A. racemosus</em> (Group-III), against the arsenic-exposed group. Furthermore, biochemical parameters such as SGPT, SGOT, ALP, bilirubin, urea, uric acid and creatinine were significantly recovered (p&lt;0.05) against arsenic-induced toxicity. The histopathological study also showed remarkable restoration in hepatocytes and nephrocytes by <em>A. racemosus</em> against arsenic-induced toxicity. Therefore, it can be concluded from the entire study that <em>A. racemosus</em> has a significant antidote effect against arsenic-induced toxicity.</p> <p> </p> Sandhya Kumari, Santwana Rani, Arun Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Sandhya Kumari, Santwana Rani, Arun Kumar Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, formulation, evaluation of insecticidal activity of chromen derivatives against cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their mode of action under laboratory conditions <p>The toxicity of benzothiazole derivatives obtained from 2-cyanomethyl benzothiazole against cotton leafworm <em>Spodoptera littoralis</em> 2<sup>nd</sup> and 4<sup>th</sup> instar larvae has been documented. The main objective of this research was to formulate two previously reported chromen derivatives and test their biological activity against cotton leafworm <em>S. littoralis</em> 2<sup>nd</sup> and 4<sup>th</sup> instar larvae under laboratory conditions. According to the standard method, two chromen derivatives with two distinct substituents (salicylaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde) were synthesized. Their physical and chemical properties were evaluated, and both were formulated as 10 and 9.5 percent dustable powder formulations. Both formulae were then evaluated in the laboratory on cotton leafworm <em>S. littoralis</em> 2<sup>nd</sup> and 4<sup>th</sup> instar larvae for mortality and developmental effect percentage. Formulation (F<sub>2</sub>) was more efficient than formulation (F<sub>3</sub>) in both cases and for both stages. Furthermore, when comparing the developmental effects on the 2<sup>nd</sup> and 4<sup>th</sup> instar larvae, the 4<sup>th</sup> instar larvae demonstrated marked tolerance. Both stages were unable to complete their life cycle. Histopathological analysis of samples from the affected stages was performed to assess the mode of action of these formulations on 4<sup>th</sup> instar larvae at their LC<sub>50 </sub>values. Experimental data showed that Formulation (F<sub>3</sub>) resulted in epidermal cells separated from the cuticular layer, necrosis, ruptured columnar cells with pyknotic nuclei, disrupted basement membrane, and weak epicuticle necrosis and separation. In comparison, formulation (F<sub>2</sub>) revealed a midgut with vacuoles, damaged columnar, muscle cell necrosis, and a ruined peritrophic matrix. Thus, the cotton leafworm <em>S. littoralis</em> could be combated with the newly prepared formulations (F<sub>2</sub>) and (F<sub>3</sub>).</p> Saad E.S. Hamouda, Amal A. AbdAllah, Reda A. El-Sharkawy Copyright (c) 2022 Saad E.S. Hamouda, Amal A. AbdAllah, Reda A. El-Sharkawy Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Modulation of A375 human melanoma cell proliferation and apoptosis by nitric oxide <p>The present study aimed to assess the effect of NO<sup>•</sup> on melanoma A375 cell growth and apoptotic cell death. Trypan blue exclusion assay was employed to detect the cytotoxicity induced by controlled steady-state concentrations (given in µM • min) of NO<sup>•</sup>. The characteristics of the cellular cell cycle and apoptosis in NO<sup>•</sup>-treated A375 cells were also analyzed by Annexin V/PI and DNA fragmentation assays. Western blotting was applied to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (p53, Bax, Fas, DR5, caspase-3 and -9, and PARP). When exposed to preformed 100% NO<sup>•</sup> for 8 h reactor system, a cumulative dose of 3360 μM • min reduced the viability by 22% 24 h after treatment and promoted apoptosis, 2.9- and 12.2-folds 24 and 48 h after treatment higher than the argon control, respectively. Cell cycle analysis 48 h after treatment revealed S-phase arrest in cells treated with 3360 μM • min NO<sup>•</sup>. It was also observed that the expression of p53, DR5, caspase 9 and PARP increased significantly upon NO<sup>•</sup> treatment. In addition, the present study assessed the inhibitory effects of endogenous NO<sup>•</sup> on the proliferation of human melanoma cells by employing specific (AMG, 1400W and/or SMTC) and nonspecific (NMA) NO<sup>•</sup> synthase (NOS) inhibitors resulting in melanoma cell growth inhibition; the highest cytotoxic effect was seen when inducible NOS inhibition by 1 mM 1400W treatment. Collectively, the present data suggest that NO<sup>• </sup>is involved in a key mechanism limiting melanoma proliferation and apoptosis, which may play in improving the efficacy of melanoma treatment.</p> Jung Hyun Kim, Seo Hyun Moon, Min Young Kim Copyright (c) 2022 Jung Hyun Kim, Seo Hyun Moon, Min Young Kim Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of blanching and guar gum pretreatments on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of cabinet-dried white bitter gourd Momordica charantia L. <p>Currently, the global food industry is experiencing a shift in consumer preference towards natural sources of antioxidants derived from edible fruits and vegetables. In view of this, white skinned bitter gourd with bioactive properties has great potential. Additionally, guar gum has the characteristic ability to form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules, thereby reducing shrinkage during dehydration. Thus, the present investigation was carried out to study the influence of blanching and guar gum pretreatment on the retention of the total phenolic content (TPC) stability and antioxidant activity (AA) of white <em>Momordica charantia </em>L. when cabinet dried at 60±5 °C. The results are indicative of a significant (P values of &lt; 0.05) impact of using guar gum along with blanching before dehydration of white <em>Momordica charantia</em>. The findings obtained clearly show the positive impact of guar gum on the stability and retention of TPC (Folin Ciocalteau) and AA (percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH scavenging activity) in the dried product in comparison to the untreated control. Water Blanching + 1% Guar gum (T<sub>5</sub>) and 2%Salt Blanching + 0.2% Potassium meta bisulphite + 1%Sodium carbonate + 1% Guar gum (T<sub>16</sub>) showed higher AA [20.29% (T<sub>5</sub>) and 40.13% (T<sub>16</sub>)] and TPC [30.8 (T<sub>5</sub>) and 39.5 (T<sub>16</sub>) GAE per 100 g of dried weight (DW)]. Therefore, the application of guar gum as a pretreatment with blanching turns out to be beneficial for higher retention of TPC and AA, thereby maintaining product quality as a whole.</p> Sonali Vatsyayan, Ravinder Raina, Mukesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Sonali Vatsyayan, Ravinder Raina, Mukesh Kumar Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A comparative study of regional climate trends in the Keoladeo and Bhitarkanika wetlands, India <p>The climate trend is one of the most dominant factors likely to affect the structure and function of the wetlands of Keoladeo and Bhitarkanika. This study compares the climate conditions and trends of two Ramsar sites in India, the Bhitarkanika and Keoladeo wetlands. Forty-year climate data (1980-2020) were used to identify and measure the strength of possible climate change in these habitats. Mann-Kendall’s test, Sen’s slope estimates and Sequential Mann-Kendall’s (SQMK) test were used to study the long-term and short-term trends of rainfall and climate of Bhitarkanika and Keoladeo. The results of this study matched those of earlier studies conducted at a larger geographical scale. The study indicated significant changes in the parameters of rainfall and temperature trends. A significant increase in annual rainfall (Sen’s slope = 5.24E+00, New <em>p</em> value = 2.75E-02) was observed at Bhitarkanika, while the trend at Keoladeo was positive but insignificant. Both ecosystems are getting warmer. Seasonal changes were also identified in the rainfall and temperature. The summer temperature rise was comparatively stronger at Keoladeo (T<sub>max</sub>: Sen’s slope=2.33E-02, New <em>p</em> value=2.45E-02; T<sub>min</sub>: Sen’s slope=2.68E-02, New <em>p</em> value=1.39E-02). An increase in monsoon temperature was also recorded in both ecosystems. Both wetland ecosystems are vulnerable to climate change, but the Keoladeo wetland is at higher risk because stronger temperature changes have occurred in the past four decades. The SQMK test also suggests a more erratic climate in the Keoladeo wetlands. The study highlights the comparative changes occurring in both ecosystems. This is the first study identifying both long-term and short-term changes in these wetlands at a smaller geographical scale.</p> Rajneesh Dwevedi, Renuka Gupta, Janmejay Sethy Copyright (c) 2022 Rajneesh Dwevedi, Renuka Gupta, Janmejay Sethy Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of extraction solvents on antioxidant and skin-whitening potentials of defatted Camellia seed cakes <p>Defatted <em>Camellia japonica </em>L. seed cake is an important byproduct during the manufacture of <em>Camellia</em> seed oil. The present study evaluated the influence of two extraction solvents on the total contents of phenol and <a href="">flavonoid</a>, antioxidant activity and skin-whitening effect capable of inhibiting the biosynthesis of melanin of defatted Camellia seed cakes, a byproduct from Camellia oil production. The antioxidant capacities of 100% methanol and 70% ethanol extracts were analysed using radical scavenging (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, O<sub>2</sub>-, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and NOž), SOD-like, ferrous ion chelating and reducing power assays. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were further determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Moreover, intracellular antityrosinase activity and melanin contents were evaluated in human malignant melanoma cells (SK mel-100). Ethanol extracts of defatted Camellia seed cake extracts exhibited higher phenolic (4097 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g) and flavonoid (2899 mg rutin equivalents/100 g) contents with higher superoxide (IC50 = 1.9 mg/mL), nitric oxide (IC50 =1.6 mg/mL) radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating (IC50 = 2.9 mg/mL) and reducing power (IC50 = 1.8 mg/mL) activities than those of methanol. These ethanol extracts also evidenced more effective inhibitory activities of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis than methanol extracts. Therefore, the present results demonstrated that defatted Camellia seed cakes could be a valuable source of antioxidative and whitening ingredients, and ethanol was more efficient in extracting antioxidants and bioactive compounds than methanol.