C. Tamilarasan R. Jerlin K. Raja


Fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is a tall, erect annual grass. It is a drought resistant crop due to its effective root system. A seed ball is one of the low-cost technologies which was prepared with locally available materials on the farm. In seed balls, the seeds are protected from external factors. At the same time, vigorous seedling was established through seed ball. In order to improve the degraded lands with green cover, the following experiment was framed and carried out. Seed balls were prepared with a combination of red soil and vermicompost at different ratios with 230-250ml of water per kg of medium to get an optimum size and quality. After the preparation, seed balls were shade dried for 24-36 hrs. Among the different ratio of media combinations, 2:1 and 4:2 ratio was found to be the best media for seed balls preparation with good physical and physiological qualities. The maximum seedling quality parameters speed of germination (7.6), germination (98%), root length (10.6 cm), shoot length (19.4 cm) and vigour index (2900) obtained in the present study were due to vermicompost, which contained an optimum concentration of nutrients that helped improve the seedling vigour. This experiment confirmed that using seed balls with best media combinations for the regeneration of degraded lands was very effective.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Best media, Fodder sorghum, Red soil, Seed ball, Vermicompost

Abdulbaki, A. & Anderson, J.D. (1973). Physiological and Biological Determination of Seeds in Seed biology edited by TT Kozlowskin, Academic Press, New York.
Anitha, D., Vijaya, T., Reddy, N.V., Venkateswarlu, N., Pragathi, D. & Mouli, K.C. (2013). Microbial endophytes and their potential for improved bioremediation and biotransformation: a review. Indo Am. J. Pharm. Res., 3, 6408-6417.
Anonymous, (2014). In www.indiastat.com
Arancon, N.Q., Edwards, C.A., Bierman, P., Welch, C. & Metzger, J.D. (2004). Influences of vermicomposts on field strawberries: 1. Effects on growth and yields. Bioresource Technology, 93, 145-153.
Arancon, N.Q., Edwards, C.A., Stephen, L. & Robert, B. (2006). Effects of humic acids from vermi composts on plant growth. European Journal of Soil Biology, 42, S65-S69.
Baboo, B., Sagar, R., Bargali, S.S. & Hariom, V. (2017). Tree species composition, regeneration and diversity within the protected area of Indian dry tropical forest. Tropical Ecology, 58, 409-423.
Bachman, G.R. & Metzger, J.D. (2008). Growth of bedding plants in commercial potting substrate amended with vermicompost. Bioresource Technology, 99, 3155-3161.
Bargali, K. & Bargali, S.S. (2016). Germination capacity of seeds of leguminous plants under water deficit conditions: implication for restoration of degraded lands in Kumaun Himalaya. Tropical Ecology, 57, 445-453.
Bargali, K., Vijyeta, M., Kirtika, P., Bargali, S.S. & Upadhyay, V.P. (2018). Effect of vegetation type and season on microbial biomass carbon in Central Himalayan forest soils, India. Catena, 171, 125-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.1018.07.001.
Bargali, K. & Singh, S.P. (2007). Germination behavior of some leguminous and actionorhizal plants of Himalaya, Effect of temperature and medium. Tropical Ecology, 48, 99-105.
Bargali, K. & Bargali, S.S. (1999). Comparative growth response of two contrasting species of Central Himalaya in relation to light and nutrient availability. Journal of Environmental Biology, 20, 183-187.
Bargali, S.S., Kirtika, P. & Bargali, K. (2019). Effects of tree fostering on soil health and microbial biomass under different land use systems in central Himalaya. Land Degradation and Development, 30, 1984-1998. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.3394.
Bazzoffi, P., Sergio P., Andrea, R., Miranda, M. & Olga, G. (1998). The effect of urban refuse compost and different tractors tyres on soil physical properties, soil erosion and maize yield. Soil and Tillage Research, 48, 275-286.
De Groot, Rudolf, S., James, B., Sander Van Der Ploeg, James, A., Thomas, E. & Joshua. (2013). Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration. Conservation Biology Farley, 27, 1286-1293.
Dogan, T., Erdem, A., Hayrallah, N.T. & Ahmet, Z. (2005). A study on pelleting and planting sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 4, 449-454.
FAOSTAT (2019). Food and Agriculture Organiztion of the United Nation Year Book.
Farlee, L.D. (2013). Direct seeding of fine hardwood tree species. In: Managing fine hardwoods after a half century of research (Eds.Van Sambeek, J.W., Jackson, A. Elizabeth, Coggeshall, V. Mark, Thomas, L. Andrew, Michler, H. Charles). Proceedings of the Seventh Walnut Council Research Symposium; 2011 August 1-3; Madison, WI. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-115. Newtown Square, PA; US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 31-47.
Fukuoka, M. (1985). The natural way of farming. Tokyo: Japan Publications.
Gutierrez-Miciel, Federico, A., Jorge, S.B., Joaquin Adolfo Montes Molina, Camerino Carlos Nafate, Miguel Abud-Archila, Maria Angela Oliva Llaven, Reiner Rincon-Rosales & Luc Dendooven (2007). Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). Bioresource Technology, 98, 2781-2786.
