In modern agriculture, chemical pesticides are frequently used in agricultural fields to increase crop production. Besides combating insect pests, these insecticides also affect the activity and population of beneficial soil microbial communities. Chemical pesticides upset the activities of soil microbes and thus may affect the nutritional quality of soils. This results in serious ecological consequences. Soil microbes had different response to different pesticides. Soil microbial biomass that plays an important role in the soil ecosystem where they have crucial role in nutrient cycling. It has been reported that field application of glyphosate increased microbial biomass carbon by 17% and microbial biomass nitrogen by 76% in nine soils at 14 days after treatment. The soil microbial biomass C increased significantly upto 30 days in chlorpyrifos as well as cartap hydrochloride treated soil, but thereafter decreased progressively with time. Soil nematodes, earthworms and protozoa are affected by field application rates of the fungicide fenpropimorph and other herbicides. Thus, there is need to assess the effect of indiscriminate use of pesticides on soil microorganisms, affecting microbial activity and soil fertility.
Herbicides, Insecticides, Microbial biomass, Mycorrhiza, Soil enzymatic activity
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