##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

B. Sailaja S. Sivaprasad

Abstract

Circadian rhythms in the silk gland protein profiles of Bombyx mori were analyzed under 12 h light and 12 h dark cycle (LD), continuous light (LL) and continuous dark (DD) conditions. The phase response curves of protein rhythms indicate the prevalence of a series of silk cycles, each comprising three phases; transcription, translation and consolidation of silk proteins. In the 24h- protein rhythm, the silk cycle repeats every 3h, 42 m under LD, 2h, 36m under LL and 3h under DD. The light and dark conditions advanced the rhythm of each silk cycle by 48m and 24m respectively. As a result the silk gland completes 7 rounds of protein synthesis under LD, 9 rounds under LL and 8 rounds under DD during the 24h-free running time of the rhythm. The light-induced clock-shift in the protein rhythm caused significant gains in economic parameters of sericulture with positive signals for enhancing silk productivity and quality.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Bombyx mori, Circadian rhythms, Photoperiod, Proteins, Silk gland

References
Bohidar, K., Sahoo, B.S. and Singh, D.K. (2007). Effect of different varieties of mulberry leaves on economic parameters of the silkworm Bombyx mori L. under orissa climate. Bull. Ind. Acad. Seri., 11(2): 60-64.
Chen, W. and You, Q.(2004). Studies on properties of sericin protein of Bombyx mori Part III : Denaturation and deterioration of sericin at high temperature and high humidities. Bull. Ind. Acad. Seri., 8 (1): 23-28.
Ciechanover, A. (2005). Proteolysis: from the lysosome to ubiquitin and the proteasome. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol., 6: 79-87.
Damiola, F., Le Minh, N., Preitner, N., Kornmann, B., Fleury-Olela, F. and Schibler, U. (2000). Restricted feeding uncouples circadian oscillators in peripheral tissues from the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Genes Dev., 14 (23): 2950-2961.
Dolezel, D., Zdechovanova, L., Sauman, I. and Hodkova, M. (2008). Endocrine- dependent expression of circadian clock genes in insects. Cell Mol Life Sci., 65(6): 964 -969.
Durand, B., Drevet, J. and Couble, P. (1992). P25 gene regulation in Bombyx mori silk gland: two promoter – binding factors have distinct tissue and developmental specificities. Mol. Cell Biol., 12: 5768 - 5777.
Forster, C.H. (2000). Differential control of morning and evening components in the activity rhythm of Drosophila melanogaster –sex- specific differences suggest a different quality of activity. J. Biol. Rhythms, 15(2): 135-154.
Fukuta, M., Matsuno, K., Hui, C., Nagata, T., Takiya, S., Xu, P.-X., Ueno, K. and Suzuki ,Y. (1993). Molecular cloning of a POU domain-containing factor involved in the regulation of the Bombyx sericin-1 gene. J. Boil. Chem., 268:19471-19475.
Glossop, N.P. and Hardin, P.E. (2002). Central and peripheral circadian oscillator mechanisms in flies and mammals. Journal of Cell Science, 115: 3369-3377.
Goto, S.G. and Denlinger, P.E. (2002). Short-day and long-day expression patterns of genes involved in the flesh fly clock mechanism: period, timeless, cycle and cryptochrome. Journal of Insect Physiology, 48: 803-816.
Gizelak, K. (1995). Control of expression of silk protein genes. Comp . Biochem. Physiol. B: Biochem. Mol. Boil., 110: 671-681.
Grima, B., Chelot, B.E., Xia, R. and Rouyer, F. (2004). Morning and evening peaks of activity rely on different clock neurons of the Drosophila brain. Nature, 431:862-868.
Hardin, P.E. (2004). Transcription regulation within the circadian clock: the E - box and beyond. J.Biol.Rhythms,19: 348 – 360.
Inoue, A., Tanaka, K. and Arisakaffi, F. (2000). Silk fibroin of Bombyx mori is secreted, assembling a high molecular mass elementary unit consisting of H- chain,L-chain, and P25, with a 6:6:1 molar ratio. J. Biol. Chem., 275: 40517-40528.
Iwai, S., Fukui, Y., Fujiwara, Y. and Takeda, M. (2006). Structure and expressions of two circadian clock genes, period and timeless in the commercial silkmoth,Bombyx mori. J. Insect Physiol., 52(6): 625-637.
Jin, Y.X., Chen, Y.Y., Xu, M.K. and Jiang, Y.H. (2004). Studies on middle silk gland proteins of cocoon colour sex-limited silkworm (Bombyx mori) using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. J. Biosci., 29: 45-49.
Kenny, N.A. and Saunders, D.S. (1991). Adult locomotor rhythmicity as “hands” of the maternal photoperiodic clock regulating larval diapause in the blowfly,Calliphora vicina. J. Biol. Rhythms, 6: 217 -233.
Kita, Y., Shiozawa, M., Jin, W., Majewski, R. R., Besharse, J.C., Greene, A.S. and Jacob, H.J. (2002). Implications of circadian gene expression in kidney, liver and the effects of fasting on pharmacogenomic studies. Pharmacogenetics, 12(1): 55-65.
Koga, M., Ushirogawa, H. and Tomioka, K. (2005). Photoperiodic modulation of circadian rhythms in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. J. Insect Physiol., 51:219- 230.
Krishnaswami, S. (1986). New technology of silkworm rearing. Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Mysore, India.
Kyung, H.S., Su, J.J., Young, R.S., Seok, W.K. and Sung, S.H. (2006). Identification of up-regulated proteins in the hemolymph of immunized Bombyx mori larvae. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., D 1: 260-266.
Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J. (1951). Protein measurement with folin-phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193: 265 – 275.
Michaille, J.J., Garel, A. and Prudhomme, J.C. (1989). The expression of five middle silk gland specific genes is territorially regulated during the larval development of Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem., 19: 19-27.
Nirmala, X., Mita, K., Vanisree, V., Zurovec, M. and Sehnal, F. (2001). Identification of four small molecular mass proteins in the silk of Bombyx mori.Insect Mol., 10: 437-445.
Obara, T. and Suzuki, Y. (1988). Temporal and spatial control of silk gene transcription analyzed by nuclear run-on assay. Devl. Biol., 127: 384-391.
Peschel, N., Chen, K.F., Szabo, G. and Stanewsky, R. (2009). Light-dependent interactions between the Drosophila circadian clock factors cryptochrome, jetlag, and timeless. Curr Biol., 19(3): 241- 247.
Rahmathulla, V.K., Priyabrata Das, Ramesh, M. and Rajan, R.K.(2007). Growth rate pattern and economic traits of silkworm, Bombyx mori L under the influence of folic acid administration. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage., 11(4): 81 –84.
Reppert, S.M. (2006). A colorful model of the circadian clock. Cell, 124: 233-236.
Saunders, D.S. (2002). Insect Clocks. 3rd ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Sehadova, H., Markova, E.P., Sehnal, F. and Takeda, M.(2004). Distribution of circadian clock related proteins in the cephalic nervous system of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 19:466-482.
Shafer, T.O., Levine, J.D., Truman, J.W. and Hall, J.C. (2004). Flies by night: Effects of changing day length on Drosophila’s circadian clock. Curr Biol., 14 (5): 424 - 432.
Sharma, V.K. (2003). Adaptive significance of circadian clocks. Chronobiol.Int., 20:901 – 919.
Stokkan, K.A., Yamazaki, S., Tei, H., Sakaki, Y. and Menaker, M. (2001).Entrainment of the circadian clock in the liver by feeding. Science, 291(5503): 490-493.
Stoleru, D., Peng, Y., Agosto, J. and Rosbash, M. (2004). Coupled oscillators control morning and evening locomotor behaviour of Drosophila. Nature, 431:862-868.
Syrova, Z., Dolezel, D., Saumann, I. and Hodkova, M. (2003). Photoperiodic regulation of diapause in linden bugs: Are period and clock genes involved? Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 60: 2510-2515.
Takasu, Y., Yamada, H., Saito, H. and Tsubouchi, K. (2005). Characterization of Bombyx mori Sericins by the Partial Amino Acid Sequences. J. Insect Biotechnology and Sericology, 74: 103-109.
Wallace,R.A., Sanders, G.P. and Ferl, R.J. (1991). Adaptiveness of Behaviour. In Wallace,R.A. (Ed.), Biology : the Science of Life (pp 1105 – 1133), HarperCollins Publishers Inc, New York, USA.
Yamaoka, K., Hoshino, M. and Hirai, T.(1971). Role of sensory hairs on the anal papillae in oviposition behaviour of Bombyx mori. J. Insect Physiol.,47: 2327 – 2336.
Yong Hou, Qingyou Xia, Ping Zhao, Yong Zou, Hongli Liu, Jian Guan, Jing Gong and Zhonghuai Xiang. (2007). Studies on middle and posterior silk glands of silkworm (Bombyx mori) using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Insect Biochem. Mol Biol., 37: 486-496.
Zhang, P.B., Aso, Y.K., Yamamoto, Banno, Y., Wang, Y.Q., Tsuchida, K.Y.,Kawaguchi and Fujii, H. (2006). Proteome analysis of silk gland proteins from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Proteomics, 6: 2586 - 2599.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Sailaja, B., & Sivaprasad, S. (2010). Photoperiodic modulation of circadian rhythms in the silk gland protein profiles of Bombyx mori and its influence on the silk productivity and quality. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 2(1), 48-56. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v2i1.94
More Citation Formats:
Section
Research Articles