</p> Jung Hyun Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Min Young Kim Copyright (c) 2022 Jung Hyun Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Min Young Kim Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Farmers' perceptions of climate change and its impact on gum Talha (Acacia seyal var. seyal) production in Bahar Alarab locality, East Darfur State, Sudan <p><em>Acacia seyal var. s</em>eyal is an essential source of income to farmers in the <em>Bahar Alarab</em> locality in Sudan. Farmers’ perceptions of current climate conditions and their subsequent repercussions on Gum Talha (<em>Acacia seyal var. s</em>eyal) production remains poorly investigated and understood. To fill this gap, a survey was carried out within six villages at <em>Bahar Alarab</em> locality in East Darfur State, Sudan, and a total of 391 randomly selected farmers were included in the study. Moreover, rainfall and temperature data over 30 years (1988 – 2020) were analysed. The results revealed that climate change signs were perceived by farmers based on the size of gum production (27.4%), early falling of leaves (26.1%), decline in production (24.3%), and persistent insect attack (22.3%). Moreover, farmers also reported increases (65%) and decreases (19%) in temperature. In contrast, 46.5% of farmers reported that rainfall deficiency was a decreasing factor of production. Accordingly, 69% of respondents perceived an increase in temperature, whereas 49.4% reported a decrease in rainfall frequency. Additionally, the results showed that there was long-term variability in temperature over the past three decades. The results of multinomial logistic regression highlighted that household size is an important factor contributing to the increasing trend of temperature. In addition, the growth and productivity of acacia trees were found to be determinants of farmers’ perception of temperature and precipitation change over the past 30 years. The study suggests a tailored policy that could reduce climate-induced impacts on gum Talha productivity and increase farmers’ gain to avoid poverty in this locality.</p> Ahmed Younis Ibrahim Younis, N. J. Bello, Adeniyi Olumuyiwa Togun, Gammer-eldien Abdelrhman Ibrahim Hamad, Samoura Demba Aïssata, Siraj Osman Omer, Mustafa Abdalla Nasrealdin Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmed Younis Ibrahim Younis, N. J. Bello, Adeniyi Olumuyiwa Togun, Gammer-eldien Abdelrhman Ibrahim Hamad, Samoura Demba Aïssata, Siraj Osman Omer, Mustafa Abdalla Nasrealdin Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Biometrics analysis of the stem fibers of some local Algerian plant species <p>Studying the biometric characteristics of the stems of plant species has been of great interest to researchers in the wood and paper industry. The use of plant fibers has been widespread in the fields of composites, buildings, insulation, plastics and automobiles. The present study aimed to investigate the biometric characteristics of the stem fibers of local Algerian plant species, viz. Group 1 (<em>Lygeum spartum</em> and <em>Stipa tenacissima</em>), Group 2 (<em>Linum usitatissimum</em> in the greenhouse and <em>Linum usitatissimum </em>in natural conditions), Group 3 (<em>Retama monosperma</em> and <em>Retama raetam</em>) and Group 4 (<em>Phoenix dactylifera</em> and <em>Ricinus communis</em>). The extraction process was carried out using 1 M NaOH at 60 °C for 48 hours, and the fiber length was calculated for all the species using a micrometer. The fiber length of stems of all the species ranged from 0.36 to 5.18 mm. Then, the difference between each of the two species was approximated using Student's test. The results obtained showed that the t value ranged from 0.50 to 1.79 for Groups 4 and 1, respectively. There was no significant difference between them. These results suggest that these species are promising raw materials for paper production due to their adequate fibre length.</p> Hassiba Bokhari, Aicha Bouhafsoun, Nassima Draou, Chahra Rouba , Siham Mansouri, Abderezzak Djabeur Copyright (c) 2022 Hassiba Bokhari, Aicha Bouhafsoun, Nassima Draou, Chahra Rouba , Siham Mansouri, Abderezzak Djabeur Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of early spontaneous abortions (ESA) and latent toxoplasmosis on Interleukine-23 in women <p>Cytokines play an important role in intercellular communications, cell growth, differentiation, and immune system modulations. Some of these functions have crucial roles in pregnancy gaining or losing, especially those correlated with T helper 1, T helper 2, and T helper 17 cells. Several studies showed significant variations in Interleukine-23 (IL-23) with Toxoplasma infection. However, little is known about the regulations of this interleukin in the case of early spontaneous abortion (ESA) patients. The present study aimed to evaluate IL-23 to explain the effect of this cytokine on pregnancy gaining or losing with and without toxoplasma infections. Eighty-nine subjects were registered in the current study,16 Toxoplasma infected ESA women, 41 unknown ESA aborted women, 16 healthy pregnant women, and 16 healthy non-pregnant women served as control negative. Detections of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IL-23 by immunoenzymatic assay (IFA and ELISA, respectively). A significant difference (P = &gt; 0.05) was found in all subjected groups except between Toxoplasmosis ESA and unknown EAS women. The data showed a substantial increase in sera IL-23 in unknown ESA with mean and standard deviation (SD) (13.679±2.461) and Toxoplasma infected women with mean and SD (14.279±4.757) as compared with non-Pregnant women having mean and SD (5.824±1.040) and healthy pregnant women with mean and SD (17.273±6.418). Therefore, this considerable evidence may indicate a role of IL-23 in the development of pregnancy gaining or losing, especially those ESA women. </p> Rasha Kadhim Mahdi , Eman Fadhel Abbas, Alaa Tareq Shakir al-hassnawi Copyright (c) 2022 Eman Fadhel Abbas, Rasha Kadhim Mahdi , Alaa Tareq Shakir al-hassnawi Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Genotypic differences in plant growth responses and ion accumulations to salt stress conditions of sweet gourd (Cucurbita moschata) <p>The sweet gourd (<em>Cucurbita moschata </em>Duch ex Poir) is a rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially high carotenoids. Due to climate change and intensive water use, soil salinization is increasing day by day. Salt stress decreases the growth and quality of many crops. Thus, the objective of the present study was to monitor the growth and ion accumulation of fourteen sweet gourd inbred. The study was conducted in 2018 with 14 sweet gourd inbreds (P<sub>1</sub>, P<sub>2</sub>, P<sub>3</sub>, P<sub>4</sub>, P<sub>5</sub>, P<sub>6</sub>, P<sub>7</sub>, P<sub>8</sub>, P<sub>9</sub>, P<sub>10</sub>, P<sub>11</sub>, P<sub>12</sub>, P<sub>13</sub> and P<sub>14</sub>) and to identify superior genotypes. Electrical conductivity (EC) based salt was applied at 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS/m NaCl salinity levels for all inbred. Tap water was used as a control. Treatments were imposed at the four to five-leaf stage. Salt stress resulted in significantly decreased growth and essential ion in sweet gourd inbred. Vine length (P<sub>11</sub>=164.9 to149.5cm, control to 16 dS/m), the number of leaves (P11=31 to 24.33, control to 16 dS/m), internode length (P<sub>12</sub>=9.67 to 9.83cm, control to 16 dS/m), stem girth (16.38 to 15.87mm, control to 16 dS/m) and K<sup>+</sup> ion accumulations were decreased (P<sub>6</sub>=2.09 to 1.44, control to 16 dS/m) compared to the control. But Na<sup>+ </sup>ion was increased (P<sub>13</sub>=0.17 to 1.25, control to 16 dS/m) in all inbred under salt conditions. Sweet gourd inbred showed wide variation in their response to salt tolerance. However, six sweet gourd inbred (P<sub>6</sub>, P<sub>8</sub>, P<sub>9</sub>, P<sub>11</sub>, P<sub>12</sub> and P<sub>14</sub>) were found as promising as salt-tolerant in respect of growth and ion accumulation. These selected promising salt-tolerant sweet gourd genotypes will be used for breeding programmes to develop high yielding varieties for better production in the near future in saline areas of Bangladesh.</p> Rahima Khatoon, Md. Mokter Hossain, M.A. Rahim, Md. Habibur Rahman, Limu Akter Copyright (c) 2022 Rahima Khatoon, Md. Mokter Hossain, M.A. Rahim, Md. Habibur Rahman, Limu Akter Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Fixing critical limits of boron in rice soils of Karaikal region, Puducherry union territory, India <p>Boron is relatively immobile in plants and its deficiency can cause serious yield reduction in rice by retarding panicle formation. Karaiakal region of Puduchuerry union terittory includes different soils with varying fertility status thus supplying boron at optimum level is a must concern to enhance the rice productivity.A pot experiment was conducted to fix critical limits of boron in soils and rice of this Karaikal region. Forty surface soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from Inceptisol, Entisol and Vertisol soil orders of different locations in Karaikal region. The experiment was conducted with three levels of boron viz., 0, 1 and 2 ppm applied through borax in a factorial completely randomized design with three replications. The available B content of soil was estimated with five extractants. The critical limits of hot water, hot 0.01 M CaCl<sub>2,</sub> 0.05 M HCl, 1.0 M NH<sub>4</sub>OAc, 0.01M CaCl<sub>2</sub>+ 0.05 M Mannitol extractable B were found to be 0.50, 0.58, 0.46, 0.45 and 0.39 ppm in Inceptisol, 0.48, 0.59, 0.44, 0.39 and 0.48 ppm in Entisol and 0.45, 0.54, 0.45, 0.44 and 0.41ppm in Vertisol and a critical limit of 31.0, 39.0 and 34.0 ppm B in rice plant for Inceptisol(0.5ppm), Entisol(0.48 ppm) and Vertisol(0.45 ppm) as determined by Cate and Nelson’s graphical procedure. Among the extractants the hot water extractant showed the highest significant and positive correlation with Bray’s percent yield(0.48,0.47and 0.48), plant B content(0.041*, 0.019* and 0.271*) and B uptake(0.012*, 0.646* and 0.293*), respectively in Inceptisol, Entisol and Vertisol. From this study, the indicating knowledge of critical limit of boron will help to avoid yield loss of rice in the study region.