Uma Gowri M. Shivakumar K. M.


The present study aimed to assess water footprint in the production and export of rice in India. From recent few years, the water footprint conception in full swing to inward detection around the world. The amplified attention in the water footprint has impelled the trade of commodities between countries. Water footprint in the rice field is a sign of water use that exhibits direct and indirect water usage in the rice field. Rice is an important food crop in India. It accesses the flows of water virtually between countries/regions of the world to illustrate the dependency of countries/regions on water resources with other countries/regions under diverse feasible futures. Hence, it is gaining consequence to calculate the water foot print in production as well as export of rice.  The Indian rice production and export of rice was calculated by using international trade and domestic production data. The study results indicated that the global footprint of rice production was 235774 Mm3 per ton which was 53 % of green water footprint, 41 % of blue water footprint and 6 % of grey water footprint for 2018-19. The virtual water flowed in trade was 24354 Mm3/year and the percolation was 16924 Mm3/year since rice is a more water consuming crop. The share of basmati and non-basmati trade accounted was 16 % and 42 %, respectively. Virtual water trade in rice can be minimized by exporting less water demand and high-value crops, proper water harvesting structures and other agronomic practices.


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Economic gain, Export, Rice, Water footprint, Virtual water trade

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M., U. G. ., & K. M., S. . (2021). India rice export and virtual water trade . Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(SI), 43 - 46. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v13iSI.2775
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