K.K. Sharma U.S. Singh Pankaj Sharma Ashish Kumar Lalan Sharma


Seed treatment refers to the application of certain agents physical, chemical or biological to the seed prior to sowing in order to suppress, control or repel pathogens, insects and other pests that attack seeds, seedlings or plants and it ranges from a basic dressing to coating and pelleting. Introduction and ban of arsenic (used from 1740 until 1808) is the key milestones in the history of modern seed treatment till then a continuous research and advancement in this technology is going on. The technological advancement prepared a roadmap for refining
existing seed treatment technologies and future work on technologies like fluid drilling as a way to sow germinated seeds where gel can also serve as a delivery system for other materials, seed priming advances the early phase of germination without redicle emergence. Another advanced technology, solid matrix priming (SMP) has been evaluated as a means to advances the germination of seeds and serve as a carrier for useful material too. Physical and biological seed treatments alone an alternative to chemicals or in combination with a chemical treatment are being used worldwide because of their environmental safety and socioeconomic aspects. Biological seed treatments are expected to be one of the fastest growing seed treatment sectors in the near future, in part because they are easier to register at Environment Protection Agency (EPA). Lack of awareness to seed treatments at farmer’s level is one of the limiting factors in disease management and hence, efforts should be made at farmer’s level to adopt the technology. Keeping the all above facts in mind, selected seed treatment technologies with their improvement and significance will be discussed in this review.




Biopriming, Fluid drilling, Pelleting, Seed coating, Seed treatment

Agboola, D.A. (2003). Effect of plant growth hormones and thiourea on seed germination of Ceiba pentandra and Terminalia suparba. J. Tree Scie., 22(1&2): 76-78.
Agrios, G.N. (2005). Plant Pathology. Fifth Edition, Elsevier Academic Press, California, London-U.K. Publisher: Dana Dreibelbis, pp.922.
Aladjadjiyan, A. (2007). The use of physical methods for plant growing stimulation in Bulgaria. J. Cent. Eur. Agric., 8(3): 369-380.
Amein, T., Wright, S.A.I., Wikström, M., Koch, E., Schmitt, A., Stephan, D., Jahn, M., Tinivella, F., Gullino, M.L., Forsberg, G., Werner, S., Jan-van-der Wolf and Groot, S.P.C. (2011). Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds. J. Plant Dis. Protect., 118 (6): 214–221.
Anderson, J.D., Triplett, L.L., Haber, A.H., Meyer, H. and Mayer, A.M. (1973). Dichloromethane and lettuce seed germination. Science, 179(4068): 94–96.
Anna Aladjadjiyan (2010). Effect of microwave irradiation on seeds of lentils (lens culinaris, med.) Romanian J. Biophys., 20(3): 213–221.
Arias-Rivas, B. (1994). Evaluation of seed coating treatment on maize (Zea mays) stand establishment and seed rot caused by Pythium spp. at early planting season. PhD. Diss. Iowa State University, Ames, IA, U.S.A.
ASF (2010). National code of practice for the use of seed treatments. Australian Seed Federation Limited, pp.1-7. Retrieved: September 4, 2014 from http://www.asf.asn.au/userfiles
Backer Underwood (2012). Inoculant Guide. pp.-10. Retrieved: 2 September, 2014 from http://www.beckerunderwood.com/media/cms/becke runderwoodinoculantproductguid_0a75c3542fb75.pdf
Bacon, J.R., Brocklehurst, P.A., Gould, A., Mahon, R., Martin, N.C.J. and Wraith, M.J. (1988). Evaluation of a small scale fluidized bed seed treatment apparatus. Application to Seeds and Soil, Mono. 39, BCPC, Thornton Health, UK. pp. 237-243.
Bagegni, A.M., Sleper, D.A.., Kerr, H.D. and Morris, J.S. (1990). Viability of Acremonium coenophialum in tall fescue seed after ionising radiation treatments. Crop Science, 30: 1272-1275.
Baker, K. F. (1969). Aerated-steam treatment of seed for disease control. Horticult. Res, 9: 59–73.
Banks, H.J. (1998). Prospects for seed disinfestations. Proceedings of the Australian Postharvest Technical Conference Canberra, 26-29 May 1998.
Basra, S.M.A., Zia, M.N., Mehmood, T., Afzal, I. and Khaliq, A. (2003). Comparision of different invigoration techniques in wheat Triticum aestivum L. seeds. Pak. J. Arid Agr., 5: 11-17.
Bayer CropScience (2014). 6th International Congress of Nematology: Bayer CropScience aspires to further invest in innovative nematode control tools, held at Cape Town, South Africa on 16 May, 2014. Retrieved: September 5, 2014 from http://www.press.bayer.com/baynews/baynews.nsf/id/Bayer-CropScience-aspires-tofurther-invest-in-innovative-nematode-control-tools
Bel’skii, A.I. and Mazulenko, N.N. (1984). Effects of presowing treatment of barley seeds on the incidence of fungal diseases on the plants. Mikologiya Fitopatologiya, 18: 312-316.
