Amarendra Kumar Rakesh Kumar Santosh Kumar Divakar Nandan Gireesh Chand S. J. Kolte


Oilseed Brassicas are contributing approximately 28 percent of the India’s total oilseed production. This crop is gaining wide acceptance among t he f a rme r s b e ca u s e of adaptability for both irrigated as well as rainfed areas and suitability for sole as well as mixed cropping. Besides, it offers higher return with low cost of production and low water requirement. The production and productivity of oilseed brassicas are comparatively lower as compared to the world average due to the biotic and abiotic constraints. Among the biotic constraints, alternaria blight disease caused by Alternaria spp. has been reported from all the continents of the world, causing up to 70% yield losses in India. This disease was found on leaves, stems and siliquae and dark spots on the leaves and siliquae reduce the photosynthetic capacity and induce immature ripening, which causes reduced amount of quality seed and oil content. The severity of this disease depends upon weather conditions, varieties, age of host plants and virulence of the pathogens. Efforts are being done throughout the world for the management of alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard. This paper comprehensively reviews the research of alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard with special reference to management strategies through conventional, non conventional and biotechnological approaches that leads to planning the future research. The present scenario demands the traditional and modern biotechnological techniques bringing together for integrated disease management according to the need and availability at farmers level for sustainable management of alternaria blight disease of oilseed brassicas.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Alternaria blight, Management, Oilseed Brassicas, Pathogens, Symptoms

Adachi, Y., Watanabe, H., Tanabe, K., Doke, N., Nishimura S. and Tsuge T. (1993) Nuclear ribosomal DNA as a probe for genetic variability in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata. Appl Environ Microbiol., 59: 3197-3205.
Agricultural statistics at a Glance (2014). Ministry of agriculture, Departement of agriculture and cooperation. Govt. of India. pp.39.
Agrios, G.N. (2005). Plant Pathology, 5th Edn., Elsevier Academic Publishers, California, USA, 922 p.
Ahmad, M.S. and Sinha, K.K. (2002). Mycotoxin contamination of mustard seeds during storage. Indian Phytopath 55(3): 299-302.
Anonymous (1984). Oilseed rape. In: Annual Report of the Edinburgh School of Agriculture, 1983, Edinburgh, U.K., pp. 39-40.
Ansari, N.A., Khan M.W. and Muneet, A. (1988). Effect of Alternaria blight on oil content of rapeseed and mustard. Curr. Sci., 57: 1023-1024.
Angell, H. R. (1929). Purple blotch of onion (Macrosporium Porri Ell.) J. Agric. Res. 38: 467-487.
Ansari, N.A., Khan, M.W. and Muheet, A. (1989). Effect of some factors on growth on sporulation of Alternaria brasicae causing Alternaria blight of rapeseed and mustard. Acta Botanica Indica., 17: 49-53.
Anwar, M.J. and Khan, S.M. (2001). Efficacy of some fungicides for the control of leaf blight on rapeseed and mustard. Pak. J. Phytopath., 13: 167-169.
Awasthi, R.P. and Kolte, S.J. (1989) Epidemiology of Alternaria blight of rapeseed and mustard.IDRC (Canada) Brassica–sub-network Meeting, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar, January, 1989.
Awasthi, R.P. and Kolte, S. . (1994) Epidemiological factors in relation to development and prediction of alternaria blight of rapeseed and mustard. Indian Phytopathol. 47: 395- 399.
Ayub, A., Dey, T.K., Jahan, M., Ahmed, H.D. and Alam, K.B. (1996). Foliar spray of fungicides to control Alternaria blight of mustard. Ann. Bangladesh Agric., 6: 47-50.
Berto, P., Comménil, P., Belingheri, L. and Dehorter, B. (1999) Occurrence of a lipase in spores of Alternaria brassicicola with a crucial role in the infection of cauliflower leaves. FEMS Microbiol Lett., 180: 183-189.
Bhaskar, B., Ahuja, I., Janeja, S. and Banga, S. (2002) Intergeneric hybridization between Erucastrum canariense and Brassica rapa. Genetic relatedness between E(C) and A. genomes. Theor Appl Genet., 105: 754-758.
Bhoumik, T.P. and Munde, P.N. (1987) Identification of resistance in rapeseed and mustard against Alternaria brassicae(berk.) Sacc. and some resistant sources. Beitrage trop. Landwirysch. Veterinarmed. 25: 49-53.
Bidwell, R.G.S. (1979). Plant physiology, 2nd ed. Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc., New York, 726 pp.
Blachinski, D., Shtienberg, D., Dinoor, A., Kafkafi, U., Sujkowski, L.S., Zitter, T.A. and Fry, W.E. (1996). Influence of foliar application of nitrogen and potassium on Alternaria diseases in potato, tomato and cotton. Phytoparasitica, 24: 281-292.
Bock, C.H., Thrall, P. ., Brubaker, C. . and Burdon, J.J. (2002) Detection of genetic variation in Alternaria brassicicola using AFLP fingerprinting. Mycol Res. 106: 428-434.
Borg, A. (1951). Some plant diseases and pests in West Gothland (1950). Vaxtskyddsnotiser, Vaxdskyddsant Stockh, 1: 1-7.
