S. Sivaprasad P. Muralimohan


The cephalo-thoracic musculature of the fifth instar larva of Bombyx mori comprises distinct groups of segmental muscle bands arranged in a stereotyped pattern. It includes dorsal, ventral, tergopleural, tergocoxal, lateral intersegmental, pleurosternal, sternocoxal, pleurocoxal and spiracular muscles. The cephalothoracic segments are innervated by the nerves of brain, suboesophageal ganglion (SG) and three thoracic ganglia (TG1, TG2, TG3).The brain gives nerves for compound eyes, antennae, labrum, frontal ganglion and the integument in the head. The SG, TG1,TG2,and TG3 give out a pair of lateral segmental nerves each, called the dorsal (DN) and ventral (VN) nerves. The DN of SG innervates muscles in the cephalic region, while its VN innervates muscles in the prothorax. The DN of thoracic ganglia innervates muscles in the dorsal, lateral and ventral regions of the hemi-segment while the VN innervates muscles in the ventral region. The innervation pattern indicates the presence of mixed nerves and multiple innervations that facilitate coordinated body movements and locomotion.


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Bombyx mori, Cephalothorax, Ganglionic nerves, Innervation, Musculature

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Sivaprasad, S., & Muralimohan, P. (2009). Neuromuscular systems in the fifth instar larva of silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae): I-Cephalothoracic musculature and its innervation. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 1(2), 201–209. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v1i2.80
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