Bennett, M.A., Grassbaugh, E.M. and Evans, A.E. (2013). Vegetable crop seed vigor and seedling performance. Acta Horticulturae, 975: 172-179.
Bennett, M.A., Fritz, V.A. and Callan, N.W. (1992). Impact of seed treatments on crop stand establishment. Hort. Technology, 2: 345-349.
Bhaskara Reddy, M.V., Kushalappa, A.C., Raghavan, G.S.V. and Stevenson, M.M.P. (1995). Eradication of seedborne Diaporthe phaseolorum in soybean by microwave treatment. Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, 30(4): 199-204.
Bhaskara Reddy, M.V., Raghavan, G.S.V., Kushalappa, A.C. and Paulitz, T.C. (1998). Effect of microwave treatment on quality of wheat seeds infected with Fusarium graminearum. Journal of Agric. Engin. Res., 71 (2): 113-117.
Black, M. and Bewley, J.D. (2000). Seed technology and its biological basis, published by Sheffield Academic Press Ltd. - England and CRC Press LLC, USA and Canada, edited by Michael Black, J. Derek Bewley. pp-404
Borcke, L.V. (2007). Insect pest protection through jasmonic acid seed treatment. Lancaster University, Tec. Release: September 2007.
Callan, N.W., Mathre, D.E., Miller, J.B. and Vavrina, C.S. (1997). Biological seed treatments: Fectors involved in efficiency, Horticulture Science, 32: 179-183.
Callan, N.W., Mathre, D.E. and Miller, J.B. (1990). Bio-priming seed treatment for biological control of Pythium ultimum pre-emergence damping-off in sh2 sweet corn. Plant Dis., 74: 368-372.
Callan, N.W., Mathre, D.E. and Miller, J.B. (1991). Yield performance of sweet corn seed bioprimed and coated with Pseudomonas fluorescens AB254. Hort. Science, 26: 1163-1165.
Carlos A.P., Ping-Qiao and Cantliffe, D.J. (1993). Enhanced celery germination at stress temperature via solid matrix priming. Hort. Science, 28(1): 20-22.
Catalan, L.A. and Edgardo, M.R. (1991). Improving germination in Prosopis flexuosa D.C. and P. alba Griseb with hot water treatments and scarification. Seed Science & Technol., 19: 253-262.
Chachalis, D. and Smith, M.L. (2001). Hydrophobic-polymer application reduces imbibition rate and partially improves germination or emergence of soybean seedlings. Seed Sci. Technol., 29: 91–98.
Chapman, R.A. and Harris, C.R. (1981). Persistence of four pyrethroid insecticides in a mineral and an organic soil. J. Environ. Sci. Health., 16: 605-615.
Cochran, B.J. (1976). Development of an aerated steam system for the control of ratoon stunting disease in sugar cane. ASSCT Proceedings 5.
Cochran, B.J., Mayeux, M.M. and Steib, R.J. (1978). Aerated steam: A system for heat treating sugarcane to control ratoon stunting disease. Bulletin, Louisiana State University, 709, pp-16.
Cochran, B.J., Mayeux, M.M., Steib, R.J. and Cifuentes, O.M. (1975). Development and use of an aerated steam system for the control of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane. Sugar Y Azucar, 70: 19-23.
Couture, L. and Sutton, J.C. (1980). Effect of dry heat treatments on survival of seed borne Bipolaris sorokiniana and germination of barley seeds. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 60 (4): 59-61.
Crop Life Foundation, (2013). The role of modern seed treatment in U.S. crop production: A review of benefits. pp.-72. Retrieved: September, 2014 from http:// www. c ropl i fe ame r i c a .o rg/ s i t e s /d e fau l t / f i l e s /SeedTreatment.pdf
Crop Protection Monthly (2014). International news, comment, features and conference reports, Headlines of 2013 and 2014. Retrieved: 4 September, 2014 from http://www.crop-protection-monthly.co.uk/latest.htm
Cuero, R.G., Smith, J.E. and Lacey, J. (1986). The influence of gamma irradiation and sodium hypochlorite sterilisation on maize seed microflora and germination. Food Microbiology, 3: 107-113.
Damann, K.E. (1983). Evaluation of commercial heat-treatment methods for control of ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane. Plant Disease, 67: 966-967.
Dermott, T. and Evans, D.E. (1978). An evaluation of fluidized- bed heating as a means of disinfesting wheat. Journal of Stored Products Research, 14 (1): 1-12.
Domaradzki, M., Kaniewska, J. and Weiner, W. (2012). The Application of agglomerative granulation for seeds. Part 2. Pelleting of organic seeds. CHEMIK, 66(5): 473-478.
DPPQS (Department of Plant Protection Quarantine and Storage) (2007). Campaign for Seed Treatment: Campaign for 100% Seed Treatment during Rabi, 2007.Retrieved: August 31, 2014 from http://ppqs.gov.in/Seedtreatment.htm.