</p> Kowsalya A., M. V. Sriramachandrasekharan, P. Senthilvalavan Copyright (c) 2022 Kowsalya A., M. V. Sriramachandrasekharan, P. Senthilvalavan Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Documentation of gill net operation and major fish landings at Andaman Islands, India, during 2014 - 2018 <p>Three decades before, the gillnet was the major gear in Andaman and Nicobar Islands(ANI), India, because of the less expensive and simple method of operation with non-motorised small dinghies or without craft. Earlier, the gillnet landing was 39% of the total landings and a further report said 27%, which indicated the decrease in gillnet landings. The present study was carried out from 2014 to 2018 at four main fish landing centers (FLCs) Junglighat, Dignabad, Guptapara and Wandoor of ANI to investigate the present status of major gillnet landings. Altogether 1097 visits were carried out at all FLCs and 63.1% of visits occurred at Junglighat. The total landings of all FLCs were 3880.6 tons, of which 98.6% were recorded at Junglighat. The total gillnet landings were 330.4tons, of which Driftnet covered 82.1%, followed by bottom plastic(9.8%) and bottom nylon(8%) gillnets. Significant landings (<em>P</em>&lt;0.0001) of Scombridae family were recorded through Drift gillnet (182.47tons) compared to other families. The family of Carangidae(7.71tons) and Clupeidae(16.54tons) were recorded dominantly through bottom plastic and bottom nylon gillnets, respectively. The gillnetters explored 31 fishing grounds in the South, Middle, North and Little Andamans sectors. The significant (<em>P</em>&lt;0.0001) fish catch was recorded from the South Andaman sector. A total of 17 validation experiments carried out in each Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ) and Non-PFZ by using PFZ advisories indicated a significant(<em>P</em>&lt;0.0001) catch from PFZ(3.5:1). There was a decline of 18.5% in the landings of gillnet than earlier studies. It is suggested that the fishermen may follow the PFZ forecast for a better catch. The gillnet fishing to be promoted to under-exploited pelagic fishes of these islands will benefit the gillnetters.</p> M. Kaliyamoorthy, S. Dam Roy Roy, V. K. Sahu Copyright (c) 2022 M. Kaliyamoorthy, S. Dam Roy Roy, V. K. Sahu Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Adsorption potential of Euphorbia Hirta’s (leaf and bark) towards methyl red in aqueous systems <p>Dyes harm both aquatic species and humans in wastewaters, which are poisonous as well as carcinogenic. For decades, the adsorption system technique has been widely used to take out dyes from aqueous solutions since it is a trouble-free and successful process. The present study investigated the use of <em>Euphorbia hirta</em>’s leaf powder/bark powder/leaf ash/bark ash for the adsorption of methyl red dye (MRD) from aqueous samples for the first time. MRD aqueous solutions (250 ml, 100 ppm) were incubated for the required contact period with 1.2 gm/l of investigated sorbent with agitation at 100 rpm. The temperature and pH remained maintained at 27 degrees Celsius and 4.0, respectively. The residual amounts of MRD were evaluated by spectrophotometrically measuring MRD absorbance at 464.9 nm. The percent MRD clearance using <em>E. hirta</em>’s leaf powder/bark powder/leaf ash/bark ash showed that the optimal condition of MRD clearance happened at pH unit of 4, 100 ppm concentration of MRD, sorbent dose at 1.2 gm/l, ambient temperature, mechanical shaker agitation speed of 100 rpm. The optimal equilibration time for highest percentile MRD clearance was 125 min (<em>E. hirta</em> leaf powder), 105 min (<em>E. hirta</em> leaf ash powder and <em>E. hirta</em> bark powder) and 90 min (<em>E. hirta</em> bark ash powder). Negatively charged chemical groups like –COOH, -CHO, -NH, etc. present in the phytochemicals of <em>E. hirta</em>’s leaf and stem binds to positively charged ions in MRD, as a result, adsorption occurs. For its significant biosorption potential and cheap cost, <em>E. hirta</em>’s leaf powder/bark powder/leaf ash/bark ash can be regarded as alternative biomass for removing MRD from the aqueous solution.</p> Venkata Kishore Babu Chukka, Venkata Ramana Kokkiligadda, Swamy AVVS, Hari Babu Bollikolla Copyright (c) 2022 Venkata Kishore Babu Chukka, Venkata Ramana Kokkiligadda, Swamy AVVS, Hari Babu Bollikolla Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of endophytic bacteria from Algerian prickly pear roots on wheat under drought stress <p>Cactus are among the most drought tolerant plants. As Opuntia is able to grow under the stress of drought, this study aims to check if endophytic bacteria isolated from cactus roots have beneficial potential for crops such as wheat during drought. Two endophytic bacterial isolates were isolated from the roots of the cactus and screened for their plant growth promoting characteristics, such as N-free growth and auxin production. These bacteria have demonstrated their potential to promote the growth of durum wheat under <em>in-vitro</em> conditions and have been identified as <em>Pseudomonas putida</em> and <em>P.brassicacearum</em>, following the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and phylogenetic analysis, and significantly improved growth parameters such as seeding length compared to the unobstructed control. After 05 days of contact of the two bacteria, <em>P.putida</em> and <em>P.brassicacearum</em>, with sprouted wheat seeds, a root growth rate of (39.88% and 62.14%, respectively) was recorded. The same effect on the growth of wheat roots is caused by the volatile substances of these bacteria deposited separately, with a rate of (53.30% and 24.18%) respectively. Symptoms of drought stress were visibly reduced on seedlings inoculated with <em>P.putida</em> and <em>P.brassicacearum</em> bacteria, a result supported by a growth rate of root parameters in length (260.83% and 179.60%), surface (21.98% and 60.17%) and scope (59.46% and 62.67%), respectively. This work opens up many perspectives for the characterization and selection of endophyte bacteria of under-used drought-tolerant species such as cacti for the improvement of the growth of field crops. These results promote the deployment of <em>Pseudomonas sp</em> as an effective biofertilizer in wheat.</p> Nassima  DRAOU, Samia GHARBI, Nawel SELAMI, Hassiba BOKHARI, Hakima KEBAILI Copyright (c) 2022 Nassima  DRAOU, Samia GHARBI, Nawel SELAMI, Hassiba BOKHARI, Hakima KEBAILI Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular detection of mexXY-oprM, mexPQ-opmE Efflux pumps in multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in patients referred to teaching hospitals in Babylon province, Iraq <p>One of the global health issues is antibiotic resistance in <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, a causative agent of bacterial infections due to multidrug resistance (MDR), which may be mediated by efflux pumps' overexpression.The present study investigated the prevalence of <em>mexXY-oprM, mexPQ-opmE</em> genes as encoding agents of efflux pumps and the determination of antibiotic resistance rate in clinical isolates of <em>P. aeruginosa.</em>Different clinical specimens of infectious patients, such as wounds, urine, blood, discharge, and abscesses except for stool, were examined. Identification of the isolates was performed using <em>Pseudomonas chromogenic</em> agar. A selective medium for the isolation of <em>P. aeruginosa</em>, used to screen 79 isolates. The results were validated by <em>Polymerase chain reaction</em> (PCR) utilizing particular primer pairs for the 16S rDNA gene of Pseudomonas spp. for identification of the isolates after incubation at 37°C for 24 hours. According to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (2021) recommendations, a microbial susceptibility test was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. <em>P. aeruginosa</em> was extremely resistant to ceftazidime (93.6%) and cefepime (77.2 %). In contrast, imipenem (77.2%) and meropenem (67%) showed high sensitivity. Finally, <em>mexXY-oprM, mexPQ-opmE</em> genes were investigated by PCR technique. Molecular investigation revealed <em>mexX</em> 43%, <em>mexY</em> 51.89%, <em>oprM</em> 48<strong>.</strong>1%, <em>mexP</em> 36.70% <em>mexQ</em> 46.83% and <em>opmE</em> 51.89%. The present study concluded that <em>mexXY-oprM and mexPQ-opmE</em> may have a role in <em>P. aeruginosa</em> resistance to various antibiotics. Identifying resistant isolates and antibiotic monitoring programs is essential to prevent the spread of MDR isolates.</p> Afrah Jawad Abd Al Zwaid, Hussein Oleiwi Muttaleb Al-Dahmoshi Copyright (c) 2022 Afrah Jawad Abd Al Zwaid, Hussein Oleiwi Muttaleb Al-Dahmoshi Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 and interleukin-12 serum level as indicator to severity between COVID-19 patients <p>The Coronavirus, one of the most rapidly spreading respiratory viruses, caused a worldwide epidemic that killed about six million people. This led to the fast development of several vaccines and drugs to reduce disease severity and speed patient recovery. This study aimed to identify the serum levels of each of the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 and interleukin-12 .The severity of infection in coronavirus COVID-19 patients was compared to immune levels of these cytokines and receptors in the different cases of COVID-19 patients. This case-control study included 90 blood samples from COVID-19 patients with ages between 15-80 years. Results revealed that the serum levels of both angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 ( ACE-2) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) were measured in COVID-19 patients and the results were compared using an independent T-test, it was found that their levels for interleukin-12 revealed a significant difference (P ≤0.05) in the serum levels of severe cases when compared with non-severe cases. There was an increase in the serum level of IL-12 in severe cases was 33.340 ng/L, in the serum level and in non-severe cases was 20.913 ng/L. ( P ≤0.000), and for angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 this study revealed a significant difference in ACE-2 serum levels in severe cases (P ≤0.05) when compared with the non-severe cases of patients with COVID 19. The serum level of ACE-2 in severe cases was 11.023 ng/ml, and in non-severe cases, it was 5.443ng/ml ( P ≤0.000). It was concluded that the emerging coronavirus works to create an immune storm represented by raising the serum levels of both ACE-2 and IL-12 that contribute to the damage to the alveoli in severely COV-19 patients. </p> <p> </p> Huda Khadim Hasan, Noor Salman Khadim Al-Khafaji Copyright (c) 2022 Huda Khadim Hasan, Noor Salman Khadim Al-Khafaji Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Modelling of wetting patterns for surface drip irrigation in dense clay soil <p>The proportion of agricultural water consumption is continuously decreasing due to increased competition for water resources by urban, industrial, and agricultural users. Drip irrigation is more efficient in terms of water and energy utilization. These considerations are critical in view of the ongoing struggle for water resources among various consumers due to water scarcity. Some of the most critical criteria in the effective design and maintenance of drip irrigation systems are the shape and size of the volume of wet soil beneath the emitter. Hence several statistical models were constructed in this research to estimate the dimensions of wetting patterns, which are critical for designing an optimal drip irrigation system. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (CC), and root mean square error (RMSE) criteria were used to assess the models' performance. The results showed that the Polynomial model was the most accurate for horizontal advance, with 0.94, 0.93, and 1.33 (cm) values for CC, NSE, and RMSE, respectively. For vertical advance, the logarithmic model showed 0.96, 0.96, and 0.72 (cm) values for CC, NSE, and RMSE. Thus, in the absence of a wetting pattern and under identical conditions, these models can be utilized to generate synthetic horizontal and vertical advances data.</p> <p> </p> Vidya K N, K. Nagarajan, Balaji Kannan, S. P. Ramanathan, M.R. Duraisamy Copyright (c) 2022 Vidya K N, K. Nagarajan, Balaji Kannan, S. P. Ramanathan, M.R. Duraisamy Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Climate nutrient management for various sources and levels of fertilizers on soil nutrients, growth and yield of maize (Zea mays l.) in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India <p>Global climate change is expected to soil processes and properties, which are important for restoring soil fertility and low productivity. The field experiment was conducted at Research Farm, Agricultural College, and Research Institute, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, during <em>Kharif </em>season 2021 to study of various sources and fertilizers' levels to influence under deficit and excess water conditions on soil fertility, growth, and yield of maize (<em>Zea</em> <em>mays)</em>. The study revealed that excess and deficit water condition in moisture regime irrigations at Irrigation water / Cumulative Pan Evaporation (IW/CPE) ratio of 1.0 along with nutrient management practices (N<sub>8</sub>) 125 % Soil Test Crop Response (STCR) - NPK soil application by 1 % foliar spray of micronutrient mixture. Significantly higher of mean values available nitrogen (225 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), available phosphorous (20.81 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), available potassium (351 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), dry matter production (DMP) (16,404 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), plant height (250 cm) and yield (9,030 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and was comparable with IW/CPE ratio of 0.8, 0.6 along with others nutrient management practices at 100 % and 75 % STCR - NPK followed by foliar sprays 2 % NPK (19:19:19) and Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM) 1 %. Hence, under a normal water availability situation, irrigation at an IW/CPE ratio of 0.8 was good enough to produce a higher yield, while under deficit and excess water conditions IW/CPE ratio of 1.0 along with125 % STCR-NPK by foliar spray of micronutrient mixture of 1 % was suitable for obtaining optimum nutrient management for enhancing soil fertility, growth and yield of maize.</p> A. Senthilkumar, B. Bhakiyathu saliha , P. Saravana pandian, R. Thamizh vendan , A. Gurusamy Copyright (c) 2022 A. Senthilkumar, B. Bhakiyathu saliha , P. Saravana pandian, R. Thamizh vendan , A. Gurusamy Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Titanium dioxide electrospun nanofibers for dye removal- A review <p>Due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, water demand has increased worldwide. The availability of potable water is becoming more difficult in the global scenario. Hazardous pollution disposal by the industries to the nearest stream and search for the facile environmentally friendly technologies capable of treating these pollutants become more challenging. Effluent disposal consisting of the dyes without proper pre-treatment adversely affects the aquatic life and ecological system as they are carcinogenic and highly toxic. Dyes in the water are becoming a significant problem in the current scenario and attracted many researchers to research the current topic. Even though the conventional treatment options are available for treating polluted water, still they are not enough for the demand and supply. Thus, new state-of-the-art technologies are required to meet the demand and supply. Titanium dioxide nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning techniques have proven to be new nanomaterials gaining prominence in science. Several researchers are using these fibres by fabricating them into a thin film for pollutant removal and water treatment. They are gaining much importance as they perform best in treating water containing both organic and inorganic loads. The present review provides insights into the background and the origin of the electrospun nanofibers and preparation mechanisms. Further, we identified 25 widely used titanium dioxide electrospun nanofibers with various combinations in removing the dyes from the aqueous medium.</p> Madhavi Konni, Bhavya Kavitha Dwarapureddi, Swathi Dash, Aman Raj, Manoj Kumar Karnena Copyright (c) 2022 Madhavi Konni, Bhavya Kavitha Dwarapureddi, Swathi Dash, Aman Raj, Manoj Kumar Karnena Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Sensory attributes, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and color values of jam and candy developed from Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) <p>Beetroot is a root vegetable with abundant bioactive compounds like phenols, flavonoids and betalains that give the beetroot a characteristic colour. The present study was conducted to develop preserved functional foods from fresh beetroot and analyze sensory attributes, physico-chemical properties, nutritional parameters, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and color values. Total soluble solids and acidity contents of raw beetroot, beetroot jam and candy was found to be 10.72° Brix and 0.06 %, 69.03 °Brix and 0.72 % and 69.43° Brix and 0.12 %, respectively. The TSS content of jam and candy was found to be 55.77±0.09 and 66.50±0.19, respectively. Total phenols, flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant activity of jam and candy were found to be 82.58 and 98.94 mg GAE/100g, 47.85 and 45.51 mg QE/100 g, 267.73 and 357 mg/100g and 35.43 and 42.13 %, respectively. The L* value indicating the lightness of a product decreased for beetroot jam as opposed to L* value of beetroot candy, which increased compared to raw beetroot. The a* value revealing the redness of jam increased whereas redness of candy decreased compared to raw beetroot. The present study indicated that; beetroot could be used for the preparation of jam and candy with good sensorial quality, which has a high market potential.</p> Sehajveer Kaur, Navjot Kaur, Poonam Aggarwal , Kiran Grover Copyright (c) 2022 Sehajveer Kaur, Navjot Kaur, Poonam Aggarwal , Kiran Grover Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mathematical modeling on the transmission of COVID-19 and its reproduction numbers in SAARC countries <p>In the middle of December 2019, a virus known as coronavirus (COVID-19) generated by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARC-CoV-2) was first detected in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. As of the 9th of March, 2022, spread to over 212 countries, causing 429 million confirmed cases and 6 million people to lose their lives worldwide. In developing countries like the South Asian area, alarming dynamic variations in the pattern of confirmed cases and death tolls were displayed. During epidemics, accurate assessment of the characteristics that characterize infectious disease transmission is critical for optimizing control actions, planning, and adapting public health interventions. The reproductive number, or the typical number of secondary cases caused by an infected individual, can be employed to determine transmissibility. Several statistical and mathematical techniques have been presented to calculate across the duration of an epidemic. A technique is provided for calculating epidemic reproduction numbers. It is a MATLAB version of the EpiEstim package's R function estimate R, version 2.2-3. in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries. The three methodologies supported are 'parametric SI,' 'non-parametric SI,' and 'uncertain SI.' The present study indicated that the highest reproduction number was 12.123 and 11.861 on 5th and 14th March 2020 in India and Sri_Lanka, whereas the lowest reproduction number was the lowest was 0.300 and 0.315 in Sri_Lanka and India. The Maximum and minimum reproductive number of Bangladesh was 3.752 and 0.725. In this study, we have tried to point out the worst, best and current situation of SAARC countries.