Trichoderma spp are free living filamentous fungi. They are cosmopolitan and versatile in nature. They have the potential to produce several enzymes that can degrade the cell wall materials. Also, they release a number of fungi toxic substances that can inhibit the growth of the fungal pathogens. Many mechanisms have been described on how Trichoderma exert beneficial effects on plants as a bio-control agent. But due to its versatile nature, its potential cannot be explored to its full extent. And it is a developing science in the field of bio-control with its new discoveries adding to the usefulness of the fungi as a bio-control agent. Its development as a bio-control agent passes through many phases and each phase adding novel ideas that will help in the development of an efficient bio-agent which in turn will help in the crop improvement and disease management. The studies on their various aspects responsible for bio-control will open a flood gate to the development of Trichoderma as an efficient and reliable bio-agent and provide a better scope for implementation in crop and disease management. The in vitro antagonistic activity of Trichoderma viride against phytopathogens (Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum f.s.p. ciceri, Fusarium oxysporum f.s.p. udum) was studied and it was found to be potentially effective against F. oxysporum f.s.p. ciceri followed by F. oxysporum f.s.p. udum and Sclerotium rolfsii.
Antibiosis, Bio-control agent, Mycoparasitism
Arora, D.K., Elander, R.P. and Mukerji, K.G. (1992). Handbook of Applied Mycology. Marcel Dekker, New York 4.
Beezhold, D.H., Green, B.J., Blachere, F.M., Schmechel, D., Weissman, D.N., Velickoff, D., Hogan, M.B. and Wilson, N.W. (2008). Prevalence of Allergic Sensitization to Indoor Fungi in West Virginia. Allergy and Asthma Protection, 29: 29-34.
Benitez, M.T., Ana, M., RincÃ³n, M., Carmen, L.A. and CodÃ³n, C. (2004). Biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma strains. International Journal of Microbiology, 7: 249-260. Bigirimana, J., De Meyer, G., Poppe, J., Elad, Y. and Hofte, M. (1997). Induction of systemic resistance on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by Trichoderma harzianum. Med Fac Landbouww University Gent, 62: 1001â€“1007.
Biswas, S. and Datta, M. (2013). Evaluation of Biological Control Agents against Sheath Blight of Rice in Tripura. Indian Phytopathology, 66 (1): 77-80.
Bunker, R.N. and Mathur, K. (2001). Antagonism of local biocontrol agents to Rhizoctonia solani inciting dry root rot of chilli. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 31: 50-53.
Caballero, M.L., GÃ³mez, M., GonzÃ¡lez-MuÃ±oz, M., Reinoso, L., RodrÃguez-PÃ©rez, R., Alday, E.A. and Moneo, I. (2007). Occupational Sensitization to Fungal Enzymes used in Animal Feed Industry. International Archives of Allergy Immunology, 144: 231-239.
Chaudhary, R.G. and Prajapati, R.K. (2004). Comparative Efficacy of Fungal Bio-agents against Fusarium udum. Annals of Plant Protection Science, 12: 75-79.
Chepsergon, J., Mwamburi, L. and Kassim, M.K. (2014). Mechanism of Drought Tolerance in Plants Using Trichoderma spp. International Journal of Science and Research, 3 (11): 1592-1595.
Chet, I. (1993). Biotechnology in Plant Disease Control. Wiley-Liss, New York. 373 pp.
Chet, I. and Inbar, J. (1994). Biological control of fungal pathogens. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 48:37-43.
Chet, I., Inbar, J. and Hadar, I. (1997). Fungal Antagonists and Mycoparasites. The Mycota IV: Environment and Microbe Relationship, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 165-184.
Corke, A.T.K. and Hunter, T. (1979). Biocontrol of Nectria galligena infections of pruning wounds on apple shoots. Journal of Horticultural Science, 54: 47.
Das, B.C. and Hazarika, D.K. (2000). Biological Management of Sheath Blight of Rice. Indian Phytopathology, 53: 433-435.
Degenkolb, T.,Dieckmann, R.,Nielsen, K.F., GrÃ¤fenhan, T., Zafari, D., Chaverri, P., Ismaiel, A., BrÃ¼ckner, H., DÃ¶hren, H.V., Thrane, U., Petrini, O. and Samuels, G.J. (2008). The Trichoderma brevicompactum clade: A New Lineage with New species, New Peptaibiotics, and Mycotoxins. Mycological Progress, 7:177-219.
Dix N.J. and Webster, J. (1995). Fungal Ecology (1st Edn.). Chapman and Hall, London.
Elad, Y., Freeman, S. and Monte, E. (2000). Biocontrol Agents: Mode of Action and Interaction with other Means of Control. IOBC, Sevilla, Espana, 24 pp.