DTTTI – RADA (2012). Hot water seed treatment for control of bacterial spot of scotch bonnet pepper, published by Division of Technology, Training and Technical Information (DTTTI), Hope Gardens, Kingston 6, Jamaica, West Indies, pp. 4. Retrieved: September 5, 2014 from http://rada.gov.jm/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Hot-Water-Seed-Treatment_final_01-08-2012.pdf
Ebrahimi, R., Ahmadizadeh, M. and Rahbarian, P. (2014). Enhancing stand establishment of tomato cultivars under salt stress condition. South Western Journal of Horticulture, Biology and Environment, 5(1): 19-42.
EcoChem, An earth friendly company (1998). Innovative solutions for sustainable agriculture. Retrieved: 6 September, 2014 from http://www.ecochem.com/ t_customer_cbqgg_milford.html
Edison, S. and Ramakrishnan, K. (1972). Aerated steam therapy for the control of grassy shoot disease (GSD) of sugar cane. Mysore J. Agricul. Res., 6: 492–494.
Elwakil, M.A. (2003). Use of antioxidant hydroquinone in the control of seed–borne fungi of peanut with special reference to the production of good quality seed. Plant Pathology Journal, 2: 75-79.
Erdey, D.P., Mycock, D.J. and Bolkan, H.A. (1997). The elimination of Fusarium moniliforme (Sheldon) infection in maize caryopses by hot water treatments. Seed Science and technology, 25: 485-501.
Ester, A. (1994). Film coating of leek with insecticides: effects on germination and on the control of onion fly (Delia antique, Meigen), in Seed Treatment: Progress and Prospects Mono. 57, BCPC, Thornton Health, UK. pp. 195-199.
Evans, D.E., Thorpe, G.R. and Dermott, T. (1983). The disinfestations of wheat in a continuous-flow fluidized bed. Journal of Stored Products Research, 19 (3): 125-137.
Farooq, M., Wahid, A. and Siddique, K.H.M. (2012). Micronutrient application through seed treatments - a review. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 12(1): 125-142.
Fisher, C.G. and Conway, K.E. (1984). Fluid drilling: a potential delivery system for fungal biological control agents with small-seeded vegetables. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 63: 100-101.
Floyd, R. (2005). Vegetable Seed Treatments, Farm note 90/1990. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, Retrieved: September 5, 2014 from http://archive.agric.wa.gov.au/PC_92733.html.
Forsberg, G., Andersson, S. and Johnsson, L. (2002). Evaluation of hot, humid air seed treatment in thin layers and fluidized beds for seed pathogen sanitation. J. Plant Dis. Protect., 109: 357–370.
Forsberg, G., Kristensen, L., Eibel, P., Titone, P. and Haiti, W. (2003). Sensitivity of cereal seeds to short duration treatment with hot, humid air. Journal of Plant Disease and Protection, 110 (1): 1-16.
Forsberg G., Johnsson, L. and Lagerholm, J. (2005). Effects of aerated steam seed treatment on cereal seed-borne diseases and crop yield. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 12 (3): 247–256.
Gaudet, D.A. and Puxhalki, B.J. (1992). Application methods influencing the effectiveness of carboxin for control common bunt caused by Tillitia tritici and T. laevis in spring wheat, Plant Disease, 76 (1): 64-66.
Giammichele, L.A. and Pill, W.G. (1984). Protection of fluid - drilled tomato seedlings against damping - off by fungicide incorporation in a gel carrier. Hort. Science., 19(6): 877-879.
Golezani, K.G. (2013). Seed priming and field performance of borage (Borago officinalis L.) under different irrigation treatments. International journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 4: 82-87.
Gong, F., Wu, X. and Wang, W. (2013). Comparative proteomic identification of embryo proteins associated with hydropriming induced rapid germination of maize seeds. Plant Omics Journal, 6(5): 333-339.
Gray, D. (1981). Fluid drilling of vegetable seeds. Hort. Review., 3: 1-27.
Gupta, P.R.K. and Chaturvedi, G.S. (1987). Effect of pre germination exposure of ultraviolet radiation on forage seeds. Seed research, 15(2): 143-148.
Hacisalihoglu, G., Taylor, A.G., Paine, D.H., Hilderbrand, M.B. and Khan, A.A. (1999). Embryo elongation and germination rates as sensitive indicators of lettuce seed quality: Priming and aging studies. Hort. Science, 34: 1240-1243.
Hall, T.J. and Taylor, G.S. (1983). Aerated-steam treatment for control of Alternaria tenuis on lobelia seed. Annals of Applied Biology, 103: 219-228.
Halmer, P. (1988). Technical and commercial aspects of seed pelleting and film-coating, in Application to Seeds and Soil, Mono. 39, BCPC, Thornton Health, UK. pp. 191-204.
Harman, G.E and Nelson, E.B. (1994). Mechanisms of protection of seed and seedlings by biological seed treatments: implications for practical disease control, in seed treatment: Progress and Prospects, Mono. 57, BCPC, Thornton Health, UK. pp. 283-292
Harman, G.E. (1991). Seed treatments for biological control of plant disease. Crop Protection 10: 166-171.
Harman, G.E. and Taylor, A.G. (1988). Improved seedling performance by integration of biological control agents at favorable pH levels with solid matrix priming. Phytopathology, 78: 520-525.
Harman, G.E., Taylor, A.G., Stasz, T.E. (1989). Combining effective strains of Trichoderma harzianum and solid matrix priming to improve biological seed treatment. Phytopathology, 73: 631-637.
Harwalker, M.R., Donger, T.K. and Padwal-Desai, S.R. (1995). Radiation disinfestations of spice and spice products. I. Radiation sensitivity of developmental stages of Lasioderma serricorne and Stegobium panicium. J. Food Sci. Techno., 32: 249-251.
Hernández Aguilar Claudia, Rodríguez Páez Carmen Liliana, Domínguez- Pacheco Flavio Arturo, Hernández Anguiano Ana María, Cruz-Orea Alfredo and Carballo Carballo Aquiles (2011). Laser light on the mycoflora content in maize seeds. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10 (46): 9280-9288.
Herner, R. C. (1986). Germination under cold soil conditions, Hort. Science, 21: 1118-1122.
Heydecker, W. and Coolbear, P. (1977). Seed treatments for improved performance – survey and attempted prognosis. Seed Sci. and Technol., 5: 353-425.
Hill, H.J. (1999). Recent developments in seed technology. Journal of New Seeds, 1(1): 105-112.
Hill, H., Bradford, K., Cunningham, J. and Taylor, A.G. (2008). Primed lettuce seeds exhibit increased sensitivity to moisture during aging. Acta Horticulturae, 782: 135-141.
Howell, C.R., DeVay, J.E., Garber, R.H. and Batson, W.E. (1997). Field control of cotton seedling disease with Trichoderma virens in combination with fungicide seed treatment. The Journal of Cotton Science, 1: 15-20.
Hung, P.E., Fritz, V.A. and Waters, L. Jr. (1992). Infusion of shrunken-2 sweet corn seed with organic solvents: effects on germination and vigor. Hort. Science, 27(5): 467-470.
Ivanovich, G.V. (2011). Ozone Technology of Presowing Seed Treatment. Retrieved: 2 April, 2014 from http://www.techprofiles.org/index.php/biotechnologies/280-ozone-technology-of-presowing-seed-treatment
Jensen, B., Knudsen, I.M.B., Madsen, M. and Jensen, D.F. (2004). Biopriming of infected carrot seeds with an antagonist, Clonostachys rosea, selected for control of seed borne Alternaria spp. Phytopathology, 94 (6): 551-560.
Jensen, B., Jensen, D.F., Nielsen, G.C. and Nielsen, B.J. (2001). Biological seed treatment to control seed borne diseases in wheat. DJF Rapport, Markbrug, 49: 51-56.
Jensen, J.L. (1888). The propagation and prevention of smut in oats and barley. J. Royal Agric. Soci. Engl. Sec., 2 (24): 397–415.
Jindal, K.K., Thind, B.S and Soni, P.S. (1991). Physical and Chemical agents for the control of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vignicola from cowpea seeds. Sci. and Technol., 17 (2): 371-382.
Johnsson, L. (1990). Washing and treating with warm water to clean wheat inoculated with common bunt (Tilletia caries DC Tul.). Växtskyddsnotiser, 54(1): 26–28.
Jyoti, J.L., Shelton, A.M. and Taylor, A.G. (2003). Filmcoating seeds with chlorpyrifos for germination and control of cabbage maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) on cabbage transplants. J. Entomol. Sci., 38(4): 553-565.
Kannaiyan, S. and Prasad, N.N. (1979). Control of sheath blight disease of rice. Intern. Rice Res. Newsl., 4: 15.
Khan, A.A. (1992). Preplant physiological seed conditioning. Horticultural Reviews, 14: 131-181.
Kim, S.H. and Taylor, A.G. (2004). Germinability of filmcoated snap bean seed as affected by oxygen diffusion rate under different soil moisture contents. Korean J. Crop Sci., 49: 46-51.
Krishna Dubey (2011). Insecticide and fungicide seed treatment. Retrieved: 1 September, 2014 from http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/content/insecticide-and-fungicideseed-treatment.
Krishnaveni, K., Sekar, I., Arulrajan, P. and Rao, M.G. (2010). Influence of seed fortification treatment with inorganic nutrients and growth regulators on seed and seedling quality characteristics in bamboo (Bambusa bambosa). Indian Forester, 136(8): 1006-1012.
Kobayashi, T (1990). Impact of seedborne pathogen on quarantine in Japan. Seed Sci. Technol., 18(2): 427-433.
Kubik, K.K. (1995). Seed priming and survival of desiccated Enterobacter cloacae inoculated during seed priming. Ph.D. Diss., Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Kumaran, K., Surenderan, C., Jerlin, R. and Palani, M. (1993). Effect of pre-sowing chemical treatments on germination and seedling in neem. J. Trop. For. Sci., 6 (4): 529-532.