</p> Mohammed Nizam Uddin, Sofi Mahmud Parvez, H. M. Shahadat Ali, Muhammad Samsuddin, A.N.M. Rezaul Karim Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammed Nizam Uddin, Sofi Mahmud Parvez, H. M. Shahadat Ali, Muhammad Samsuddin, A.N.M. Rezaul Karim Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of biochemical and physiological tolerance mechanism of the multipurpose paradise tree (Simarouba amara Aubl.) under zinc and copper stress <p><em>Simarouba amara </em>Aubl., commonly known as paradise tree, is a multipurpose, evergreen, poly-gamodioecious, and oil yielding tree. The plant is famous for its seeds containing 55-65% oil, a potent source of biodiesel production and is being utilized in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and other industries. The study aimed to evaluate the physiological and biochemical changes that occur in <em>S. amara</em> seedlings under heavy metals stress. Two-month-old <em>S. amara</em> seedlings were exposed to different concentrations of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) (Zn and Cu: 10 mg Kg<sup>-1</sup>, 50 mg Kg<sup>-1</sup>, 100 mg Kg<sup>-1</sup>, 200 mg Kg<sup>-1</sup>). The study indicated that both the heavy metals resulted in a significant decrease in leaf relative water content (LRWC), photosynthetic pigments and an increase in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels. Regarding lipid peroxidation, Cu proved to be more toxic to seedlings compared to Zn. However, in terms of LRWC and photosynthetic pigments, Zn showed higher toxic effects than Cu. Proline and cysteine content increased by 234% and 270%, respectively, due to Zn stress and 117% and 102%, respectively, due to Cu stress at 200 mg Kg<sup>-1</sup>. Among antioxidant enzymes, a maximum increase in glutathione reductase (GR) activity was observed (600% due to Cu stress and 320% due to Zn stress) at 200 mg Kg<sup>-1</sup>. At the same concentration, a minimum increase was seen in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity (60% under Cu stress) and catalase (CAT) activity (69% under Zn stress). The present study revealed that <em>S. amara</em> has a better antioxidant defensive mechanism against oxidative stress and can be used for its large scale cultivation on wastelands.</p> Jatin Kumar, Amit K. Das, Jyoti Rani, Piyush Kumar Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Jatin Kumar, Amit K. Das, Jyoti Rani, Piyush Kumar Gupta Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Approaches of material selection, alignment and methods of fabrication for natural fiber polymer composites: A review <p>The recent superiority of the composite materials is cautiously focusing on environmental adoption of natural fiber composites. The major source of the natural fiber materials covered in the globe, especially natural fibers, is plant-based, animal-based and mineral-based. Eco friendly based material can save the environment and recycling of the material is possible, as well as important criteria. Hence engineers ultimately focused on natural fiber polymer matrix materials to save the environment, pollution control, plastic manipulation, etc. The literature work was studied to identify natural fiber material possession. The major goal of the present review was to identify material characterization and appropriate application, mainly offering to enhance mechanical properties, flexural strength, electrical properties, thermal properties etc. The major consequence of the natural fiber is hydrophilic treatment. There is poor interfacial adhesion between the addition/filling substances and poor mechanical characteristics. All of these shortcomings constitute a critical issue. This review presents numerous sorts of natural and synthetic polymers, natural fibres such as jute, ramie, banana, pineapple leaf fibre, and kenaf, etc.; short and long fibre loading methods, fibre fillers in micro and nanoparticle, American society of testing and materials (ASTM) standard plate dimensions, fabrication methods such as hand lay-up process, spray lay-up process, vacuumed-bag, continuous pultrusion, and pulforming process, etc.; industries and home appliances such as automotive parts, building construction, sports kits, domestic goods, and electronic devices. The review lists various material combinations, fibre loading, fillers, and matrix that can aid in the improvement of material properties and the reduction of failures during mechanical testing of composites. </p> S. Ramu, N. Senthilkumar Copyright (c) 2022 S. Ramu, N. Senthilkumar Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A review on the comparative study of nutraceutically activated fruits and herbs based wines <p>Nowadays, fruits and herbs wine is a boon for the alcoholic beverage industry since it has a plethora of secondary metabolites (bioactives) with numerous pharmacological properties. The article aims to provide an overview of the possibility of making wine from a variety of nutraceutically active herbs and fruits. The different databases have been used to compile the information. Wine can be made from tropical, subtropical, and temperate fruits that are highly perishable, nutritionally diverse, and underutilised, such as raspberries, pomegranates, sweet potatoes, papaya, pineapples, and kiwi fruit. Herbal wine is beneficial to the alcoholic beverage industry because it has a large number of secondary metabolites (bioactives) with a variety of medicinal properties. Herbal and fruit wine provide biological functions and health benefits such as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory activity, anticancer, anti-aging, and protection against cardiovascular problems, diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders. Among herbal and fruit wine constituents, phenolic compounds are important in conferring health benefits. Most significantly, phenolic substances like flavanols, flavanones, flavones, tannins, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and resveratrol can help prevent heart disease, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and other chronic diseases. This study focuses on the comparative health benefits of the bioactive chemicals which are present in the fruits and herbal wines. Wine includes physiologically active components that have the potential to improve consumer’s health. Various herbs and fruits used for winemaking and their medicinal applications have been discussed in this paper. </p> Deepika Sandhu, Sonia Morya Copyright (c) 2022 Deepika Sandhu, Sonia Morya Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Solubilization of phosphorus by low molecular weight organic acids and amino acids in calcareous soils <p>In order for plants to perform well in nutrient-deficient calcareous soils, they have an efficient adaptive technique of root exudate secretion, which contains low molecular weight organic acids. They enhance nutrient release and thereby increase the nutrient availability in calcareous soils. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of concentration and time of incubation of low molecular weight organic acids on P solubilization from calcareous soils collected from various locations of Coimbatore district with varying levels of calcareousness. An incubation experiment was conducted with five calcareous soils with varying levels of free CaCO<sub>3</sub> viz., (1, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 &amp; 21.5%) by incubating with seven different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 &amp; 100 mM) of four organic (citric, malic, oxalic and acetic acid) and two amino acids (glycine and lysine) for nine incubation time intervals (5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, 240, 960 &amp; 1440 mins) on a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD). Available P was analyzed to find the solubilization efficiency of various organic and amino acids. The organic acids were more efficient when compared to amino acids in P solubilization, especially citric acid followed by oxalic and malic acids, at 100 mM concentration incubated for 1440 mins. Also, the solubilization increased with increasing concentration and incubation time, irrespective of the soil calcareousness, but the magnitude of phosphorus extraction decreased with increasing soil calcareousness. Incubating the calcareous soils with 100 mM of citric acid for 1440 min solubilized more amount of phosphorus. Hence it can be concluded that addition of 100 mM citric acid will influence the phosphorus release even from highly calcareous soils.</p> P. M. Brindhavani, T. Chitdeshwari, D. Selvi, U. Sivakumar, P. Jeyakumar Copyright (c) 2022 P. M. Brindhavani, T. Chitdeshwari, D. Selvi, U. Sivakumar, P. Jeyakumar Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Multipurpose applications of bamboo as an activated carbon: An overview <p>Bamboo is a versatile resource for the synthesis of activated carbon. Low-cost precursors owing to a high growth rate and high carbon content in bamboo have consolidated its suitability as a renewable and notable alternative resource to activated carbon production. The attractiveness of bamboo activated carbon is due to its microcrystalline structure with a high porosity, fast absorption, and highly active surface area. Bamboo activated carbon can be synthesised via carbonisation and activation processes. The carbonisation process produces a substance with a colossal surface area to the mass ratio, which effective in holding various materials, minerals, humidity, odours, etc. Activation process involves the establishment of typical structures and advanced porosity to devise the high porosity of the solid activated carbon. Bamboo activated carbon can be used for energy-related reasons in environmental conservation, agriculture, soil amendment, animal feed additions, and wastewater treatment. It can also be used as a supplement in the composting and fermentation processes, utilised as a tar reduction catalyst in pyrolysis and gasification, as a pelletised fuel, and as a hydrogen production substrate. Numerous studies on activated carbon produced by diverse feedstocks are published in the areas of production, characterisation and possible uses and applications. Bamboo activated carbon is safeguarding its sphere of importance in today's era due to its multipurpose uses. The bamboo activated carbon is mostly used in the industrial, agricultural, and natural environment-related sectors. This paper presents a brief overview of the applications of bamboo activated carbon in numerous areas.