V. S. Nagrare S. Kranthi K.R. Kranthi V. Chinna Babu Naik Vrushali Deshmukh Bhausaheb Naikwadi Ashish Dahekar


Nineteen insecticidal formulations from 10 groups of insecticides were evaluated for their relative toxicity against cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley and its fortuous parasitoid Aenasius bambawalei Hayat. Insects were exposed to cotton leaves dipped in insecticidal solutions and their mortality was recorded at 24-h intervals. Within 24 h of exposure, Quinalphos, Chlorpyriphos, Thiamethoxam and Profenophos have detrimental effect on both P. solenospis and A. bambawalei recorded more than 70% mortality. Thiodicarb was extremely toxic to P. solenopsis and least toxic to A. bambawalei where as Spinosad was less toxic to P. solenopsis and extremely toxic to A. bambawalei. Profenophos, Thiamethoxam and Chlorpyriphos results into > 90% mortality of P. solenospsis while 100% kill of A. bambawalei with Spinosad, Acephate and Chlorpyriphos up to 48 hours. More than 80% mortality of P. solenopsis with Chlorpyriphos, Profenophos, Monocrotophos, Thiamethoxam, Spinosad and of A. bambawalei with Profenophos, Monocrotophos, Flonicamid, Buprofezin, Imidacloprid, Thiamethoxam, Chlorantraniliprole, Flonicamid and Indoxacarb recorded 72 hours after exposure. While at 96 hours, cent per cent mortality of P. solenopsis was recorded with Monocrotophos which was equivalent to Acephate and Spinosad. Least LT50 values were found with Thiodicarb, Quinalphos and Thiamethoxam for P. solenopsis and higher in case of Thiodicarb for A. bambawalei. Spinosad, Chlorpyriphos and Quinalphos were found to be extremely toxic to A. bambawalei. Among the tested insecticides Thiodicarb was found effective against P. solenopsis and relatively safer to A. bambawalei may be used judiciously to manage P. solenopsis that have least implications on the environment.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Cotton, Insecticides, Mealybugs, Parasitoid

Abbas, G., Arif, M.J. and Saeed, S. (2005). Systematic status of a new species of the genus Phenacoccus Cockerell (Pseudococcidae), a serious pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Pakistan. Pakistan Entomologist, 27: 83-84.
Abbott’s, W.S. (1925). A method for computing the effective-ness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology, 18: 265-676.
Afifi, A.I., El Arnaouty, S.A., Attia, A.R. and Abd Alla Ael, M. (2010). Biological control of citrus mealybug, Plano-coccus citri (Risso) using coccinellid predator, Cryp-tolaemus montrouzieri Muls. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 13: 216-22.
Akintola, A.J. and Ande A.T. (2008). First record of Phena-coccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Nigeria. Agriculture Jour-nal, 3: 1-3.
Anonymous, (2014). Available at http://www.indg.in/ agricul-ture/ crop_production_ techniques/ neem-seed- kernel-extract-nske-preparation/ view?set_language=en
Arif, M.I., Wazir, S., Rafiq, M., Ghaffar, A. and Mahmood, R. (2011). Incidence of Aenasius bambawalei Hayat on mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley and its hyperparasite, Promuscidea unfasciativentris Girault at Multan. Paper presented in 5th ICAC International Cotton Advisory Committee held at Lahore, Pakistan on February 23-25, 2011. Available at http://www.icac.org/tis/ regional_networks/ asian_network/ meeting_5/ documents/ papers / PapArifMI-et_al.pdf.
Ayubi, A., Moravvej, G., Karimi, J. and Jooyandeh, A. (2013). Lethal effects of four insecticides on immature stages of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in laboratory conditions. Turkish Journal of Entomology, 37 (4): 399-407
Boyd, M.L. and Boethel, D.J. (1998). Susceptibility of Preda-ceous Hemipteran Species to Selected Insecticides on Soybean in Louisiana. Journal of Econnomic entomol-ogy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1093/jee/91.2.401401-409First published online: 1 April 1998
Carrillo, D., Pena, J.E. and Rogers M.E. (2009). Relative susceptibility of Haeckeliania sperata (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to pesticides used in citrus and orna-mental systems in Florida. Journal of Economic Ento-mology, 102: 905-912. doi: .http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1603/ 029.102.0307
Chaturvedi, I. (2014). Observations on comparative efficacy of insecticides against Carcella illota and Bacillus thur-ingiensis. International Journal of Research in Biosciences, 3:1-6.