Leaver, J.P. and Roberts, E.H. (1984). Peroxides in seed coatings. Outlook Agric., 13: 147-153.
Lewis, J.A., Papavizas, G.C. and Connick, Jr., W.J. (1987). Preparations of pellets containing fungi and nutrients for control of soil borne plant pathogens. US Patent No., 886, 512.
Lewis, J.A. and Papavizas, G.C. (1987). Application of Trichoderma and Gliocladium in alginate pellets for control of Rhizoctonia damping-off. Plant Pathology, 36: 438-446.
Lowther, W.L. (1974). Interaction of lime and seed pelleting on nodulation and growth promotion of white clover. I glasshouse trial. N. Z. Jl. Agric. Res., 17: 317-323.
Luthra, J.C. (1953). Solar energy treatment of wheat loose smut, Ustilago tritici (Pers.) Rostr. Indian Phytopathology, 6: 49-56.
Luthra, J.C. and Sattar, A. (1934). Some experiments on the control of loose smut, Ustilago tritici (Pers.) Jens. of wheat. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 4: 177-199.
Mariappan, N., Srimathi, P., Sundaramoorthy, L. and Sudhakar, K. (2013). Influence of seed fortification treatment with inorganic nutrients in Jatropha Curcas (L.). Journal of Energy Bioscience, 4(1): 1-6.
Martin, H. and Woodcock, D. (1983). The scientific principles of crop protection. London, Edward, Arnold Ltd., 486 pp.
Mastouri, F., Bjorkman, T. and Harman, G.E. (2010). Seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum alleviates biotic, abiotic, and physiological stresses in germinating seeds and seedlings. Phytopathology, 100(11): 1213-1221.
Mathre, D.E., Johnston, R.H and Grey, W.E. (2001). Small grain cereal seed treatment. American Phytopathological Society, The Plant Health Instructor, (2001). DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2001-1008-01. Retrieved: 31 September, 2014 from http://www.apsnet.org/education/AdvancedPlantPath/Topics/SeedTreatment/.
Maude, R. B. (1996). Seedborne diseases and their control: Principles and practices. CAB International, Wallingford, U. K. 280 pp.
McQuilken, M.P., Whipps, J.M. and Cooke, R.C. (1990). Control of damping-off in cress and sugar-beet by commercial seed-coating with Pythium oligandrum. Plant Pathology, 39: 452–462.
Meah, M.B. (2004). Vegetable seed treating plant. USAID, Bangladesh Collaborative Research Project and IPM Lab. Dept. of Plant Pathology, BAU, Mymensingh.
Mebalds, M.I., Reed, P., Swiergon, P., Hepworth, G., Henderson, B. and Benham, B. (1996). Development of steam air treatments for the control of seedborne diseases of flower seeds. Final Report for HRDC Project No NY209. Institute for Horticultural Development, Knoxfield.
Meyer, H. and Mayer, A.M. (1971). Permeation of dry seeds with chemicals: use of dichloromethane. Science, 171 (3971): 583-584.
Miller, P. W. and McWhorter, F.P. (1948). The use of vapor-heat as a practical means of disinfecting seeds. Phytopathology, 38: 89–101.
Miller, S.A. and Lewis Ivey, M.L. (2005). Hot water treatment of vegetable seeds to eradicate bacterial plant pathogens in organic production systems. The Ohio State University Extension, Columbus, OH, Ohio State Extension Bulletin HYG-3086-05. pp. 3.
Milus, E.A. and Rothrock, C.S. (1997). Efficacy of bacterial seed treatments for controlling Pythium root rot of winter wheat. Plant Dis., 81: 180-184.
Miraj, G., Shah, H.U. and Arif, M. (2013). Priming maize (Zea mays L.) seed with phosphate solutions improves seedling growth and yield. . Anim. Plant Sci., 23(3): 893-899.
Moeinzadeh, A., Sharif-Zadeh, F., Ahmadzadeh, M. and Tajabadi, F.H. (2010). Biopriming of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed with Pseudomonas fluorescens for improvement of seed invigoration and seedling growth. AJCS, 4(7): 564-570.
Muniz, M.F.B. (2001). Control of microoganisms associated with tomato seeds using thermotherapy. Revista. Brasileira- sementes, 23(1): 176-280.
Nagy, J., Rathos, J. and Toth, O. (1995). Effect of ultrasonic irradiation and vacuum infiltration combined with fungicides on fungi-infected sunflower seeds. Acta Agronomica Hungarica, 43: 93-102.
Nameth, S.T. (1998). Priorities in seed pathology research. Sci. agric., 55(special issue Piracicaba): 94-97.
Nan, Z.B., Hanson, J. and Yeshi, W.M. (1998). Effects of sulfuric acid and hot water treatments on seedborne fungi and germination of Stylosanthes hamata, S. quianensis and S. scabra. Seed Science and Technology, 26: 33-43.