Brandenburg, E. (1938). On the principles of boron application in agricultue. Phytopath., 12: 1-112.
Browne, L.M., Conn, K.L., Ayer, W.A. and Tewari, J.P. (1991). The camalexins: new phytoalexins produced in the leaves of Camelina sativa (Cruciferae). Tetrahedron 47: 3909-3914.
Brun, H., Plessis, J. and Renard, M. (1987). Resistance of some crucifers to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. In Proc 7th rapeseed Conf, Paris, pp 1222-1227.
Callens, D., Sarrazyn, R. and Evens, W. (2005). Signum, a new fungicide for control of leaf diseases in outdoor vegetables. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 70: 199-207.
Chahal, A.S. and Kang, M.S. (1979). Influence of the meteorological factors on the development of Alternaria blight of rape and mustard in the Punjab. Indian Phytopath., 32: 171.
Chandra, A., Gupta, M.L., Ahuja, I., Kaur, G. and Banga, S. S. (2004). Intergeneric hybridization between Erucastrum cardaminoides and two diploid crop Brassica species. Theor Appl Genet. 108: 1620-1626.
Changsri, W. (1961). Studies of Alternaria spp. pathogen on cruciferae. Diss. Abstr. 21: 1698.
Chattopadhyay, C., Agrawal, R., Kumar, A., Bhar, L.M., Meena, P.D., Meena, R.L., Khan, S.A., Chattopadhyay, A.K., Awasthi, R.P., Singh, S.N., Chakravarthy, N.V.K., Kumar, A., Singh, R.B., Bhunia, C.K. (2005). Epidemiology and forecasting of Alternaria blight of oilseed Brassica in India- a case study. Z. Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenschutz. J. Plant Dis. Prot.,112: 351-365.
Chen, Y.T., Lin, M.J., Yang, C.H. and Ko, W.H. (2011). Characterization of a fungistatic substance produced by Aspergillus flavus isolated from soil and its significance in nature. N. Biotechnol. 28: 679-83.
Cho, Y., Cramer, R.A. Jr., Kim, K.H., Davis, J., Mitchell, T.K., Figuli, P., Pryor, B.M., Lemasters, E. and Lawrence C.B. (2007) The Fus3/Kss1 MAP kinase homolog Amk1 regulates the expression of genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes in Alternaria brassicicola. Fungal Genet Biol. 44: 543-53.
Chung, W.C. and Huang, J.W. (1993). Effect of mineral elements on disease severity of black spot of Chinese Kale. Plant Pathol. Bull., 2: 78-87.
Chupp, C. and Sherr, A.F. (1960). Vegetable diseases and their control, pp. 549. New York: The Ronald Press Co.
Choudhary, B.R., Joshi, P. and Ramarao, S. (2000) Interspecific hybridization between Brassica carinata and Brassica rapa. Plant Breed. 119: 417-420.
Clear, R.M. (1992). Frequency and distribution of seed borne fungal pathogens in western Canadian Canola-1989 and 1990. Can. Plant Dis. Surv. 72(1): 21-27.
Colhoun, J. (1973). Effect of environmental factors on plant disease. Ann. Rev. Phytopath.,11: 343-364.
Conn, K.L. and Tewari, J.P. (1989) Interactions of Alternaria brassicae conidia with leaf epicuticular wax of canola. Mycol Res. 93: 240-242.
Conn, K.L., Tewari, J.P. and Dahiya J.S. (1988). Resistance to Alternaria brassicae and phytoalexinselicitation in rapeseed and other crucifers. Plant Sci. 56: 21-25
Conn, K.L. and Tewari, J.P. (1986) Hypersensitive reaction induced by Alternaria brassicae in Eruca sativa, an oil yielding crucifer. Can J Plant Pathol. 8: 348.
Cooke, D.E., Forster, J.W., Jenkins, P.D., Gareth-Jones, D. and Lewis D.M. (1998). Analysis of intraspecific and interspecific variation in the genus Alternaria by the use of RAPD-PCR. Ann Appl Biol 132: 197-209
Cox, T., Souche, J.L. and Grapel, H. (1983). The control of Sclerotinia, Alternaria and Botrytis on oilseed rape with spray treatments of flowable formulation of iprodione. Abstr. 6th Int. Rapeseed Congr, Paris, France, 17-19 May 1983, pp. 928-933.
Cramer, R.A. and Lawrence, C.B. (2004) Identification of Alternaria brassicicola genes expressed in planta during pathogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Fungal Genet Biol. 41: 115-28
Cramer, R.A., LA Rota, C.M., Cho, Y., Thon, M., Craven, K.D., Knudson, D.L., Mitchell, T.K. and Lawrence, C.B. (2006). Bioinformatic analysis of expressed sequence tags derived from a compatible Alternaria brassicicola- Brassica oleracea interaction.Mol Plant Pathol.7:113-24.
Craven, K.D., Vélëz, H., Cho, Y., Lawrence, C.B. and Mitchell, T.K. (2008). Anastomosis is required for virulence of the fungal necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola. Eukaryot Cell. Apr; 7: 675-83.
DasGupta, B., Chatterjee, B.N., Chowdhury, S. Ghosh, R.K. and Baral, K. (1985). Fungicidal control of Alternaria blight of mustard. J. Oilseeds Res., 2: 148-151.
Dang, J.K., Kaushik, C.D. and Sangwan, M.S. 1995. Quantitative relationship between Alternaria leaf blight of rapeseed- mustard and weather variables. Indian J. Mycol. Plant Pathol., 25: 184-188.
Danielsson, J., Reva, O., Meijer, J. (2007). Protection of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) toward fungal pathogens by strains of plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Microb Ecol. 54: 134-40.
Degenhardt, K.J., Skoropad, W.P. and Kondra, Z.P. (1974). Effect of Alternaria black spot on yield, oil content and protein content of rapeseed. Can. J. Plant Sci., 54: 795-799.
Dubuis, P.H., Marazzi, C., Staedler, E., and Mauch, F. (2005) Sulphur deficiency causes a reduction in antimicrobial potential and leads to increased disease susceptibility of oilseed rape. Journal of Phytopathol. 153:27–36.
Economic Survey (2013-14), Ministry of Finance, Government of India, Delhi.
Ellis, M.B. (1971). Dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, U.K.
Emmett, R.W. (2003). Strategic use of sulphur in integrated pest and disease management (IPM) programs for grapevines. Final report overview. Notes prepared for meetings with the Australian agricultural chemical industry. Department of Primary Industries,Mildura Vic. 10 pp
Elliott, J.A. (1917). Taxonomic characters of the genera Alternaria and Macrosporium. American Journal of Botany 4: 439-476.
Fageria, N.K., Baligar, V.C. and Jones Charles Allan. (1991). Essential Nutrient and Plant Diseases. In : Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 457-470.
Flor, H.H. (1971) Current Status of the Gene-For-Gene Concept Annual Review of Phytopathol. 9: 275-296.
Fries, E., (1832) Systema Mycologicum, Vol.I. Officiana Berlingianalund, p.520.
Ghose, K., Dey, S., Barton, H., Loake, G.J. and Basu, D. (2008). Differential profiling of selected defence-related genes induced on challenge with Alternaria brassicicola in resistant white mustard and their comparative expression pattern in susceptible India mustard. Mol Plant Pathol. 9: 763-775.
Godika, S. and Pathak, A.K. (2002). Efficacy of some fungicides against white rust and Alternaria blight disease of mustard. Plant Dis. Res., 17: 138-140.
Goyal, K.N. (1977). Effect of pH, carbon and nitrogen nutrition on the growth and sporulation of Alternaria tenuis (A. alternata). Indian J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 7: 155-157.
Goyal, P , Chahar, M, , Mathur, A.P., Kumar, A. and Chattopadhyay, C. (2011). Morphological and cultural variation in different oilseed Brassica isolates of Alternaria brassicae from different geographical regions of India Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 81: 1052–1058.
Graham, R.D. (1983). Effect of nutrient stress on susceptibility of plants to disease with particular reference to the trace elements. Adv. Bot. Res., 10: 221-276.
Grant, C.A. and Bailey, L.D. (1993). Fertility management in Canola production. Can. J. Pl. Sci., 73 : 651-670.
Gupta, K., Saharan, G.S., and Singh, D. (2001). Sources of resistance in Indian mustard against white rust and Alternaria blight. Cruciferae Newslett., 23: 59-60.
Gupta, S.K., Kumar, P., Yadava, T.P. and Saharan, G.S. (1984). Changes in phenolic compounds, sugars and total nitrogen in relation to Alternaria leaf blight in Indian mustard. Harayana Agric Univ J Res. 14: 535-537.
Hammond, P.M. (1995). Magnitude and distribution of biodiversity. In: Global Biodiversity Assessment (ed. V. H. Heywood. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.:107-191.
Hashiba, T. and Narisawa, K. (2005) The development and endophytic nature of the fungus Heteroconium chaetospira. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 252: 191-196.
Hasija, S.K. (1969). Sulfur requirements of Curvularia pallescens Boed., Alternaria Citri Ell.and A. tenuis Auct. Mycopath. Mycol. Appl., 39: 139-143.
Hansen, L.H. (1998). Intertribal somatic hybridization between rapid cycling Brassica oleracea (L.) and Camelina Sativa (L.) Cranz. Euphytica 104: 173-179.
Hansen, H. and Earle, E.D. (1995). Transfer of resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (L.) by protoplast fusion. Theor Appl Genet. 91: 1293-1300.
Hansen, H. and Earle, E.D. (1997). Somatic hybrids between Brassica oleracea (L.) and Sinapis alba (L.) with resistance to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. Theor Appl Genet. 94: 1078-1085.
Hong, C.X., Fitt, B.D.L. and Welham, S.J. (1996). Effects of wetness period and temperature on development of dark pod spot (Alternaria brassicae) on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Plant Pathol., 45: 1077-1089.
Huber, D.M. and Watson, R.D. (1974). Nitrogen form and plant disease. Ann. Rev. Phytopath., 12: 139-165.
Huber, D.M. (1980). The soil of mineral nutrition in defense. In : Horsfall, J.G. and Cowling, E.B.(eds.).Plant Pathology - An advanced treatise. Academic Press, New York, pp. 381-406.
Hussain, M.D. (1993). Effect of rovral on the yield and incidence of alternaria blight of mustard Pak. J. Agri: Sci; 30: 185-187.
Igarashi, Y., Ogawa, M., Sato, Y., Saito, N., Yoshida, R., Kunoh, H., Onaka, H. and Furumai, T. (2000). Fistupyrone, a novel inhibitor of the infection of Chinese cabbage by Alternaria brassicicola, from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0569. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 53:1117-22.
Jasalavich, C.A., Morales, V.M., Pelcher, L.E. and Seguin- Swartz, G. (1995). Comparision of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from Alternaria species pathogenic to crucifers. Mycol Res. 99: 604-614.
Jasalavich, C.A., Seguin-Swartz, G., Vogelgsang, S. and Petrie, G.A. (1993). Host range of Alternaria species pathogenic to crucifers. Can J Plant Pathol. 15:314–315.
Javed, M. A., Nasir, M. A. and Bajwa, M. N. (1995). In vitro effect of certain chemicals on colony growth of different post harvest fruit rotting fungi of citrus. Pakistan J. Phytopath., 7: 215-216.
Jimenez, L.D., Ayer, W.A., Tewari, J.P. (1997). Phytoalexins produced in the leaves of Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepherd’s Purse). Phytoprotection. 78: 99-103.
Joubert, A., Bataille-Simoneau, N., Campion, C., Guillemette, T., Hudhomme, P., Iacomi-Vasilescu, B., Leroy, T., Pochon, S., Poupard, P. and Simoneau, P. (2011). Cell wall integrity and high osmolarity glycerol pathways are required for adaptation of Alternaria brassicicola to cell wall stress caused by brassicaceous indolic phytoalexins. Cell Microbiol. 13: 62-80.
Kadian, A.K. and Saharan, G.S. (1983). Symptomatology host range and assessment of yield losses due to Alternaria brassicae infection in rapeseed and mustard. Indian J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 13: 319-323.
Kannan, P., Pandey, D., Gupta, A.K., Punetha, H., Taj, G. and Kumar A. (2012). Expression analysis of MAP2K9 and MAPK6 during pathogenesis of Alternaria blight in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia. Mol Biol Rep. 39: 4439-4444.
Katiyar, R.K. and Chamola, R. (1994). A note on incorporation of resistance of resistance to Alternaria leaf spot into Brassica juncea from Brassica carinata. New Botanist 21:239-246.
Katiyar. R.K. and Chopra, V.L. (1990). Somaclonally induced earliness in a Brassica juncea germplasm accession with field resistance to important diseases. Plant Breed. 104: 262-264.
Kaur, A. (2000). Characterization on biotically and abiotically induced response of mustard against Albugo candida, Peronospora parasitica and Alternaria brassicae. Thesis, Ph.D. (Plant Pathology), G.B. Pant Univ. of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar, 148 p.
Kaushik, C.D., Saharan, G.S. and Kaushik, J.C. (1984). Magnitude of losses in yield and management of alternaria blight in rapeseed-mustard. Indian Phytopathol. 37: 398
Khan, M.M., Khan, R.U. and Mohiddin, F.A. (2007). Studies on the cost-effective management of Alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard (Brassica spp.) Phytopathol. Mediterr. 46: 201–206.
Khatun, F., Alam, M.S., Hossain, M.A., Alam, S., Malaker, P.K. (2011). Effect of NPK on the incidence of alternaria leaf blight of Mustard. Bangladesh J. Agric res.,36:407- 413.
Kim, K.H., Cho, Y., LA Rota, M., Cramer, R.A. Jr. and Lawrence, C.B. (2007). Functional analysis of the Alternaria brassicicola non-ribosomal peptide synthetase geneAbNPS2 reveals a role in conidial cell wall construction. Mol Plant Pathol. 8: 23-39.
Kiraly, Z. (1976). Plant disease resistance influenced by biochemical effects of nutrients in fertilizers. Proc. Int. Potash Inst. Colloq. 12th. pp. 33-46.
Klikocka, H. (2005). Effect of sulphur fertilization on yield and extent of potato tuber infection with Streptomyces scabies and Rhizoctonia solani. Fragm. Agron.,88:38-50.
Kolte, S.J. (1982). Diseases of rai and toria and their control. Indian Farming, 32: 91-93.
Kolte, S.J. (1985a). Diseases of Annual Edible Oilseed Crops (Vol. II), Rapeseed-Mustard and Sesame Diseases. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 135 p.
Kolte, S.J. (1985b). Disease management strategies for rapeseed- mustard crops in India. Agric. Rev., 6: 81-88.
Kolte, S.J., Awasthi, R.P. and Vishwanath. (1985). Field performance of improved toria (Brassica campestris var. toria) varieties against Alternaria blight, downy mildew and white rust diseases. Indian J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 15: 211-213.
Kolte, S.J. (1987). Important diseases of rapeseed and mustard in oilseed crops : Niger and Rapeseed Mustard. Proceedings of the Third Oil Crops Network, held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 6-10 October, 1986, 99-106 pp.
Kolte, S.J., Awasthi, R.P. and Vishwanath (1987). Assessment of yield losses due to Alternaria blight in rapeseed and mustard. Indian Phytopath., 40: 209-211.
