Djohan Djohan


Cartilage and bones (CB) are primary organs for lead accumulation in domestic animals, but very few studies have addressed the occurrence of lead in both organs. CBs, especially from goat and chicken, although classified as non-edible food, are still being consumed by many local communities globally. Male goat and rooster were bought in traditional markets in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Lead in CBs of humerus, radius, femur, and tibia (HRFT) were extracted by aqua regia digestible method and measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. A set of data ratios, generated by data ratio analysis (DRA), namely concentration ratio (CR), amounts ratio (AR), variation ratio (VR), coefficient of variation ratio (CVR), joint probability (JP) and conditional probability (CP) based on the AR and CR, were determined to characterize the lead exposure in CB. The means of lead concentrations in CB in goat were 4.9 and 5.2 µg.g-1, and those in chicken were 5.00 and 5.20  µg.g-1, respectively. The CRs in goats and chickens were 0.95 and 0.96, and the ARs in goats and chickens were 1.34 and 1.16, respectively. A high linear relationship was found between Ln VR and Ln CVR, and the JP and CP supported decision-making on CB consumption. By targeting CB as primary organs for lead accumulation, considering its potential exposure for many communities, and comparing its further uses as animal feed, the DRA in this study is useful to provide broadened comparability in bioaccumulation studies.





Cartilage and bone (CB), Data ratio analysis (DRA), Humerus radius femur tibia (HRFT), Goat and chicken, Lead (Pb)

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Research Articles

How to Cite

Application of data ratio analysis of lead accumulation in cartilage and bones of goats and chickens in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. (2024). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 16(1), 226-238. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v16i1.5207