Among, five IPM modules tested against tomato fruit borer and fruit rot on tomato, the IPM module (M3) consisting of use of pheromone traps (@ 12 traps/ha) just after transplanting the tomato crop , Lycopersicon esculentum Miller for monitoring the population of Helicoverpa armigera . followed by three foliar sprays commencing with a mixture of lamba-cyhalothrin 5EC @ 0.8ml/L(0.04%) and Dithane Z-78 (Zineb) @ 2.5g/L (0.25%) after 10 days of appearance of moths in the traps (after 30 days of transplanting) followed by spray with a mixture of Helicide (Ha NPV) 100 LE @ 0.5ml/L+ Indofil M-45 @ 2.5g/L (0.25%) + Gur (0.05%) + Tween 80 (0.05%) after 15 days of first spray followed by spray with a mixture of lamba-cyhalothrin 5EC @ 0.8ml/L(0.04%) and moximate (cymoxanil + mancozeb) @ 0.25% after 15 days of the second spray was found to be most effective in minimizing the infestation of fruit borer and fruit rot diseases with 50.00% and 63.45% reduction over control, respectively. This module was also found to be most economic resulting in highest marketable fruit yield (255.94q/ha) and maximum net returns (Rs.10.36) per rupee spent. The present findings are of immense utility as there will be reduction in number of sprays resulting in the cost of production of tomato crop.
Foliar sprays, Fruit borer, Fruit rot diseases, IPM module, Tomato
Amin, N., Mulugeta, N. and Selvaraj, T. (2013). Field evaluation of new fungicide Victory 72 WP for the management of potato and tomato late blight ( Phy-tophthora infestans (Mont) debary) in West Sewa High-land, Oromia, Ehiopia. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, 4(8): 192 http://d.doi.org/ 10.4172/2157-7471.1000192.
Chaurasia, A. K., Chaurasia, S., Chaurasia, S., and Chaura-sia, S. (2013). Studies on the development of fruit rot of tomato caused by Alternaria solani ( Ellis & Mart) Jones and Ground. International Journal of Pharmacol-ogy and Life Sciences, 4(6):2713-2716.
CSKHPKV (2010). Package of Practices for vegetable crops, pp7-23. Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur.
Ghatak, A., Ansar, M., Ghatak, L.V. and Balodi, R. (2015). Elucidation of relationship between phytophthora leaf blight and fruit rot in tomato. Journal of Post Harvest Technology, 3(2):50-57.
Kumar, J. and Sharma, S.D. (2004). Efficacy and economics of Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki for the manage-ment of Helicoverpa armigera on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in lower Kullu valley, Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 74 (7): 396-398.
Kumar, J., Devlash, R. and Sharma, S.D. (2010). Integrated management of fruit borer, foliar and fruit rot diseases of tomato in Kullu valley of Himachal Pradesh. In: Verma, A.K., Gupta, P.R.,Bhardwaj, S.P. (eds.) Ab-stracts National Symposium on Perspectives and challenges of integrated pest management for sustainable agriculture, Nov. 19-21, 2010. Abstract No.6.13 pp.196.
Misra, H. P. (2015). Cyantraniliprole (Cyazypyr) – a new Anthranilicdiamide insecticide against tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 43(1): 1-5.
Rangaswamy, R. (1995). A Text Book of Agricultural Statis-tics. New Age International Publishers Ltd., New Delhi. 89-101.
Reddy, G. V. P. and and Tangtrakulwanish, K. (2013). Ac-tion threshold regimens for red spider mite and fruit borer on tomato. Florida Entomologist, 96:1084-1096.
Sam, G. A., Osekrel, E. A., Mochiah, M. B. and Kwoseh, C. (2014). Evaluation of insecticides for the management of insect pests of tomato. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 4(5), 2014. ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225- 093X (On line)
Shyam, K. R. and Gupta, S. K. (1996). Fungicidal control of buck eye rot (Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica) and Alternaria leaf spots (Alternaria alternata, A. alternata fsp. lycopersici) of tomato ( Lycopersicon escuentum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 66(5): 309-312.
Singh, P.S. and Singh, A.N. (2005). Efficacy of certain man-agement modules against Helicoverpa armigera on tomato. Shaspa, 12: 111-113.
Sudharani, D and Rath L. K. (2011). Biopesticides against fruit borer complex in tomato. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 39(4) : 316-317.
Verma, T. S., Chand, Ramesh, Lakhanpal, K. D., Sharma, S.C. and Chand, R. (1994). Use of fungicides in control-ling fruit rot and increasing fruit and seed yield in tomato. Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research, 20:44-48.
Wani, A.H. (2011). An overview of the fungal rot of tomato. Mycopathology, 9 (1):33-38.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)