Kolte S.J, Awasthi RP and Vishwanath K. (1989). Disease problems in Brassicas and research activities at Pantnagar. IDRC (Canada) Oil Crops: Proceedings of the three meetings held at Pantnagar and Hyderabad, India: 43-48.
Kolte, S.J., Awasthi, R.P. and Vishwanth. (1989). Management of major diseases of rapeseed mustard and groundnut in Uttar Pradesh. Indian Phytopathol. 42: 152.
Kolte, S.J., Bardoloi, D.K. and Awasthi, R.P. (1991). The search for resistance to major diseases of rapeseed mustard in India. Proc 8th Int Rapeseed Congr 9-11 July, Saskatoon, Canada 1: 219-225.
Kolte, S.J. and Awasthi, R.P. (1980). Alternaria blight of rapeseed and mustard Assessment of losses and chemical control. Paper presented at seminar on “Achievements of Seventies and Future Challenges in the Field of Oilseeds and Oils”, 35th All India C o n v e n tion organized by OTAI at Bombay from Feb. 16-17.
Kolte, S.J., Awasthi, R.P. and Vishwanath. (2000). Divya mustard: a useful source to create Alternaria black spot tolerant dwarf varieties of oilseed brassicas. Pl Varieties Seeds, 13: 107-111.
Kumar, A., Kumar, S., Kumar, R., Chand, G. and Kolte, S.J. (2014). Fungicidal effect of some non-conventional chemicals for management of alternaria blight disease of mustard. J. Appl. & Nat. Sci., 6(2): 913-919.
Kumar, A., Kumar, R., Kumar, S., Chand, G. and Kolte, S.J. (2015). Optimization of eco-friendly chemicals on alternaria blight disease progression and yield components of mustard. The Bioscan, 10(2): 705-711.
Kumar, A., Kumar, S., Kumar, R., Chand, G. and Kolte, S.J. (2015). In vitro and in vivo evaluation of eco-friendly chemicals on alternaria blight disease (Alternaria brassicae) management and yield attributes in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). J. Appl. & Nat. Sci.,7(1): 43-51.
Kumar, N. and Kumar, A. (2006). Effect of cultural practices on alternaria blight in Brassica juncea and B. napus. Indian J. Agric Sc. 76(6): 389-390.
Kumar, A. (2012). Production barriers and technological options for sustainable production of raeseed-mustard in India. Journal of Oilseed Brassica. 3(2): 67-77.
Kumar, D., Maurya, N., Bharti, Y.K., Kumar, A., Kumar, K., Srivastava, K., Chand, G., Kushwaha, C., Singh, S.K., Mishra, R.K. and Kumar, A.(2014). Alternaria blight of oilseed brassicas: A comprensive review. African J. of Microbio. Res. 8(30): 2816-2829.
Kumar, V. and Chopra, A.K. (2014). Ferti-irrigational response of hybrid cultivar of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) to distillery effluent in two seasons. Analitical. Chem.Letters, 4(3): 190-206.
Kusaba, M. and Tsuge, T. (1994). Nuclear ribosomal DNA variation and pathogenic specialization in Alternaria fungi known to produce host-specific toxins. Appl Environ Microbiol. 60: 3055-3062.
Labuda, R., Jr, P.E., Sert, H. and Sterflinger, K. (2008). Alternaria jesenskae sp. nov., a new species from Slovakia on Fumana procumbens (Cistaceae). Microbiol. Res., 163:208-214.
Lallu and Shankar, H. (1995). Effect of micronutrients on Indian mustard. J. Oilseed Res.,12: 128-129.
Lin, T.C., Fan, M.C., Wang, S.Y., Huang, J.W. (2011) Identification of the Solanum nigrum extract component involved in controlling cabbage black leaf spot disease. J Agric Food Chem. 59: 1667-1672.
Loof, B. (1959). Economically important diseases of cruciferous oil crops and possibilities for control, especially by breeding for resistance. Severing Utsadesforn Tidskr, 69: 237-250.
MacKenzie, D.R. (1981). Association of potato early blight, nitrogen fertilizer rate and potato yield. Plant Dis., 65: 575-577.
Maity, A. and Mukherjee, I., (2009). Assessment of Iprovalicarb, a systemic fungicide in/on cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 83: 341-347.
Marschner, H. (1986). Relationship between mineral nutrition and plant diseases and pests. In : Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, New York, pp. 369-390.
McDonald, W.C. (1959). Grey leaf spot of rape in Manitoba. Can. J. Pl. Sci., 39: 309-316.
Maude, R.B. and Humpherson-Jones, F.M.1980. Studies on the seed-borne phases of dark leaf spot Alternaria brassicicolaand grey leaf spot Alternaria brassicae of brassicas. Annals of Applied Biology 95(3): 311-319.
Maude, R.B., Humpherson-Jones, C.G. and Shuring, C.G. (1984). Treatments to control Phoma and Alternaria infections of Brassica seeds. Plant Pathol. 39: 17-32
Meena, P.D., Chattopadhyay, C., Singh, F., Singh, B. and Gupta, A. 2002. Yield loss in Indian mustard due to white rust and effect of some cultural practices on Alternaria blight and white rust severity. Brassica,4: 18-24.
Meena, P.D., Meena, R.L. Chattopadhyay, C. and Kumar, A. (2004) Identification of Critical Stage for Disease Development and Biocontrol of Alternaria Blight of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea). J. Phytopathol. 152: 204–209.