Chen, H.Y., Cao, R.X. and Xu Zai, F. (2010). First record of Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from China. Jour-nal Environmental Entomology, 32: 280-282.
Consoli, F.L., Botelho, P.S.M. and Parra, J.R.P. (2001). Se-lectivity of insecticides to the egg parasitoid Tricho-gramma galloi Zucchi, (Hym., Trichogrammatidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 125: 37-43.
Fallahzadeh, M., Japoshvili, G., Abdimaleki, R. and Saghaei, N. (2014). New records of Tetracneminae Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae) from Iran. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 38 doi:10.3906/zoo-1309-28
Hayat, M. (2009). Description of a new species of Aenasius Walker (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoid of mealy-bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseu-dococcidae). Biosystematica, 3: 21–25.
Hodgson, C., Abbas, G., Arif, M.J., Saeed, S. and Karar H. (2008). Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsle (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), aninvasive mealybug damaging cotton in Pakistan and India, with a discussion on seasonal morphological variation. Zootaxa, 1913: 1-35.
Huang, J. and Zhang J. (2013). Synergistic effect of organic silicon surfactant in chemical control of the new invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 25: 2182–2184.
Hussain, D., Ali, A., Hassan, M.M., Ali, S., Saleem, M. and Nadeem S. (2012). Evaluation of toxicity of some new insecticides against egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilo-nis (Ishii) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammitidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 44: 1123-1127.
Jones, W.A., Ciomperlik, M.A. and Wolfenbarger, D.A. (1998). Lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on two parasitoids attacking Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Biological Control, 11 (1): 70–76.
Kumar, R., Naitharwal, M., Chauhan, R., Pal, V. And Kranthi, K.R. 2012. Evaluation of ecofriendly control methods for management of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in cotton. Journal of Entomology 9: 32-40.
Kumar, R., Swami, D., Pal, V.and Kranthi, K.R. (2011). In-secticide induced resurgence of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in cotton. In Book (Edited by Kranthi, K. R.;Venugopalan, M. V.; Balasubramanya, R. H.; Kran-thi, S.; Singh, S.; Blaise D.) World Cotton Research Con-ference-5, Mumbai, India, 7-11 November 2011, 198-202.
Kumar, R., Kranthi, K., Monga, D. and Jat S.L. (2009). Natural parasitization of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton by Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Journal of Biological Control, 23, 457–460.
Mandal, D., Bhowmik, P., Halder, P. and Chatterjee, M.L. (2013). Determination of relative toxicity and base line data of different insecticides against cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley). The Journal of Plant Protection Sciences, 5: 26-31.
Medina, P., Budia, F., Tirry, L., Smagghe, G. and Vinuela E. (2001). Compatibility of Spinosad, Tebufenozide and Azadirachtin with Eggs and Pupae of the Predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) Under Laboratory Condi-tions. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 11: 597-610.
Miles, M. and Dutton, R. (2000). Spinosad—a naturally de-rived insect control agent with potential for use in inte-grated pest management systems in greenhouses. In: Proceedings of the BCPC Conference—Pests and Dis-eases, November 13-16, British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, Surrey, UK. Brighton, UK p339-344.
Muhammad, A. (2007). Mealybug: cotton crop’s worst catas-trophe’ published by the Centre for Agro-Informatics Research (CAIR), Pakistan in October 2007. Available at http://agroict.org/ adss/MealyBug_Report.aspx.
Nagrare, V.S., Kranthi, S., Kumar, R., Dharajothi, B., Amutha, M., Deshmukh, A.J., Bisane, K.D. and Kranthi, K.R. (2011). Compendium of Cotton Mealybugs. Tech-nical Bulletin, Central Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur, P 42
Nagrare, V.S., Kranthi, S., Biradar, V.K., Zade ,N.N., San-gode, V., Kakde, G., Shukla, R.M., Shivare, D., Khadi, B.M. and Kranthi K.R. (2009). Widespread infestation of the exotic mealybug species, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on cotton in India. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 99: 537–541
Nalini, T. and Manickavasagam, S. (2011). Toxicity of se-lected insecticides to mealybug parasitoids, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat and Aenasius advena Compere (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Journal of Biological Control, 25: 14–17.
Nasreen, A., Mustafa, G. and Ashfaq, M. (2005). Mortality of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopi-dae) after exposure to some insecticides; laboratory stud-ies. South Pacific Studies Vol. 26, No.1.