Napoles, P., Amat, Z. and Ramirez, P. (1991). The use of different treatments of control Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in Cabbage seeds. Protection de-plants, 1(3): 33-41.
Neergaard, P. (1977). Seed Pathology. Vols. 1 and 2. Macmillan, London, UK.
Nega, E., Ulrich, R., Werner, S. and Jahn, M. (2003). Hot water treatment of vegetable seed – an alternative seed treatment method to control seed-borne pathogens in organic farming. J. Plant Dis. Protect, 110: 220-234.
Nicholas, K. Rop and Steven P.C. Groot (2013). Assessment of non-chemical seed treatment methods in organic seeds: Assessment of physiological sensitivity of seeds to physical treatment. Publisher- LAP Lambert Academic Publishing (22 January, 2013), pp. 88.
NSW Department of Primary industries (2005). Pastures and Rangelands, Pasture establishment: Inoculating and pelleting pasture legume seed. Series: Agfact P2.2.7, Fourth edition. Retrieved: 4 september, 2014 from http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/pastures/pastures-and-rangelands/establishment/inoculating-legume-seed
Nyoki, D. and Ndakidem, P.A. (2014). Effects of Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation and supplementation with phosphorus on macronutrients uptake in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5(4): 442-451.
O’Neill, N.R., Papavizas, G.C. and Lewis., J.A. (1979). Infusion and translocation of systemic fungicides applied to seeds in acetone. Phytopathology, 69: 690-694.
Pandey, S.N. and Sinha, B.K. (1995). Plant physiology, edited by Pandey, S.N. and Sinha, B.K., Vikas publishing house, Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 533.
Papavizas, G.C. and Lewis, J.A. (1976). Acetone infusion of pyroxychlor into soybean seed for the control of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae. Plant Dis. Rptr., 60: 484-488.
Payne, P.A. and Williams G.E. (1990). Hymexazol treatment of sugar-beet seed to control seedling disease caused by Pythium spp. and Aphanomyces cochlioides. Crop Protection, 9 (5): 371-377.
Persson, B. (1988). Enhancement of seed germination by plant growth regulators infused via acetone. Seed Sci. & Technol., 16: 391-404.
Pill, W.G. (1995). Low water potential and presowing germination treatments to improve seed quality. pp. 319-359. In: Basra, A.S. (Ed.) Seed quality: basic mechanisms and agricultural implications, Haworth Press Inc., New York; 389 pp.
Praveen, K.G., Desai, S., Amalraj, E.L.D., Mir Hassan Ahmed, S.K. and Reddy, G. (2012). Plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp. from diverse agro-ecosystems of India for Sorghum bicolor L. J. Biofert Biopest., S7: 1-8.
Rahman, M.M.E., Ali, M.E., Ali, M.S., Rahman, M.M. and Islam, M.N. (2008). Hot water thermal treatment for controlling seed-borne mycoflora of maize. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod., 3(5): 5-9.
Rajesh Kumar, K.K. Mishra, D.S. Mishra and Manoj Brijwal (2012). Seed germination of fruit crops: a review. Hort- Flora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 199-207.
Rao, Y.S., Srinangarajan, A.K., Kamal, A.S., Kamat, A.S., Adhikari, H.R. and Nair, P.M. (1994). Studies on extension of shelf life of raw a by gamma irradiation. J. Food. Sci. Technol., 31: 311-315.
Reddy, M.V.B., Kushalappa, A.C., Raghavan, G.S.V. and Stevenson, M.M.P. (1995). Eradication of seedborne Diaporthe phaseolorum in soybean by microwave treatment. Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, 30: 199–204.
Reddy, M.V.B., Raghavan, G.S.V., Kushalappa, A.C. and Paulitz, T.C. (1998). Effect of microwave treatment on quality of wheat seeds infected with Fusarium graminearum. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 71: 2: 113–117.
Reddy, P. Parvatha (2013). Recent advances in crop protection. Publisher: Springer India, XIX, 259 p. DOI 10.1007/978-81-322-0723-8.
Redenbaugh, K., Slade, D., Viss, P. and Fujii, J.A. (1987). Encapsulation of somatic embryos in synthetic seed coats. Hort. Science, 22(5): 803-809.
Research and Markets. (2013). Seed treatment market by type (chemical non-chemical), byapplication (fungicide, insecticide, bio-control and others) and by crop (cereals, oilseeds and others): global trends, forecasts and technical insights up to 2018. Retrieved: September 9, 2014 from http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/seed-treatment-market-503.html
Rhodes D.J. and Powell, K.A. (1994). Biological seed treatments - the developmental process, in Seed treatment: Progress and Prospects Mono. 57, BCPC, Thornton Health, U.K. pp. 303- 310.
Rogis, C., Gibson, L.R., Knapp, A.D. and Horton, R. (2004). Can solid matrix priming with GA3 break seed dormancy in eastern gamagrass? Journal of Range Management, 57: 656 -660.
Sanjeev Kumar (2012). Cultural approaches for plant disease management. Research & Reviews: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 1(2): 12-21.
Scheel, C. (1997). Review on policy developments with regards to seed health testing and seed treatment in the Nordic countries with special reference to Denmark in ‘Seed Health Testing: Progress Towards the 21st Century’. (Eds. JD Hutchins and J. Reeves). 263.
Schwinn, F. (1994). Seed treatment – a panacea for plant protection? Seed Treatment: Progress and Prospects. BCPC Publications. Monograph 57, 3. Retrieved: September 9, 2014 from http://www.amazon.com/gp/search?
Seed Distributors, Science Based Pasture (2008). Gold Strike seed treatment technology: Lucerne, Clover, Medic, Forage Brassica. Retrieved: 2 September, 2014 from http://www.seeddistributors.com.au/pdf/Goldstrike_flyer2.pdf
FIS (1999). Seed Treatment: A tool for sustainable agriculture. CH-1260 NYON / Switzerland. pp. 1-8. Retrieved: 4 September. 2014 from http://www.worldseed.org/cms/medias/file/ResourceCenter/Publications/Seed_ Treatment_a_Tool_for_Sustainable_Agriculture_(En).pdf
Seung-Hee Lee, Jin-Seok Kim and Jung-Myung Lee (2004). Moisture contents in bottle gourd seeds during dry heat treatment and subsequent germination. Hort. Science, 39 (4): 758-759.
Shao, S., Meyer, C.J., Ma, F., Peterson, C.A. and Bernards, M.A. (2007). The outermost cuticle of soybean seeds: chemical composition and function during imbibitions. Journal of Experimental Botany, 58(5): 1071–1082.
Shrimathi, P., Malarkodi, K., Geethu, R. and Krishnaswamy, V. (2002). Nutrient pelleting to augment quality seed production in soybean. Seed Research, 30 (2): 186-189.
Singh, K., Mishra, S.R., Shukla, U.S. and Singh, R.P. (1980). Moist hot air therapy of sugarcane control of sett-borne infections of GSD, smut and red rot. Sugar-Journal, 43 (5): 26-28.
Singh, M.T. and Singh, M.S. (2005). Effect of gamma irradiation on seed micoflora seed germination and seedling growth of rice. Oryza, 42 (2): 129-132.
Singh, N.K., Saxena, R.P., Jaiswal, R.C. and Pradeep Kumar (2000). Effect of fungicidal seed treatment and foliar sprays on early blight incidence, fruit characters and yield of tomato cv. Pusa Ruby. Jour. Appl. Hort., 2(2): 124-126.
Sinha, P., Sharma, R.P. and Roy, M.K. (1994). Management of storage rot in onion through gamma irradiation and chemicals. J. Food Sci. Technol., 31: 341-343.
Sitton, J.W., Borsa, J., Schultz, T.R. and Maguire, J.O. (1995). Electron beam irradiation effects on wheat quality, seed vigor and viability and pathogenetity of teliospores of Tilletia controversa and T. tritici. Plant disease, 79 (6): 586-589.
Srivastava, N.S.L., Singh, K. and Sharma, M.P. (1977). The I.I.S.R. moist hot air treatment plant for seed cane. Sugar News, 9: 96-102.
Stephenson, M.M.P., Kushalappa, A.C. and Raghavan, G.S.V. (1996). Effect of selected combinations of microwave treatment factors on inactivation of Ustilago nuda from barley seed. Seed Sci. and Tech., 24 (3): 557-510.
Syngenta, SeedCare (2012). Technical Brochure: The Far- More® Technology-Seed Treatment Platform. Retrieved: September 2, 2014 from http://www.syngentaus.com/seeds/vegetables/melon/Melon_Crop_Guide.pdf
Syngenta- Research & Development (2009). Syngenta in Switzerland, Facts and Figures, 2009: Increased yields and high quality products. Retrieved: September 2, 2014 from http://www3.syngenta.com/country/ch/Site CollectionDocuments/Daten%20und%20Fakten%20PDFs/Facts%20and%20Figures%202009.pdf
Tao, K.L., Khan, A.A., Harman, G.E. and Eckenrode, C.J. (1974). Practical significance of the application of chemicals in organic solvents to dry seeds. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 99(3): 217-220.
Tapke, V.F. (1926). Single-bath hot-water and steam treatments of seed wheat for the control of loose smut. USDA Bulletin 1383, pp. 1–29.
Taylor, A.G. and Harman, G.E. (1990). Concepts and technologies of selected seed treatments. Phytopathology, 28: 312-339.
Taylor, A.G., Min, T.G., Harman, G.E. and Jin, X. (1991). Liquid coating formulation for the application of biological seed treatments of Trichoderma harzianum. Biological Control, 1(1): 16-22.
Taylor, A.G., and Kwiatkowski, J. (2001). Polymer film coatings decrease water uptake and water vapour movement into seeds and reduce imbibitional chilling injury. British Crop Protection Council Symposium Proceedings No. 76. pp. 215-220.
Taylor, A.G. and Warholic, D.T. (1987). Protecting fluid drilled lettuce from herbicides by incorporating activated carbon into gels. J. Hort. Sci., 62: 3-37.
Taylor, A.G., Hoepting, C.A., Nault, B.A., Lorbeer, J.W. and McDonald, M.R. (2008). Onion seed treatment and coating technologies. Acta Horticulturae, 782: 129-134.
Taylor, A.G., Klein, D.E. and Whitlow, T.H. (1988). SMP: Solid matrix priming of seeds. Scientia Hort, 37: 1-11.
Taylor, A.G., Min, T.G. and Mallaber, C. A. (1991). Seed coating system to upgrade Brassicaceae seed quality by exploiting sinapine leakage. Seed Sci. Technol., 19: 423-433.
Taylor, A.G., Paine, D.H., Suzuki, N., Nault, B.A. and McFaul, A. (2004). Coating technologies for seed treatment applications, In Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Stand Establishment. C. S. Vavrina and G. E. Welbaum, (eds.) Acta Horticulturae, 631: 49-54.
TeKrony, Dennis M. (1976). Applicator Training Manual for Seed Treatment Pest Control. Publisher: University of Kentucky, Cooperative Extension Service (1976), pp. 14. Retrieved: September 6, 2014 from http://pest.ca.uky.edu/PSEP/Manuals/4-SeedTreatment.pdf
Therdetskaya, T.N. and Levashenko, G.I. (1996). Pre-sowing disinfestations of cucumber seed by bactericidal rays. Zashchita i. Karantin Rastenii, 4: 43.
Thippenswamy, T. and Lokesh, S. (1997). Efficacy of different seed dressing chemicals on seed mycoflora, seed germination and seedling vigor of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Seed Research, 25 (1): 64-67.
Thomas and Adcock (2004). Exposure to dry heat reduces anthracnose infection of lupin seed. Australian Plant Pathology, 33: 537-540.
Thorpe, G.R. (1987). The thermodynamic performance of a continuous-flow fluidized bed grain disinfestor and drier. Journal of Agricultural Research, 37: 27-41.
Thorpe, G.R., Evans, D.E. and Sutherland, J.W. (1983). The development of a continuous-flow fluidized-bed hightemperature grain disinfestations process. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Practical Aspects of Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, Perth. In: Ripp, B. E. et al. (Eds), Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages, pp. 617-622, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
TNU Agritech Portal, Seed Technology. (2013) Seed Treatment: Insecticides & Fungicides. Retrieved: November 19, 2013 from ht tp: / /agr i tech. tnau.ac. in/seed_certification/seed_treatment_Insecticides%20&%20Fungicides.html
Tyagi, V. (2012). IndIa’s agriculture: Challenges for growth & development in present scenario. IJPSS, 2(5): 116-128.
Upadhyaya, P. (2013). Seed treatment for controlling seed borne diseases. Retreived: September 4, 2014 from http://ekduniya.net/sites/lifelines/seed-treatmentcontrolling-seed-borne-diseases/#.VAoB6X-zfIU/
Vasilevski, G. (2003). Perspectives of the application of biophysical methods in sustainable agriculture. Bulgarian J. Plant Physiol. Special Issue: 179-186.
Viswanathan, R. (2001). Different aerated steam therapy (AST) regimes on the development of grassy shoot disease symptoms in sugarcane. Sugar Tech., 3(3): 3-91.
Vlakhov, S., Kutova, I. and Koleva, P. (1974). The activity of antibiotics against certain bacterioses. Hort. Abstr., 45: 6545.
Walker, J.C. (1923). The hot water treatment of cabbage seed. Phytopatholoy, 13: 251-253.
Warren, J.E. and Bennett, M.A. (1997). Seed hydration using the drum priming system. Hort. Science, 32: 1220-1221.
Warren, J.E. and Bennett, M.A. (1999). Bio-osmopriming tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. seeds for improved stand establishment. Seed Sci. Technol., 27: 489-499.
Weimer, J. (1952). Lupine anthracnose. United States Department of Agriculture Circular No. 904.
Willenborg, C.J., Gulden, R.H., Johnson, E.N. and Shirtliffe, S.J. (2004). Germination characteristics of polymercoated canola seeds subjected to moisture stress at different temperatures. Agron. J., 96: 786–791.
Ze?onka, L., Stramkale, V. and Vikmane, M. (2005). Effect and after-effect of barley seed coating with phosphorus on germination, photosynthetic pigments and grain yield. Acta Universitatis Latviensis, 69: 111–119.
Zhang, J., Howell, C.R. and Starr, J.L. (1996). Supression of Fusarium colonization of cotton roots and Fusarium wilt by seed treatments with Gliocladium virens and Bacillus subtilis. Biocontrol Sci. Tech., 6: 175-187.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Seed treatments for sustainable agriculture-A review. (2015). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 7(1), 521-539. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v7i1.641
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles

How to Cite

Seed treatments for sustainable agriculture-A review. (2015). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 7(1), 521-539. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v7i1.641