Meena, P.D., Chattopadhyay, C., Vijay R. Kumar, Meena R. L. and Rana, U.S. (2005). Spore behaviour in atmosphere and trends in variability of Alternaria brassicae population in India. (In: Abstracts, Global Conference II on Plant Health – Global Wealth organised by the Indian Soc. Mycol. Pl. Pathol.,MPUAT, Udaipur, 25-29 Nov 2005, pp. 91) J.Mycol. Pl. Pathol. 35: 511.
Meena, P.D., Awasthi, R.P., Chattopadhyay, C., Kolte, S.J. and Kumar, A. (2010). Alternaria blight: a chronic disease in rapeseed-mustard, J. Oilseed Res.1:1-11.
Meena, P.D., Rani, A., Meena, R., Sharma, P., Gupta, R. and Chowdappa, P. (2012). Aggressiveness, diversity and distribution of Alternaria brassicae isolates infecting oilseed Brassica in India. African Journal of Microbiol. Res., 6: 5249-5258.
Mengel, K. and Kirkby, E.A. (1978). Principles of plant nutrition. International Potash Institute, Bern, Switzerland.
Mian, I.H. and Akanda, A.M. (1989). Effect of sowing time, irrigation, soil moisture and nutrient status on Alternaria blight of mustard. Bangladesh J. Pl. Pathol., 5: 77-80.
Mondal, K.K., Chatterjee, S.C., Viswakarma, N., Bhattacharya, R.C. and Grover, A. (2003). Chitinase-mediated inhibitory activity of Brassica transgenic on growth of Alternaria brassicae. Curr Microbiol. 47: 171-173.
Mondal, K.K., Bhattacharya, R.C., Koundal, K.R., Chatterjee, S.C. (2007). Transgenic Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) expressing tomato glucanase leads to arrested growth of Alternaria brassicae. Plant Cell Rep. 26: 247-252.
Monte, E., (2001). Understanding Trichoderma: Between biotechnology and microbial ecology. Int. Microbiol., 4:1-4.
Morris, P.F., Connoly, M.S. and St. Clair, D.A. (2000). Genetic diversity of Alternaria alternata isolated from tomato in California assessed using RAPDs. Mycol Res. 104:286-292.
Narasimhulu, S.B., Kirti, P.B., Bhat, S.R., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. (1994). Intergeneric protoplast fusion between Brassica carinata and Camelina sativa. Plant Cell Rep 13: 657-660.
Neergaard, P. (1945). Danish species of Alternaria and Stemphylium. Oxford University Press, London, 560 p.
Pedras, M.S. and Khallaf, I. (2012). Molecular interactions of the phytotoxins destruxin B and sirodesmin PL with crucifers and cereals: Metabolism and elicitation of plant defenses. Phytochemistry. 77: 129-139.
Padres M.S. and Smith, K.C. (1997). Sinalexin, a phytoalexin from white mustard elicited by destruxin B and A. brassicae. Phytochemistry. 46: 833-837.
Patni, C.S., Kolte, S.J. and Awasthi, R.P. (2005). Inhibitory effect of some plant extracts against Alternaria brassicae causing Alternaria blight of mustard. Journal of Research 4: 71-79.
Patni ,C.S. and Kolte, S.J. (2006). Effect of some botanicals in management of Alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard. Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 14(1): 151-156.
Perrenoud, S. (1990). Potassium and plant health. In : International Potash Institute (Revised ed.) Research Topic No. 3. International Potash Institute, Bern, Switzerland, pp. 1-165.
Person, C. and Ebba, T. (1975). Genetics of fungal pathogens. Genet. Supp. 79: 397-408.
Prasad, R., Khandewal, G.L. and Jain, J.P. (1970). Morphology, physiology and control of Alternaria brassicae on Taramera. Indian Phytopath., 23: 105-110.
Prasad, R. and Lallu (2006). Management of Alternaria blight of mustard with combination of chemicals and botanicals. Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci. 14 (2): 400-403.
Pryor, B.M. and Gilbertson, R.L. (2000). Molecular phylogenetic relationships amongst Alternaria species and related fungi based upon analysis of nuclear ITS and mt SSU rDNA sequences. Mycol Res. 104: 1312-1321.
Powen’s W.L. (1939). Boron as a fertilizer for western Oregon soils. Science, 40 : 36-37.
Ram, R.S. and Chauhan, V.B. (1998). Assessment of yield losses due to Alternaria leaf spot in various cultivars of mustard and rapeseed. J. Mycopathol. Res., 36: 109-111.
Ripley, V., Thorpe, M., Iler, S., Mizier, K. and Beversdorf, W.D. (1992). Isozyme analysis as a tool for introgression of Sinapis alba germplasm into Brassica napus. Theor Appl Genet. 84: 403-410.
Roberts, R.G., Reymond, S.T. and Andersen, B. (2000). RAPD fragment pattern analysis and morphological segregation of small-spored Alternaria species and species groups. Mycol Res. 104: 151–160.
Roco, A. and Pérez, L. (2001). In vitro biocontrol activity of Trichoderma harzianum on A. alternata in the presence of growth regulators. Plant Biotechnol., 4: 68-73.
Rotem, J. (1994). The Genus Alternaria: biology, epidemiology and pathogenicity. American Phytopathological Society Press, St Paul,MN.
Saharan, A.R., Barna, B. and Kiraly, Z. (1982). Effect of nitrogen nutrition on Fusarium wilt of tomato plants. Ann. Appl. Biol.,10: 245-250.
Saharan, G.S. and Kadian, A.K. (1983). Analysis of components of horizontal resistance in rapeseed and mustard cultivars against Alternaria brassicae. Indian Phytopathol. 36: 503-507.
Sandhu, K.S., Singh, H. and Kumar, R. (1985). Effect of different nitrogen levels and dates of planting on Alternaria blight and downy mildew diseases of radish seed crop. J. Res. Punjab Agril Univ., 22: 285-290.
Sarkar, B. and Sengupta, P.K. (1978). Studies on some aspects of the epidemiology of Alternaria leaf blight of mustard (Brassica spp.). Beit-rage Zur Tropischen Land Wirtshafjt und Veterinaramedizin, 46: 91-96.
Sasode, R.S., Prakash, S., Gupta, A. Pandya, R.K. and Yadav, A.(2012). In vitro study of some plant extracts against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola. Journal of Phytology 2012, 4(1): 44-46.
Satyabrata, Maiti. 1989. Problems of annual edible oilseed crops in India. In view of tropical plant pathology volume V edited by Ray Chaudhary, S.P.; Verma, J.P., New Delhi, India 1-46. Directorate of Oilseed Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India.
Schenk, P.M., Thomas-Hall, S.R., Nguyen, A.V., Manners, J.M., Kazan, K. and Spangenberg, G. (2008). Identification of plant defence genes in canola using Arabidopsis cDNA microarrays. Plant Biol (Stuttg).10(5): 539-547.
Sempere, F. and Santamarina, M. (2007). In vitro biocontrol analysis of Alternaria alternata(Fr.) Keissler under different environmental conditions, Mycopathologia, 163(3): 183-190.
Sigareva M.A. and Earle, E.D. (1999). Camalexin induction in intertribal somatic hybrids between Camelina Sativa and rapid cycling Brassica oleracea. Theor Appl Genet. 98: 164-170.
Simmons, E.G. (1967). Typification of Alternaria, Stemphylium, and Ulocladium. Mycologia. 59: 67-92.
Simmons, E.G. (1992). Alternaria taxonomy: current status, viewpoint, challenge. In: Chelkowski, J. and Visconti A., eds. Alternaria: biology, plant disease and metabolites. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 1-35.
Sinha, R.K.P., Rai,B. and Sinha, B.B.P. (1992). Epidemiology of leaf spot of rapeseed mustard caused by Alternaria brassicae. J. Appl. Biol., 2: 70-75.
Singh, M.P. (1996). Induced host resistance against Alternaria blight, white rust and downy mildew of rapeseed : Role of micronutrients, growth regulators and organic acids. Thesis, Ph.D. (Plant Pathology), G.B. Pant Univ. of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar, 262 p.
Singh, D., Singh, R., Singh, H., Yadav, R.C., Yadav, N., Barbetti, M., Salisbury, P., Nimbal, S.,Chattopadhyay, C. and Kumar, A. (2007). Cultural and morphological variability in Alternaria brassicae isolates of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss.). (in) Proceeding of the 12th International Rapeseed Congress, 26-30 March, Wuhan, China 4: 158–60.
Sharma T.R. and Tewari, J.P. (1995). Detection of genetic variation in Alternaria brassicae by RAPD fingerprints. J Plant Biochem Biotech 4: 105-107.
Sharma, T.R. and Tewari, J.P. (1998). RAPD analysis of three Alternaria species pathogenic to crucifers. Mycol Re.s 102: 807-814.
Sharma, S.R. and Kolte, S.J. (1994). Effect of soil-applied NPK fertilizers on severity of black s p o t d i s e a s e (Alternaria brassicae) and yield of oilseed rape. Plant and Soil, 167: 313-320.
Sharma, S.R. (1992). Effect of host nutrition in management of Alternaria blight of Toria. Thesis, Ph.D. (Plant Pathology), G.B. Pant Univ. of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar, 235p.
Sharma, N. and Sharma, S. (2008). Control of foliar diseases of mustard by Bacillus from reclaimed soil. Microbiol Res.163(4): 408-13.
Sharma, T.R. and Singh, B.M. (1992). Transfer of resistance to Alternaria brassicae in Brassica juncea through interspecific hybridization among Brassica. J Genet Breed. 46: 373-378.
Sharma, G., Kumar, V.D., Haque, A., Bhat, S.R., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. (2002). Brassica coenospecies: a rich reservoir for genetic Resistance to leaf spot caused by Alternaria brassicae. Euphytica 125: 411-417.
Shrestha, S.K., Munk, L. and Mathur, S.B. (2003). Survival of Alternaria brassicae in seeds and crop debris of rapeseed and mustard in Nepal. Seed Science and Technol. Journal 31: 103-109.
Skoropod, W.P. and Tewari, J.P. (1977). Field evaluation of the role of epicuticular wax in rapeseed and mustard in resistance to Alternaria blackspot. Can J Plant Sci 57: 1001-1003.