Prishanthini, M. and Laxmi, V.M. (2009). The Phenococcus solenopsis. Department of Zoology, Eastern University, Sri Lanka. Available at http://www.dailynews.lk/ 2009/07/01/fea30.asp.
Rasheed, M., Bushra S. and Tariq, M. (2014). Use and impact of insecticides in mealybug control. International Jour-nal of Advances in Biology, 1 (2): 1-11
Robinson, P and Tapim, F. (2010). Mealybug 'turmoil' sparks cotton crop fears. Available at http://www.abc.net.au/ news/stories/ 2010/02/05/ 2811656.htm.
Ruberson, J.R., Herzog, G.A. and Lewis, W.J. (1993). Para-sitism of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera axigua, in South Georgia cotton, Pp. 993- 997. In proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, 10-14 January 1993, New Orleans, LA, National Cotton Council, Memphis, TN.
Sahito, H.A., Abro, G.H., Syed, T.S., Lanjar, A.G. and Khajjak, A.S. (2011). Screening of pesticides against cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley and its natural enemies on cotton crop. International Research Journal of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, 1: 232–236.
Schuster, D.J. (1994). Life‐stage specific toxicity of insecti-cides to parasitoids of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae). International Journal of Pest Management, 40 (2): 191-194
Sharma, S.S. and Kaushik, H.D. (2010). Effect of Spinosad (a bioinsecticide) and other insecticides against pest complex and natural enemies on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Journal of Entomological Research, 34: 39-44.
Shinde, C.U., Patel, M.B. and Mehendale, S.K. (2009). Rela-tive toxicity of different insecticides to the larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (stephens) under laboratory condi-tions. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 15: 161-164
Spargo G., Khan, M. and Byers, K. (2013). A parasitoid of solenopsis mealybug found at Emerald. Australian Cot-tongrower 34, 22-23
Suma, P., Zappala, L., Mazzeo, G. and Siscaro, G. (2009). Lethal and sub-lethal effects of insecticides on natural enemies of citrus scale pests. Biocontrol 54, 651-661. DOI:10.1007/s10526-009-9215-z
Suroshe, S.S., Gautam, R.D. and Fand, B.B. (2013). Natural enemy complex associated with the mealybug, Phena-coccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting different host plants in India. Journal of Bio-logical Control, 27: 204-210.
Symington, C.A. and Horne, P.A. (1998). Relative toxicity of pesticides to pest and beneficial insects in potato crops in Victoria, Australia. In Ecotoxicology: Pesticides and beneficial organisms (Eds.: Haskell PT, McEwen P). Published by Chapman and Hall, London
Tanaka, H. and Uesato, T. (2012). New records of some po-tential pest mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseu-dococcidae) in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology 47: 413-419.
Thompson, G.D., Dutton, R.and Sparks, T.C. (2000). Spino-sad—a Case Study: an Example from Natural Products Discovery Programme. Pest Management Science, 56: 696-702.
Toscano, N.C., Morse, J.G. and Henneberry, T.J. (2005). Compatibility of select insecticides with natural enemies of the glassy-winged sharpshooter and other pests. Avail-able at http://files.piercesdisease.org/ proceed-ings/2005/2005_399-402.pdf
Varma, G.C. and Singh, P.P. (1987). Effect of insecticides on the emergence of Trichogramma Brasiliensis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) from parasitized host eggs. Entomophaga 32, 443-448
Vennila, S., Prasad, Y.G., Prabhakar, M., Kumar, R., Na-grare, V., Amutha, M., Dharajyothi, B., Agarwal, M., Sreedevi, G., Venkateswarlu, B., Kranthi, K.R. and Bambawale, O.M. (2011). Spatio-temporal distribution of host plants of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus so-lenopsis Tinsley in India, Technical Bulletin No. 26, National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi P 50.
Williams, T., Valle, J. and Vinuela E. (2003). Is the naturally derived insecticide Spinosad compatible with insect natural enemies? Biocontrol Science and Technology, 13: 459-475.
Wu, S.A. and Zhang, R.Z. (2009). A new invasive pest, Phena-coccus solenopsis threatening seriously to cotton produc-tion. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology, 46: 159-162.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Nagrare, V. S., Kranthi, S., Kranthi, K., Naik, V. C. B., Deshmukh, V., Naikwadi, B., & Dahekar, A. (2016). Relative toxicity of insecticides against cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae) and its fortuous parasitod Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 8(2), 987-994. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v8i2.909
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles