##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Dhuha Muhammed Sadik Ibrahim Hadi Mohammed

Abstract

Cladophora glomerata has numerous biologically active properties and is considered one of the most essential medicinal algae. The purpose of this research was to investigate the anticancer efficacy of Cladophora glomerata algae extract against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), and normal mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines. The needed algae was found in the Hassan Al-Hamoud River , Baquba, Iraq. The chemical detection of some chemical components of the ethanolic extract of C. glomerata revealed that the extract contains a group of active compounds. The study showed significant variation (p<0.05) among inhibition percentages of cancer cell line HepG2, Hella, and MEF cell lines that were treated with different concentrations (15.1, 31.2, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, and 1000) μg/ml of C. glomerata extract. The outcomes showed that increased inhibition percentages of the above cell line were associated with increased concentrations. The inhibition percentage of HepG2, Hella, and  MEF cell lines were  1.6 ± 30.88, 1.7 ± 14.10, and 1.2 ± 2.31 at concentration 15.1 (mg/ml), and was 3.8 ± 84.90, 3.6 ± 88.29, and 3.9 ± 23.2, respectively at concentration 1000 (mg/ml). The study concluded that the C. glomerata extract with different concentrations significantly inhibited cancer cell lines (HepG2 and Hela) and ME because they have antiproliferative and antioxidant activity against cancers. The extract's inhibitory impact begins at low doses and increases with increasing concentration. The study would be beneficial to use macroalgae as new and sustainable sources of bioactive compounds against cancer.


 

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Cladophora glomerata, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), Human cervical cancer (Hela), Mice embryo fibroblast (MEF)

References
Acharya, D., Satapathy, S., Thathapudi, J. J., Somu, P. & Mishra, G. (2022). Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine algae Cladophora glomerata and evaluation of apoptotic effects in human colon cancer cells. Materials Technology, 37(8), 569-580.‏4
Al‑Jaber, G. T., Al‑Ismaeel, W. N., & Al‑Ali, A. L. (2021). The effect of Rhus coriaria L. methanolic extract on cytotoxicity of Cladophora glomerata L. Kützing methanolic extract against human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cell line. Int J Pharm Res, 13, 12-8.
Cannell, R. J. (1998). How to approach the isolation of a natural product. Natural Products Isolation, 1-51.‏
Cheung, E. C. & Vousden, K. H. (2022). The role of ROS in tumour development and progression. Nature Reviews Cancer, 22(5), 280-297.‏
Dumanović, J., Nepovimova, E., Natić, M., Kuča, K. & Jaćević, V. (2021). The significance of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense system in plants: A concise overview. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11, 552969.‏
Ezejiofor, A. N., & Orisakwe, O. E. (2019). Nephroprotective effect of Costus afer on lead induced kidney damage in albino rats. International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology, 11(2), 36.‏
Fayyad, R. J., Ali, A. N. M., Saeed, N. A. H. A. A., Hamzah, I. H. & Dwaish, A. S. (2022). Phycosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Cladophora glomerata and Evaluation of Their Ability to Inhibit the Proliferation of MCF-7 and L20B Cell Lines. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP, 23(10), 3563.
Fayyad, R. J., Lefta, S. N., Mohammed, D. Y. & Maliki, S. A. (2022). Study the Efficiency of Two Concentrations from Algae Cladophora glomerata extract on the Giardia lamblia parasite. Baghdad Science Journal, 19(2), 0271-0271.‏
Fresheny, R. I. (2015). Culture of animal cells: a manual of basic technique and specialized applications.
John Wiley & Sons.‏ Prakash, J. W., Marimuthu, J. & Jeeva, S. (2011). Antimicrobial activity of certain fresh water microalgae from Thamirabarani River, Tamil Nadu, South India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1(2), S170-S173.‏
Gangadhar, K. N., Rodrigues, M. J., Pereira, H., Gaspar, H., Malcata, F. X., Barreira, L. & Varela, J. (2020). Anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) activities of monoterpene hydroxy lactones isolated from the marine microalga Tisochrysis lutea. Marine drugs, 18(11), 567.‏
Goutzourelas, N., Kevrekidis, D. P., Barda, S., Malea, P., Trachana, V., Savvidi, S. & Stagos, D. (2023). Antioxidant activity and inhibition of liver cancer cells’ growth of extracts from 14 marine macroalgae species of the Mediterranean sea. Foods, 12(6), 1310.‏
Haddad, D. (1965). The chemistry of vegetable drugs. Part, 2, 127.‏
Han, N., Li, J., & Li, X. (2022). Natural marine products: Anti-colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. Marine Drugs, 20(6), 349.‏
Hanahan, D. (2022). Hallmarks of cancer: new dimensions. Cancer Discovery, 12(1), 31-46.‏
Hannan, M. A., Sohag, A. A. M., Dash, R., Haque, M. N., Mohibbullah, M., Oktaviani, D. F. & Moon, I. S. (2020). Phytosterols of marine algae: Insights into the potential health benefits and molecular pharmacology. Phytomedicine, 69, 153201.‏
Harborne, J. B. (1984). Methods of plant analysis. In Phytochemical methods: a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis (pp. 1-36). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.‏
Ikwegbue, P. C., Masamba, P., Oyinloye, B. E. & Kappo, A. P. (2017). Roles of heat shock proteins in apoptosis, oxidative stress, human inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Pharmaceuticals, 11(1), 2.‏
Jaffer, H. J., Mahmod, M. J., Jawad, A. M., Naji, A. & AL-Naib, A. (1983). Phytochemical and biological screening of some Iraqi plan Fitoterapia Lix 299. Saudi Journal of Bbiological Sciences, 11(3), 183-191.‏
Jawad, A. (1997). Ethnological studies in assessing the anti-aggressive effects of some Iraqi medical plants in laboratory mice. A thesis in physiology, Colle Edu Univ Basrah.‏
Kavalappa, Y. P., Rudresh, D. U., Gopal, S. S., Shivarudrappa, A. H., Stephen, N. M., Rangiah, K., & Ponesakki, G. (2019). β-carotene isolated from the marine red alga, Gracillaria sp. potently attenuates the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells by modulating multiple molecular pathways. Journal of Functional Foods, 52, 165-176.‏
Laungsuwon, R., & Chulalaksananukul, W. (2013). Antioxidant and anticancer activities of freshwater green algae, Cladophora glomerata and Microspora floccosa, from Nan River in northern Thailand. Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology, 7(2), 181.‏
Li, D., Qu, X., Hou, K., Zhang, Y., Dong, Q., Teng, Y. & Liu, Y. (2009). PI3K/Akt is involved in bufalin-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Anticancer Drugs, 20(1), 59-64.‏
Majumder, I., Chatterjee, S. & Kundu, R. (2015). A study on antiproliferative property of some green algae on human cervical cancer cells (SiHa) in vitro. J. Algal Biomass Util, 6, 21-25.‏
Michalak, I. & Messyasz, B. (2021). Concise review of Cladophora spp.: macroalgae of commercial interest. Journal of Applied Phycology, 33(1), 133-166.‏
Munir, M., Qureshi, R., Bibi, M., & Khan, A. M. (2019). Pharmaceutical aptitude of Cladophora: A comprehensive review. Algal Research, 39, 101476.‏
Prescott, G.W. (1982). Algae of the Western Great Lakes Area. OHO Koeltz. Science publishers. Germany.
Sakuma, S., Ishimura, M., Yuba, Y., Itoh, Y. & Fujimoto, Y. (2018). The peptide glycyl-ʟ-histidyl-ʟ-lysine is an endogenous antioxidant in living organisms, possibly by diminishing hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. International journal of Physiology,Pathophysiology and Pharmacology, 10(3), 132.‏
Sundaramoorthy, S., Dakshinamoorthi, A. & Chithra, K. (2022). Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer effect of marine algae Cladophora glomerata in HT29 colon cancer cell lines-an in-vitro study. International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology, 14(6), 332.‏
Urso, M. L. & Clarkson, P. M. (2003). Oxidative stress, exercise, and antioxidant supplementation. Toxicology, 189(1-2), 41-54.‏
Zhang, A., Qi, X., Du, F., Zhang, G., Li, D. & Li, J. (2021). PNSA, a Novel C-Terminal Inhibitor of HSP90, Reverses Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Suppresses Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells in vitro. Marine Drugs, 19(2), 117.‏
Zhou, S., Nyholm, L., Strømme, M. & Wang, Z. (2019). Cladophora cellulose: unique biopolymer nanofibrils for emerging energy, environmental, and life science applications. Accounts of Chemical Research, 52(8), 2232-2243.‏
Section
Research Articles

How to Cite

Evaluation of anticancer effect of Cladophora glomerata algae extract. (2024). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 16(1), 133-139. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v16i1.4978