Srinivas, T. Rao, K.C. and Chattopadhyay, C. (1997). Effect of botanicals and chemicals on the management of blight (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria helianthi) of sunflower (Helianthus annus). Zeitschrift-fur-Pflanzenkrankheiten-Und-Pflanzenschutz, 104:527.
Stoll, K. (1948). On the Alternaria blackening of Brassicae. Nachr. Bl. Dtsch. Pfisch. Dienst, Berl., N.F., 2 : 174-178.
Tewari, J.P. (1991a). Current understanding of resistance to Alternaria brassicae in crucifers. Proc. GCIRC, 8th Intl. Rapeseed Congr., July 9-11, Saskatoon, Canada, Proc. Vol. 2 : 471-476, P : 84 (Abstr.).
Tewari, J.P. (1991b). Structural and biochemical bases of black spot disease of crucifers. Adv. Struct. Biol., 1: 325-349.
Tewari, J.P. and Conn, K.L. (1993). Reactions of some wild crucifers to Alternaria brassicae. Bulletin-OILS-SROP 16: 53-58.
Tewari, J.P. and Skoropad, W.P. (1976). Relationship between epicuticular wax and black spot caused by A. brassicae in three lines of rapeseed. Can J Plant Sci 68: 297-300.
Thakur, R. (1985). Studies on growth and sporulation of Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. Thesis, M.Sc. Ag. (Plant Pathology), G.B. Pant Univ. of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar, 92 p.
Thakur, R. and Kolte, S.J. (1985). Radish root extract agar, a suitable medium for the growth and sporulation of Alternaria brassicae. Cruciferae Newsl., 10: 117-118.
Thind, T.S. (1977). Studies on nutritional requirements of Alternaria alternata. Indian J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 7: 197-199.
Tripathi, N.N., Kaushik, C.D. Yadava, T.P. and Yadava, A. K. (1980). Alternaria leaf spot resistant in raya. Har. Agril. Univ. J. Res., 10 : 166-168.
Tsuneda, A. and Skoropad, W. P. (1977). Formation of microsclerotia and chlamydospores from conidia ofAlternaria brassicae. Can. J. of Botany, 55(10): 1276- 1281
Tsuneda, A., Skoropad, W.P. and Tewari, J.P. (1978). Phylloplane fungal flora of rapeseed. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 70: 329-334.
Vaartnou, H. and Tiwari, I. (1972). Alternaria alternata, parasitic on rape in Alberta. Plant Dis. Reptr., 56: 676-677.
Verma, R.P. and Saharan, G.S. (1994). Monograph on Alternaria diseases of crucifers. Saskatoon Research Station, Technical Bulletin, 162 p.
Verma, S.S., Yajima W.R., Rahman, M.H., Shah, S., Liu, J.J., Ekramoddoullah, A.K. and Kav, N.N. (2012). A cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide from Pinus monticola (PmAMP1)confers resistance to multiple fungal pathogens in canola (Brassica napus). Plant Mol Biol.79(1- 2): 61-74.
Vidhyasekaran, P. (1988). Physiology of Disease Resistance in Plants. Vol. II. Boca Raton, Florida, CRC Press Inc., 128 p.
Visconti, A., Sibilia, A. and Sabia, C. (1992). Alternaria alternata from oilseed rape: Mycotoxin production and toxicity to Arlemia salina larvae and rape seedlings. Mycotoxin Res., 8: 9-16.
Vishwanath (1987). Studies on some fungicides and micronutrients in the control of three important disease of Toria (Brassica campestris var. toria). Thesis, M.Sc. Ag. (Plant Pathology), G.B. Pant Univ. of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar, 235.
Vishwanath, K. and Kolte, S.J. (1997). Variability in Alternaria brassicae: Response to host genotypes, toxin production and fungicides. Indian Phytopath. 50(3): 373-381.
Valkonen, J.P.T. and Koponen, H. (1990). The seed-borne Alternaria raphani and A. brassicicola. Can. J. Microbiol. 33: 850-856.
Warwick, S.I. (1993). Wild species in the tribe Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) as sources of agronomic traits. Part IV In: Guide to the wild Germplasm of Brassica and Allied crops. Technical Bull. 1993-17E, Center Land and Biological Resources Research, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, pp 1-19.
Wiltshire, S.P. (1933). The foundation species of Alternaria and Macrosporium. Trans. British Mycol. Society 28: 135-160.
Yadav, R.B., Kumar, A., Kumar, A. and Verma, S.K. (2014). Screening of rapeseed-mustard cultivars/lines for resistance against alternaria blight. Indian J. Sci. Res. 5 (1): 89-91.
Yang, B., Jiang, Y., Rahman, M.H., Deyholos, M.K. and Kav, N.N. (2009) Identification and expression analysis of WRKY transcription factor genes in canola (Brassica napus L.) in response to fungal pathogens and hormone treatments. BMC Plant Biol. 3: 9:68.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Kumar, A., Kumar, R., Kumar, S., Nandan, D., Chand, G., & Kolte, S. J. (2016). Alternaria blight of oilseed brassicas: A review on management strategies through conventional, non-conventional and biotechnological approaches. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 8(2), 1110–1125. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v8i2.928
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>