</p> Danial Shamzari Bin Hashim, Jeng Young Liew, Jia Geng Boon , Huck Ywih Ch'ng Copyright (c) 2022 Danial Shamzari Bin Hashim, Jeng Young Liew, Jia Geng Boon , Huck Ywih Ch'ng Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Unveiling the structural features of CysE: a novel target for therapeutic interventions against persistent mycobacteria <p>World Health Organization (WHO) reports that one-third of the world’s population is infected with a persistent form of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis </em>(<em>M.tb</em>), the causative bacterium responsible for causing the dreaded tuberculosis disease. Targeting mycobacterial persisters is important for achieving WHO’s End TB target. The <em>de-novo </em>cysteine biosynthetic pathway is a novel target for addressing <em>M.tb</em> persistence. The two-step pathway comprises of serine acetyltransferase/CysE and O-acetyl-serine-sulfhydrylase/OASS/CysK. The present study is an attempt to understand the structural features of mycobacterial CysE by investigating the divergence amongst orthologous through phylogenetic analysis. Mapping of mycobacterial CysE sequences on the whole orthologous (COG1045) tree segregated the species into four clusters and several isoforms leading to their descendants identification. Interestingly the analysis revealed that the extended C-terminal α-helix believed unique to <em>M.tb</em> is also present in other organisms such as: <em>Campylobacter ureolyticus, Bacillus cereus, Geminocystis herdmanii </em>and <em>Paenibacillus borealis</em>. Further, the Hidden Markov model search against the whole Uniprot database suggests a plausible role of C-terminal α-helix of CysE in strengthening the substrate and/or co-factor binding. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of CysE sequences from the <em>Mycobacteriaceae</em> family facilitates grouping them under ten well-formed and six monophyletic clades, each based on characteristic features with respect to domain architecture, oligomeric assembly, C-terminal tetra-peptide tail, regulatory and feedback mechanism etc. Employing molecular phylogeny in conjunction with structural analysis has provided detailed insights for mycobacterial CysEs as drug target.</p> Sunita Gupta, Vibha Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Sunita Gupta, Vibha Gupta Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Teeth bleaching effect and anti-oral microbial activity of water-extracted apple (Malus asiatica) <p>Apple contains nutrients such as sugars, dietary fiber, and vitamins as well as bioactive phytochemicals such as organic acid, fatty acid and phenolic compounds. This study was conducted to confirm the applicability of apples as a bleaching agent and functional substances for the prevention of oral infectious diseases and maintenance of oral health by investigating the bovine teeth bleaching effect, anti-oral microbial activity, and inhibitory effect of halitosis of water-extracted apple (WEA). From the results of quantitative analysis of the surface color of bovine teeth, the application of WEA significantly increased the ΔE value, indicating a bleaching effect. In the case of 100mg/ml, the ΔE value increased as the WEA application time increased, and the bleaching effect was the greatest. Based on the results of the disk diffusion test and selective culture using CRT bacteria test kit, WEA showed anti-oral microbial activity against the dental caries bacteria, <em>Streptococcus mutans</em> and <em>Latobacillus casei</em>, the periodontal bacteria, <em>Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans</em>, and <em>Eschericha coli</em>, but showed no antifungal effect against <em>Candida albicans</em>, causing oral candidiasis. From the results of colony formation and generation of halitosis from salivary microorganisms, WEA inhibited the growth of salivary microorganisms and generation of components inducing halitosis such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide, that occur during the metabolic process of oral microorganisms. Therefore, WEA is a functional substance derived from a safe and useful natural product that can be used for the prevention of oral infectious diseases and maintenance of oral health</p> Soon-Jeong Jeong Copyright (c) 2022 Soon-Jeong Jeong Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Screening of plant growth-promoting Rhizobium tarimense from root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) <p>Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are favourable bacteria that colonize the plant roots and enhance plant growth by direct and/or indirect mechanisms. This study aimed to screen rhizobial isolates of chickpea and evaluate their multiple plant growth-promoting traits. A total of twelve rhizobia-like-bacterial isolates were collected from the root nodules of chickpea (<em>Cicer arietinum</em> L.) from different regions of Madhya Pradesh, India, characterized by morphological, biochemical, and identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Out of twelve, one rhizobial isolate designated as RH17 was confirmed as <em>Rhizobium</em> <em>tarimense</em> by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which showed 98% similarity with the strain PL-41. The phylogenetic study was done by using MEGA-X to confirm the identity of RH17 isolate and the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of RH17 isolate was submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database under Genbank with accession number OM996100. The RH17 isolate showed multiple plant growth-promoting traits like nitrogen fixation, solubilization of phosphate (15mm), indole acetic acid (IAA) production (1µg/ml), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (0.5nmol), ammonia (NH3), siderophore, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production and antagonism against phytopathogenic fungi <em>Fusarium oxysporum </em>and <em>Macrophomina phaseolina</em>. Therefore, the present study suggests that <em>R. tarimense</em> (RH17) isolate can be used as PGP bacteria and a biocontrol agent to enhance the growth, productivity and yield of chickpea.</p> Monika Soni, Kamlesh Choure Copyright (c) 2022 Monika Soni, Kamlesh Choure Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Food, not the photoperiod, entrains the circadian rhythms in the liver of Winstar albino rats <p>The central oscillator is located in mammals' suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The liver is the non-photic organ and the centre for metabolic activities. Food could be a potential zeitgeber for the liver as the timing of feeding is precise in animals. The present study hypothesized that the food provided at a different time of the day (consistently delay of 6 hours) could lead to the desynchronization of daily rhythms in clock genes in liver tissues. The Winstar albino rats were divided into three groups and were exposed to a daily light-dark cycle (12L:12D; 12h light and 12h dark). The Group 1 (Control group) had food <em>ad libitum</em>, Group 2- second group- 6h food group had daily food availability of 6h (night fed group). In contrast, Group 3- T30 group was provided food for 6 hours but delayed by 6h from the previous day's food timing. After 30 days, animals were sacrificed at six-time points and the expression of clock genes was studied in the liver. Food cycle's effect was observed on body mass, and it was significantly (P &lt; 0.05) reduced in the T30 group. The circadian clock persisted in both food ad libitum and night fed groups but changed in phase and amplitude. However, it lost daily rhythm in clock genes in liver tissues of the T30 group. These results are significant as they suggest that the food's timing is critical for synchronizing the circadian clock in the metabolic center, i.e., the liver.</p> Amit Kumar Trivedi, Emily Vanlalmalsawmi, Zothanmawii Renthlei, Lalremruati Jongte Copyright (c) 2022 Amit Kumar Trivedi, Emily Vanlalmalsawmi, Zothanmawii Renthlei, Lalremruati Jongte Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Spatial and temporal estimation of actual evapotranspiration of lower Bhavani basin, Tamil Nadu using Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land Model <p>Estimating evapotranspiration's spatiotemporal variance is critical for regional water resource management and allocation, including irrigation scheduling, drought monitoring, and forecasting. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) method can be used to estimate spatio-temporal variations in evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing-based variables like Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), surface albedo, transmittance, and surface emissivity. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the actual evapotranspiration for the lower Bhavani basin, Tamil Nadu based on remote sensing methods using Landsat 8 data for the years 2018 to 2020. The actual evapotranspiration was estimated using SEBAL model and its spatial variation was compared over different land covers. The estimated values of daily actual evapotranspiration in the lower Bhavani basin ranged from 0 to 4.72 mm day<sup>-1</sup>. Thus it is evident that SEBAL model can be used to predict ET with limited ground base hydrological data. The spatially estimated ET values will help in managing the crop water requirement at each stage of crop and irrigation scheduling, which will ensure the efficient use of available water resources.</p> C. G. Karishma, Balaji Kannan, K. Nagarajan, S. Panneerselvam, S. Pazhanivelan Copyright (c) 2022 C. G. Karishma, Balaji Kannan, K. Nagarajan, S. Panneerselvam, S. Pazhanivelan Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Authentication of Harpullia arborea (Blanco) Radlk. - a traditional medicinal plant from India using microscopic techniques <p><em>Harpullia arborea</em> (Blanco) Radlk., Sapindaceae, known as “black doll’s eyes” or “tulip tree” is a rainforest tree distributed in the tropical forests of peninsular India. Out of the 26 species of the genus, <em>H. arborea</em> is therapeutically more studied and widely used in folk and ayurvedic medicine. In this work, anatomical study of the leaves and stem of <em>H. arborea</em> was performed to provide a microscopical diagnosis for its characterization due to its increasing use in folk and ayurvedic medicine and its differentiation from other species with the same popular name. Standard light and scanning electron microscopy procedures were carried out using paradermal sections of leaf surfaces and transverse sections of lamina, midrib, and petiole. Stem preparations include longitudinal, radial and transverse sections of tertiary branches. The leaf epidermis with stellate non-glandular trichomes, cyclocytic stomata, mucilaginous cells and mesophyll without secretory sclereids, and the stem with confluent axial parenchyma, biseriate xylem rays, and the presence of rhomboidal prismatic crystals in the axial cells are the diagnostic microscopic features of the species. This structural characterization of the stem and leaf allows the identification of <em>H.arborea</em>, allowing certification of the authenticity of raw material.</p> Vigi George M, Hari N Copyright (c) 2022 Vigi George M, Hari N Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Brassinosteroids in plants responses to salinity stress: A review <p>Brassinosteroid emerges as an essential phytohormone that helps the plant to maintain plant growth and development. It also helps the plants grow well under adverse conditions along with normal conditions. In this review article, we have discussed the functional role of brassinosteroid (BRS) in plants under salinity stress conditions. Salinity stress is one of the most devastating abiotic stresses which adversely affect plant growth by disturbing their metabolic pathway. This article also comprises the occurrence, structure and signalling pathway of the brassinosteroid. Application of brassinosteroid improves the plant status under salinity by enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activity in plants. Moreover, we also reported the different growth parameters enhanced by brassinosteroid application in plants under salinity. BRSs also maintain plant growth through the regulation of expression of various genes whose products are involved in various biochemical and physiological processes. This review is based on the various aspects in much detail which are required to understand the proper mechanism of BRS, such as i) the role of BRS signaling pathways in providing tolerance to the plants, ii) changes due to the presence or absence of BRS in plants under stress conditions, iii) BRSs application on the regulation of different genes and transcriptional factor, iv) regulation in ion homeostasis, v) reduction of oxidative stress via different mechanisms under salinity stress. However, a lot of knowledge is required to understand the role of BRS in alleviating salinity stress and needs future research work on BRS with its different derivatives in the alleviation of salt stress. </p> Vikram, Pooja, Jyoti Sharma, Asha Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Vikram, Pooja, Jyoti Sharma, Asha Sharma Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of antimicrobial compounds produced by mahua oil cake against the stem rot pathogen- Sclerotium rolfsii <p>The antifungal property containing oil cakes play a significant role in reducing plant disease in a wide range of soil-borne pathogens. A destructive soil-borne pathogen, <em>Sclerotium rolfsii </em>is infecting a vast range of crops worldwide. <em>In-vitro</em> efficacy of five different oil cakes <em>viz</em>. mahua cake, neem cake, pungam cake, coconut cake and castor cake extracts was tested against the stem rot pathogen of groundnut. Among the five different oil cakes, mahua oil cake extract produced the minimum mycelial growth of 1.57and1.29 cm at 5%, and 10% concentrations, respectively and showed maximum percent growth inhibition of 83.33and 86.66% respectively. Bioactive compounds in mahua oil cake were analyzed through GC-MS. From the result of GC-MS, the high retention time and peak area percentage were observed with major important bioactive compounds like n-Hexadecanoic acid (24.968) (12.22), Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (23.655) (2.9), 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)-(28.659)(35.61), 9-Octadecenoic acid, (E)-(28.786) (13.15), Octadecanoic acid (29.137) (33.59) and a1-Octyn-3-ol (3.023) (0.04).The bioactive compounds identified through GC-MS from mahua oil cake extract were found to be exhibiting antifungal activity against <em>S. rolfsii</em>.</p> Ayyandurai M, Akila R, Mini M L, Manonmani K Copyright (c) 2022 Ayyandurai M, Akila R, Mini M L, Manonmani K Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Importance of silicon in combating a variety of stresses in plants: A review <p>The abundance of silicon (Si) in the earth's crust is found as silicon dioxide (SiO<sub>2</sub>). But this abundance of Si is not a sign that the plants take up an adequate amount of Si. This review article incorporates research based on Si to understand the importance of Si in plants under various stress conditions and its role in sustainable agricultural production. Si's application is considered a better approach to providing stress tolerance to plants under stress conditions. The review describes the different phases of Si, its absorption, transport in plants, and its various mechanisms of action to tolerate specific stresses. The uptake and transport of Si through various Si transporters have also been reported. This review also discusses the various mechanisms of Si under biotic or abiotic stress in different plants. The application of Si improves soil quality and soil health and enhances the soil microbial population. In addition, the role of Si in the upregulation and down-regulation of proteins under stressful conditions has also been reported. The information can help to better understand the importance and mechanism of Si in plants and its application in agriculture.</p> Pooja, Vikram, Jyoti Sharma, Shivani Verma, Asha Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Pooja, Vikram, Jyoti Sharma, Shivani Verma, Asha Sharma Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Heavy metals and aluminium intake from stored canned tomato, sardines and tuna in Algeria <p>This study assessed heavy metals intake and their impacts on healthcare in Algeria. Peculiar attention was given to heavy metals found in largely consumed canned foods in Algeria such as double concentrated tomato, tuna crumbs and sardines. Chemical analyses of the metal and aluminium containers (foil, tray) were performed by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and EDS spectrometry (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry). The determination of the trace metal content in canned food (element metal trace EMT) was achieved by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The approach proposed in this study aimed to highlight the interaction of the product and packaging material, and thus to identify and quantify heavy metals traces that were able to undergo specific or overall migration to food. The morphology of the contact surface food / packaging was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and showed a slight degradation of the base metal (Black Iron). There was an obvious increase in EMTs during tuna, sardines and tomatoes storage and artificial aging. A special interest was given to cooking modes using aluminium foil and trays. ‎‎The respective dosages of aluminium, in baked food (fresh tuna) were obtained. Specific Aluminium migration was noticed and was strong for the flame cooking mode.</p> Ryme Terbeche, Gharbi Samia, Fouzia Rahli, Karim Ouadah, Fawzi Taleb, Draou Nassima, Yacine Rezini, Amel Berrebbah Alioua Copyright (c) 2022 Ryme Terbeche, Gharbi Samia, Fouzia Rahli, Karim Ouadah, Fawzi Taleb, Draou Nassima, Yacine Rezini, Amel Berrebbah Alioua Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Physicochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of citrus peel essential oils <p>Essential oils are produced as secondary metabolites of aromatic plants and can be extracted from leaves, seeds or fruit peel of the plants. Citrus peel is a rich source of limonene which is antimicrobial in nature. The present study aimed to deal with the physicochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of citrus peel essential oil from <em>Citrus reticulate</em> (mandarin orange), <em>Citrus limetta</em> (mosambi) and <em>Citrus limon</em> (lemon). <em> </em>The lemon peel oil had lower peroxide value (1.6 meq/kg of sample), saponification value (112.2 mg KOH/g of oil) and higher iodine value (116 gI<sub>2</sub>/100g oil) when compared with orange and mosambi peel essential oil. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity of citrus peel essential oil was measured and the result indicated that the total antioxidant activity of lemon peel oil was 89.2 % Radical Scavenging activity (RSA). The antifungal activity was assessed by agar dilution method, whereas the antibacterial property was assessed by the agar diffusion method. Lemon peel oil recorded better antimicrobial properties with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.3% against <em>Aspergillus flavus</em><em> MTCC 277</em><em>,</em> 0.2% for <em>Penicillium </em><em>MTCC 1995</em> and <em>Fusarium</em> oxysporum MTCC 284<em>.</em> Likewise, the minimum inhibitory concentration of lemon peel oil against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> MTCC 96 was 0.3%; <em>Salmonella enterica</em> MTCC 733 and <em>Erwinia</em> sp MTCC 2760 was 0.5%; <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> MTCC 1688 and <em>Escherichia coli </em>MTCC 443 was 0.7%. This comparative study showed that lemon peel oil had better physicochemical and antioxidant property. Lemon peel oil can be used as a preservative in the food system as it exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity.</p> Aruna T., Hemalatha G., Kumutha K., Kanchana S., Vellaikumar S. Copyright (c) 2022 Aruna T., Hemalatha G., Kumutha K., Kanchana S., Vellaikumar S. Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the antagonistic potential of bacterial strains isolated from Algerian soils for the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi <p>Antagonistic bacteria contribute to the management of plant diseases by stimulating the natural defenses in the host and/or by ensuring direct biocontrol of the aggressors. The objective of this work was to isolate, identify and evaluate (<em>in vitro</em>) various <em>Bacillus</em> spp. for their potential to control phyopathogenic fungi. Selection of the 40 strains of <em>Bacillus</em> previously isolated from the soil in various areas of western Algeria was carried out by direct confrontation on the mycelial growth of four phytopathogens (<em>Fusariumoxysporumf.splycopersici, Alternaria tenuis , Phytophthorainfestans, Ascochytapisi</em>). This strategy involved using the antagonistic potential of microorganisms found in the plant environment in Algeria. The second part of this work consisted of the characterization and identification of tested strainsThe identification of the selected strains was carried out by biochemical tests. The results obtained showed that at the end of the fifth day, the most promising isolates showed antifungal activity and reached an inhibition rate of the mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi, respectively, <em>F. </em><em>oxysporumf. splycopersici </em>75%, <em>A. tenuis </em>80%, <em>P. infestans</em> 83.30%, <em>Ascochytapisi</em> 67%. The potential antagonist of Bacillus tested in vitro by direct confrontation against 04 phytopathogenic fungi showed that all strains of Bacillus decreased fungal mycelial growth. Two strains of Bacillus B30 and B41 were found to have the most efficacy against <em>Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Alternaria tenius, Phytophtora infestans et Ascochyta pisi</em>, with an inhibition rate of 65.25 and 72.25% respectively These results demonstrate that <em>Bacillus</em> sp. presenteds a potential for biological control. However, it is important to understand the mechanisms implemented by these bacteria to develop effective protection strategies.</p> Samia GHARBI, Pelias RAFANOMEZANTSOA , Ryme TERBECHE, Nassima DRAOU, Noureddine KARKACHI Copyright (c) 2022 Samia GHARBI, Pelias RAFANOMEZANTSOA , Ryme TERBECHE, Nassima DRAOU, Noureddine KARKACHI Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Catalytic effect of acetate (C2H3O2) on coulombic efficiency and bio-electricity generation from wastewater sample prepared from domestic kitchen waste using dual chamber microbial fuel cell technology <p>In recent times, the use of energy resources, particularly non-renewable resources, have increased manifolds due to the ever-increasing global demands. This has led to an increase in depletion of the resources and environmental pollution. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) are a new concept that has proved to be the solution to the problem as a green energy resource. The paper focuses on generating electricity from wastewater prepared from kitchen wet waste kept for about 168 hours in an attempt to address the energy crisis while also treating it. A comparative analysis of the sample as prepared and with acetate has been studied and power generation, coulombic efficiency and change in chemical oxygen demand (COD) for wastewater were calculated and also the catalytic effect of acetate was analyzed. It was observed that there was a substantial increase in coulombic efficiency and COD content . A coulombic Efficiency efficiency of 25.29% was obtained for the sample with acetate, whereas, without acetate it was calculated as 9.71%. The maximum power density was obtained from the polarization curves. It was observed that the maximum power density of pure kitchen wastewater was found to be 0.017 mW/m<sup>2; </sup>however, for kitchen wastewater with acetate, the power density increased considerably to 0.546 mW/m<sup>2</sup> at an external resistance of 1Kῼ. Further, the maximum current densities observed were 2.239 mA/m<sup>2</sup> and 8.771 mA/m<sup>2,</sup> respectively. The internal resistance of the constructed prototypes was also determined using the maximum power transfer theorem. In this study, a prototype was constructed and it was found that kitchen waste can be used as a source of electricity generation and leads to a green energy initiative. </p> Aarti Malyan, Geeta Mongia, Shani Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Aarti Malyan, Geeta Mongia, Shani Kumar Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Autochthonous antimicrobial microorganisms: application in wastewater treatment <p>In the previous two decades, people's lifestyles have changed as a result of industrialization, urbanization, and modernity, resulting in a rise in pollutants in daily sewage wastewater output. Less than half of the sewage generated is processed in a sewage treatment facility, while the remaining gets discharged into rivers untreated, deviating physio-chemical parameters of river water from the standards and thus causing harm to aquatic ecosystems. Sewage water contains autochthonous bacteria such as <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens</em>, <em>Bacillus sp.,</em> <em>Acinetobacter sp.</em> and <em>Rhodococcus sp</em> that are effective in decontaminating wastewater. They employ a variety of mechanisms to consume pollutants, including biosorption, bioaccumulation and enzyme-mediated bioremediation, and thus can be used in bioremediation schemes. Bacteria possessing antimicrobial activity as well as protease production can be isolated from the wastewater and employed in the sewage treatment plant. The bacterial consortium has also been shown to be successful in wastewater treatment due to the synergistic degradation capabilities of the co- cultivated bacterial strains, which enhance the uptake rate of pollutants as nutrients. Environmental factors such as temperature, pH, oxygen, and nutrition availability at the site all affect the process outcome. The major focus of this review is to emphasize the bacterial capacity to clean wastewater as a single bacterial culture or as part of a bacterial consortium and the factor affecting the degradation process to achieve the requirement of a safer environment.</p> Anita Bhtnagar, Sapna Kalra Copyright (c) 2022 Anita Bhtnagar, Sapna Kalra Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Gallium-68 isotope injection on hemoglobin derivatives concentrations after instant injection and its recovery in male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) <p>Oxidizing effects of ionizing radiation are well established and almost understood. However, exposure to low doses of widely used isotopes may result in minor and hidden oxidative stress in some forms of hemoglobin. This formation alteration regarding the legends of hemoglobin's stereochemical function may play a role in hemoglobin dysfunction. There are limited studies related to the effect of gallium isotope injections. The study intends to find the effect of gallium-68 isotope injection on male rabbits. It was conducted on thirty-two male rabbits (<em>Orycytolagus cuniculus</em>) divided into Group I: control and Group II: animals exposed to gallium-68 isotope at a similar dose commonly used in diagnostic protocols for humans. Blood samples were collected twice: the first was after two hours of injection with isotopes and the second was after twelve hours of injection. A linear, four-mathematical-equations matrix based on the Lamber-Beer law was used to measure the concentration of different hemoglobin derivatives. Results revealed a significant elevation (P&lt;0.05) of methemoglobin, the oxidized form of hemoglobin, two hours after injection (Total hemoglobin = 4.463 ± 0.83), but this effect was completely reversed after twelve hours. This concluded that even low doses of isotopes result in oxidation of hemoglobin that recovers shortly. Furthermore, the outcome of the study supports the healthcare centres to understand the effect of gallium-68 injections on animals. </p> Bassem M. Raafat, Hamid Osman, Nahla L. Faizo, Sultan Alamri, Ahmad Joman Alghamdi, Rania Mohammed Ahmed, Ashraf Almahwasi Copyright (c) 2022 Bassem M. Raafat, Hamid Osman, Nahla L. Faizo, Sultan Alamri, Ahmad Joman Alghamdi, Rania Mohammed Ahmed, Ashraf Almahwasi Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of salinity stress on phytochemical characteristics of Centella asiatica <p>Salinity is one of the predominant abiotic stresses which affects plant growth by inducing excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to oxidative damage of plant cells. Plants alleviate salinity stress by regulating intracellular concentrations of various phytochemicals like phenol, tannin, antioxidants, etc. The present work aimed to study the impact of salt stress on the production of various phytochemicals like phenol, tannin, flavonoids, antioxidants, total protein content, etc. The Salt stress response of the test plant <em>Centella asiatica</em> was studied by irrigating variant concentrations (50mM, 100mm, 150mm, 200mM, 250mm) of salt (NaCl). The phytochemical activity of the plants grown under salinity stress was estimated by using an appropriate biochemical assay. Comparative analysis of the photochemical activity of the test plants in comparison with the control revealed that various phytochemicals were increased in response to salt stress. Salt stress increased the levels of antioxidants from 10.79 to 14.31 μg/ml), phenol from 30.8 to 43.3 in μg/ml, flavonoids (from 490 to 683.33 in μg/ml), tannin from 55.5 to 64.5 in μg/ml, and proteins from 5720 to 6080 in μg/ml in the <em>C. asiatica </em>plants. To sum up, salt stress elicited phytochemical accumulation in the <em>C. asiatica</em> plant, thereby improving the plant's growth by enhancing its resistance to salt stress. This finding may play an important role in the sustainable cultivation of commercially important crops like <em>C. asiatica.</em></p> Sonal Gupta, Ashwini A. Waoo Copyright (c) 2022 Sonal Gupta, Ashwini A. Waoo Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Biohydrogen: Opportunities and challenges as an alternative energy resource <p>As the energy demand is continuously rising with the increase in population, the use of fossil fuels is also increasing at the same rate. These fossil fuels release greenhouse gases (GHG) which are harmful to human health and our environmental health and these fuels are also expected to exhaust in the near future. This eventually has led to an emerging need to shift to a more reliable, sustainable, clean energy source. Biohydrogen as fuel is a potential alternative, as hydrogen has proved to be one such fuel which has the potential to replace fossil fuels. There is a need to produce it in a clean, sustainable way to compete with the fuels that are being used currently. The hydrogen which is produced biologically is known as biohydrogen. Microorganisms also play a huge role in the process of hydrogen generation by virtue of their natural mechanism. Hydrogen can be produced biologically using approaches like biophotolysis (direct and indirect), fermentation (dark and photo) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Among all, dark fermentation seems to be the most efficient when compared to other procedures. The challenges currently being faced with this technology are the yield of hydrogen, the high cost of the reactor and system efficiency. This technology still needs a lot of research and improvement to replace fossil fuels entirely.</p> Shubham Raturi, Pallavi Singh, Saurabh Kumar Jha, Santosh Kumar Karn Copyright (c) 2022 Shubham Raturi, Pallavi Singh, Saurabh Kumar Jha, Santosh Kumar Karn Sat, 18 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000