Gogoi, R., Saikia, M., Helim, R. and Ullah, Z. (2007). Management of Potato Diseases using Trichoderma viride formulations. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 37:227-230.
Gupta, S.B., Thakur, K.S., Singh, A., Tamrakar, D.K. and Thakur, M.P. (2005). Efficacy of Trichoderma viride and Rhizobium against Wilt complex of Chickpea in field. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 35: 89-91.
Ha, T.N. (2010). Using Trichoderma species for biological Control of Plant Pathogens in Vietnam. Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences, 16 (1): 17-21.
Harman, G.E. (2000). Myths and Dogmas of Biocontrol- Changes in perceptions derived from research on Trichoderma harzianum T-22. Plant Disease, 84: 377â€“393.
Harman, G.E., Howell, C.R., Viterbo, A., Chet, I. and Lorito, M. (2004). Trichoderma species - Opportunistic, Avirulent Plant Symbionts. Nature Reveiws, 2: 43-56.
Harman, G.E., ObregÂ´on, M.A., Samuels, G. and Lorito, M. (2010). Changing models of biocontrol in the developing and developed world. Plant Disease , 94 (8): 928-939.L.
Hatvani, L. Manczinger, C. VÃ¡gvÃ¶lgyi and L. Kredics (2013). Trichoderma as a Human Pathogen. Trichoderma: biology and applications, CABI, Wallingford, United Kingdom.
Howell, C.R. and Stipanovic, R.D (1983). Gliovirin, a new antibiotic from Gliocladium virens, and its role in the biological control of Pythium ultimum. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 29: 321-324.
Howell, C.R. (1987). Relevance of Mycoparasitism in the biological control of Rhizoctonia solani by Gliocladium virens. Phytopathology, 77: 992-994.
Howell, C.R. (1998). The role of antibiosis in biocontrol. Trichoderma and Gliocladium, Taylor & Francis, London, pp 173-184.
Howell, C.R., Stipanovic, R.D. and Lumsden, R.D. (1993). Antibiotic production by strains of Gliocladium virens and its relation to the biocontrol of cotton seedling diseases. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 3: 435-441.
Howell, C.R. (2003). Mechanisms Employed by Trichoderma Species in the Biological Control of Plant Diseases: The History and Evolution of Current Concepts. Plant Disease, 87: 4-10.
Jagana, M., Zacharia, S. and Basayya, A. (2013). Management of Alternaria blight in Mustard. Annals of Plant Protection Science, 21(2): 441-442.
Jat, J.G. and Agalave, H.R. (2013). Antagonistic properties of Trichoderma species against oilseed-borne fungi. Science Research Report, 3 (2): 171-174.
Jogani, V. and John, P.(2014). Evaluation of different application methods of Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) against Fusarium wilt of tomato. Crop Research, 48 (1, 2, 3): 76-79.
Jorge, L. (2014). Trichoderma Strains as Biocontrol Agents. Advance Genetic Engineering, 3:1.
Kexiang, G., Xiaoguang, L., Yonghong, L., Tianbo, Z. and Shuliang, W. (2002). Potential of Trichoderma harzianum and T.atroviride to control Botryosphaeria berengeriana f. sp. piricola, the cause of apple ring rot. Journal of Phytopathology, 150: 271-276.
Kushwaha, M., Verma, A.K. (2014). Antagonistic Activity of Trichoderma Spp, (A Bio- Control Agent) Against Isolated and Identified Plant Pathogens. International Journal of Chemicals and Biological Sciences, 1(1):1-6.
Komy, M.H.E., Saleh, A.A., Eranthodi, A. and Molan, Y.Y. (2015). Characterization of Novel Trichoderma asperellum Isolates to Select Effective Biocontrol Agents Against Tomato Fusarium Wilt. Plant Pathology Journal, 31(1): 50â€“60.
Kumar, S. (2013). Trichoderma: a biological weapon for managing plant diseases and promoting sustainability. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine, 1 (3): 1-16.
Kumar, S., Thakur, M. and Rani, A. (2014). Trichoderma: Mass production, formulation, quality control, delivery and its scope in commercialization in India for the management of plant diseases. African Journal Agricultural Research, 9 (53): 3838-3852.
Leelavathi, M.S., Vani, L. and Pascal, R.R. (2014). Antimicrobial activity of Trichoderma harzianum against bacteria and fungi. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied.Sciences, 3(1): 96-103.
Lorito, M., Woo, S.L., Dâ€™Ambrosio, M., Harman, G.E., Hayes, C.K., Kubicek, C.P. and Scala, F. (1996). Synergistic interaction between cell wall degrading enzymes and membrane affecting compounds. Molecular Plant and Microbe Interaction, 9: 206-213.
Lorito, M., Woo, S.L., Harman, G.E. and Monte, E. (2010). Translational Research on Trichoderma: Fromâ€˜Omics to the Field. Annual Reviews, 48:19.1â€“19.23.
Marra, R., Ambrosino, P., Carbone, V., Vinale, F., Woo, S.L. and Ruocco, M. (2006). Study of the three-way interaction between Trichoderma atroviride, plant and fungal pathogens by using a proteomic approach. Current Genetics, 50: 307â€“321.
Marzano, M., Gallo, A. and Altomare C. (2013). Improvment of biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum vs. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici through UV induced tolerance to fusaric acid. Biological control, 67: 397-408.
Mohiddin, F.A., Khan, M.R., Khan, S.M. and Bhat, B.H. (2010). Why Trichoderma is Considered Super Hero (Super Fungus) Against the Evil Parasites? Plant Pathology Journal, 9(3): 92-102.
Mukherjee, P.K. and Mukhopadhyay, A.N. (1995). In situ Mycoparasitism of Gliocladium virens on Rhizoctonia solani. Indian Phytopathology, 48 (1): 101-02.
Mukhopadhyay, A.N., Shrestha, S.M. and Mukherjee, P.K. (1992). Biological seed treatment for control of soil borne plant pathogens. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 40: 21-30.
Mustafa, A., Khan, M.A., Inam-ul-Haq, M., Khan, S.H. and Pervez, M.A. (2009). Mass multiplication of Trichoderma spp. on organic substrate and their effect in management of seed borne fungi. Pakistani Journal of Phytopathology, 21(2): 108-114.
Ng, L.C., Ngadin, A., Azhari, M. and Zahari, N.A. (2015). Potential of Trichoderma spp. as Biological Control Agents against Bakanae Pathogen (Fusarium fujikuroi) in Rice. Asian Journal of Plant Pathology, 9: 46-58.
Papavizas, G.C. (1985). Trichoderma and Gliocladium: biology, ecology, and potential for biocontrol. Annual Reveiws of Phytopathology, 23: 23-54.
Parveen, S. and Kumar, V.R (2004). Antagonism by Trichoderma viride against leaf blight pathogen of wheat. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 34: 220-222.
Prasad, R.D., Rangeshwaran, R., Anuroop, C.P. and Phanikumar, P.R. (2002). Bioefficacy and shelf life of conidial and chlamydospore formulation of Trichoderma harzianum in talc formulation. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 80: 930-932.
Puyam, A., Shahid, M., Srivastava, M. and Singh, A. (2013). Effect of different physiological parameters on growth and sporulation of Trichoderma viride. Plant Disease Research, 28(2) :146-151
Reddy, K.K. and Narayana, P. (2009). Efficacy of Trichoderma viride Against Colletotrichum falcatum in Sugarcane. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 37(1, 2): 111-115.
Richard, E., Heutte, N., Bouchart, V. and Garon, D. (2008). Evaluation of Fungal contamination and Mycotoxin production in maize silage. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 148: 309-320.
Samuels, G.J., Dodd, S.L., Gams, W., Castlebury, L.A. and Petrini, O. (2002). Trichoderma species associated with the green mold epidemic of commercially grown Agarcus bisporus. Mycologia, 94: 146-170.
Sankar, P. and Jeyarajan, R. (1996). Biological control of Trichoderma harzianum-a potential biocontrol agent for tobacco damping off. Indian Research, 12: 26-35.
Sharma, P., Patel, A.N., Saini, M.K. and Deep, S. (2012). Field Demonstration of Trichoderma harzianum as a Plant Growth Promoter in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Journal of Agricultural Science, 4 (8): 65-73.
Singh, D. and Maheshwari, V.K. (2001). Biological seed treatment for the control of loose smut of wheat. Indian Phytopathology, 54 (4): 457-460.
Singh, D.P. (2004). Use of reduced dose of fungicides and seed treatment with Trichoderma viride to control wheat loose smut. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 34: 396-397.
Singh, R.K. (2010). â€˜Trichoderma: A bio-control agent for management of soil borne diseasesâ€™. Retrived January, 14 2016 from http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in
Singh, U.S. and Zaidi, N.W. (2002). Current Status of formulation of Trichoderma hamatum. Plant Disease, 72: 27-29.
Shelton, A. (2014) .Biological Control: A guide to Natural enemies in North America. Cornell University World Wide Web site.
Sivan, A. and Chet, I. (1989). The possible role of competition between Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum on rhizosphere colonization. Phytopathology, 79:198-203.
Sriram, S., Raguchander, T., Babu, S., Nandakumar, R., Shanmugam, V., Vidhysekaran, P., Balasubramanian, P. and Samiyappan, R. (2000). Inactivation of phytotoxin produced by the rice sheath blight pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 46: 520-524.
Srivastava, R.K., Singh, R.K., Kumar, N. and Singh, S. (2010). Management of Macrophomia disease complex in jute (Corchorus olitorius) by Trichoderma viride. Journal of Biological Control, 24 (1): 77â€“79.
Tapwal, A., Sharma, Y.P. and Lakhanpal, T.N. (2005). Use of biocontrol agents against white root rot of apple. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 35: 67-69.
Tewari, A.K. (1996). Biological Control of chickpea wilt complex using different formulations of Gliocladium virens through seed treatment. Ph.D Thesis, GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India.
Tjamos, E.C., Papavizas, G.C. and Cook, R.J. (1992). Biological Control of Plant Diseases: Progress and Challenges for the Future. Plenum Press, New York, 255-265pp.
Upadhyay, J.P. and Mukhopadhyay, A.N. (1986). Biological bioefficacy of Trichoderma harzianum control of Sclerotium rolfsii by Trichoderma harzianum in Sugarbeet. Tropical Pest Disease Management, 32: 215-220.
Vasudevan, P., Kavitha, S., Priyadarisini, V.B., Babujee, L. and Gnanamanickamm, S.S. (2002). Biological control of rice diseases. Biological control of crop diseases. Marcel Decker, Newyork, 480: 11-32.
Viterbo, A., Haran, S., Friesem, D., Ramot, O. and Chet, I. (2001). Antifungal activity of a novel endochitinase gene (chit36) from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai TM. Microbiogical Letter, 200: 169-174.
Viterbo, A., Inbar, J., Hadas, Y. and Chet, I. (2007). Plant Disease Biocontrol and Induced Resistance via Fungal Mycoparasites: The Mycota-A Comprehensive Treatise on Fungi as Experimental Systems for Basic and Applied Research. (2nd edn), Environmental and Microbial Relationships, 350pp.
Weindling, R. (1932). Trichoderma lignorum as a parasite of other fungi. Phytopathology, 22: 837-845.
Weindling, R. (1934). Studies on lethal principle effective in the parasitic action of Trichoderma lignorum on Rhizoctonia solani and other fungi. Phytopathology, 24: 1153-1179.
Weindling, R. (1941). Experimental consideration of the mold toxins of Gliocladium and Trichoderma. Phytopathology, 31: 991-1003.
Wiest, A., Grzegorski, D., W Xu, B., Goulard, C., Rebuffat, S., Ebbole, D.J., Bodo, B. and Kenerley, C. (2002). Identification of peptaibols from Trichoderma virens and cloning of a peptaibol synthetase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277: 20862-20868.
Wilcox, W.F., Harman, G.E. and Di Pietro, A. (1992). Effect of gliotoxin on growth, sporulation, and zoospores motility of seven Phytophthora spp. in vitro. Phytopathology, 82: 1121.
Yadav, R.K. and Majumdar, V.L. (2005). Efficacy of plant extracts, biological agents and fungicides against Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing die back of guava (Psidium guajaya L.). Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 35: 352-353.
Yadav, S.K., Dave, A., Sarkar, A., Singh, H.B. and Sharma, B.K. (2013). Co-inoculated biopriming with Trichoderma, Pseudomonas and Rhizobium improves crop growth in Cicer arietinum and Phaseolus vulgari. International Journal of Agricultural and Biology, 6(2): 255-259.
Yedidia, I., Benhamou, N. and Chet, I. (1999). Induction of defence responses in Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) by the Biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum. Applied Environmental and Microbiology, 65: 1061-1071.
Yedidia, I., Benhamou, N., Kapulnik, Y. and Chet, I. (2000). Induction and accumulation of PR proteins activity during early stages of root colonization by the mycoparasite Trichoderma harzianum strain T-203. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 38:863-873.
Yedidia, I., Shoresh, M., Kerem, Z., Benhamou, N., Kapulnik, Y. and Chet, I. (2003). Concomitant induction of systemic resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans in cucumber by Trichoderma asperellum (T-203) and accumulation of phytoalexins. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 69: 7343-7353.
Kandula, D.R.W., Jones, E.E., Stewart, A., McLean, K.L. and Hampton, J.G. (2015). Trichoderma species for biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens of pasture species. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 25 (9): 1052-1069.
Levy, N.O., Harel, Y.M., Haile, Z.M., Elad, Y., Rav-David, E., Jurkevitch, E. and Katan, J. (2015). Induced resistance to foliar diseases by soil solarization and Trichoderma harzianum. Plant Pathology, 64(2): 365â€“374.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)