Hegarty, T.W. (1977). Seed activation and seed germination under moisture stress. New Phytologist, 78, 349-359.
Levinsh, G. (2011). Vermicompost treatment differentially affects seed germination, seedling growth and physiological status of vegetable crop species. Plant Growth Regulation, 65, 169-181.
International Seed Testing Association (2015). International Rules for seed testing bassersdorf (Switzerland): International Seed Testing Association.
Jakovac, C.C., Frans, B., Thomas, W.K., Mesquita, C.G. & Marielos, P.C. (2016). Land use as a filter for species composition in Amazonian secondary forests. Journal of Vegetation Science, 27, 1104-1116.
Karki, H., Bargali, K., Bargali, S.S., Vibhuti & Rawat, Y.S. (2017). Plant diversity, regeneration status and standing biomass under varied degree of disturbances in temperate mixed oak-conifer forest, Kumaun Himalaya. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 43, 331-345.
Kramer, P.J. & Kozlowski, T.T. (1980). Physiology of Trees. Mc Graw- Hill, New York.
Maguire, J.D. (1962). Speed of germination-Aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigor 1. Crop Science, 2, 176-177.
Manral, V., Bargali, k., Bargali, S.S. & Charu, S. (2020). Changes in soil biochemical properties following replacement of Banj oak forest with Chir pine in Central Himalaya, India. Ecological Processes, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-020-00235-8.
Marinari, S., Masciandaro, G., Ceccanti, B. & Grego, S. (2000). Influence of organic and mineral fertilisers on soil biological and physical properties. Bioresource Technology, 72, 9-17.
Mesquita, C.G., Paulo, S.M., Jakovac, C.C., Tony, V.B. & Bruce, W. (2015). Amazon rain forest succession: Stochasticity or land-use legacy. Bio. Science, 65, 849-861.
Mishra, M., Sahu, R.K., Sahu, S.K. & Padhy, R.N. (2005). Effect of vermicomposted municipal solid wastes on growth, yield and heavy metal contents of rice (Oryza sativa). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 14, 584-590.
Moeinzadeh, A., Sharif-Zadeh, F., Ahmadzadeh, M. & FHeidari, T. (2010). Biopriming of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Seed with Pseudomonas fluorescens for Improvement of Seed Invigoration and Seedling Growth. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4, 564.
Munnoli, P.M. & Bhosle, S. (2008). Soil aggregation by vermicompost of press mud. Current Science, 95, 1533-1535.
Munnoli, P.M. & Bhosle, S. (2011). Water-holding capacity of earthworms’ vermicompost made of sugar industry waste (press mud) in mono-and polyculture vermireactors. The environmentalist, 31, 394-400.
Paul, L.C. & Metzger, J.D. (2005). Impact of vermicompost on vegetable transplant quality. Hort. Science, 40, 2020-2023.
Pedersen, F.J., Vogel, K.P. & Funnell, D.L. (2005). Impact of reduced lignin on plant fitness. Crop Science, 45, 812-819.
Pratap, V. & Sharma, Y.K. (2010). Impact of osmotic stress on seed germination and seedling growth in black gram (Phaseolus mungo). Journal of Environmental Biology, 31, 721-726.
Quinlivan, B.J. (1968). The softening of hard seeds of sand plain lupine (Lupinus various L.). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 19, 507.
Rasmussen, S.D., Scott, J.J. & John, W. (2003). G03-1512 Establishing Conservation Plantings of Nut Trees and Shrubs by Direct Seeding Methods. Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension, 856.
Raviv, M., Wallach, R., Silber, A. & Asher, B.T. (2002). Substrates and their analysis In: Hydroponic Production of Vegetables and Ornamentals (pp.25-105). Embryo Publications .
Rekha, G.S., Patheri, K.K., Elumalai, D., Srikumaran, M.P. & Maheswari, V.N. (2018). Effects of vermicompost and plant growth enhancers on the exo-morphological features of Capsicum annum (Linn.) Hepper. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 7, 83-88.
Shahi, C., Bargali, K. & Bargali, S.S. (2015). How seed size and water stress effect the seed germination and seedling growth in wheat varieties?. Current Agriculture Research Journal, 3, 60.
Tamilarasan, C., Jerlin, R. & Raja, K. (2020). Standardization of seed ball technique in subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) for improving the green coverage in forest areas. Multilogic in Science, 10, 644-647.
Tamilselvi, P. (2017). Development of Multi row Seeder for Carrot. Ph.D., Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.
Vibhuti, Shahi, C., Bargali, K. & Bargali, S.S. (2015). Seed germination and seedling growth parameters of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties as affected by salt and water stress. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 85, 102-108.
Vo, H.M. & Wang, C.H. (2014). Physicochemical properties of vermicompost-based substrate mixtures and their effects on the nutrient uptake and growth of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seedlings. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 30,153-163.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Tamilarasan, C. ., Jerlin, R., & Raja, K. . (2021). Standardization of seed ball media for fodder sorghum to increase green cover and fodder availability in degraded lands. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(SI), 18 - 25. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v13iSI.2772
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles