The present investigation was done to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of five eco-friendly chemicals in vitro and in vivo, on the management of alternaria blight and yield attributes in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Varuna). Out of five eco-friendly chemicals, K2SO4 1000 ppm (64.28%) followed by ZnSO4 1000 ppm (63.88%) showed maximum inhibition of mycelial growth in comparison to check. 0.5% concentration of KCl (57.06%) followed by CaSO4 (59.50%) and K2SO4 (62.20%) showed significantly maximum effect on spore germination in comparison to check (74.60%). Spore intensity significantly increased by all the treatments except CaSO4 at 0.5% (40.18%) followed by K2SO4 at 0.5% (29.86%) and ZnSO4 0.75% (5.11% reduction) in comparison to check. The significantly minimum disease index on leaf over check was found by foliar spray of CaSO4 at 0.5%(23.58%) followed by CaSO4 at 1.5% (24.00%) and Na2B4O7.10H2O at 1.5% (24.08%). Na2B4O7.10H2O at 0.75% showed significantly lowest disease index (23.91%) on pod followed by K2SO4 at 1.5% (25.75%) and KCl at 1.5% (26.00%) in comparison to check. CaSO4 at 1.0% showed maximum number of primary branches (7.00), number of secondary branches (13.00) and total yield/ha (1917.30 kg/ha) in comparison to check. The results obtained from the present study suggested that K2SO4 showed maximum in vitro effect on Alternaria brassicae and CaSO4 and Na2B4O7.10H2O are providing maximum reduction of disease and increase in seed yield/ha that leads to efficient alternaria blight disease management strategies in field condition. These eco-friendly chemicals can protect the crops from alternaria blight diseases and increase the production and productivity of the Indian mustard crop.
Alternaria blight, Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc, Eco-friendly chemicals, Mustard
Agrawal, N. (1999). Role of some nutrients, organic acids, growth regulators and agro-meteorological factors on the severity of brown strip downy mildew of maize. Thesis, Ph.D. (Plant Pathology), G.B. Pant Univ. of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar, pp 199.
Chattopadhyay, C., Agrawal, R., Kumar, A., Bhar, L.M., Meena, P.D., Meena, R.L., Khan, S.A., Chattopadhyay, A.K., Awasthi, R.P., Singh, S.N., Chakravarthy, N.V.K., Kumar, A., Singh, R. B., Bhunia, C. K. (2005). Epidemiology and forecasting of Alternaria blight of oilseed Brassica in India e a case study. Z. Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenschutz. J. Plant Dis. Prot., 112: 351-365.
Conn, K.L., Tewari, J.P., Awasthi, R.P. (1990). A disease assessment key for Alternaria blackspot in rapeseed and mustard. Can. Plant Dis. Surv., 70: 19-22.
Furuya, H.; Takahashi, T. and Matsumoto, T. (1999). Suppression of Fusarium solani f. sp. Phaseoli on bean by aluminium in acid soils. Phytopath., 89: 47-52.
Gattani, M.L. (1954). Agar plate spore germination method for testing fungicides. Phytopath. 44 : 113-115.
Graham, R.D. (1983). Effect of nutrient stress on susceptibility of plants to disease with particular reference to the trace elements. Adv. Bot. Res., 10: 221-276.
GoI. (2011). Agricultural Statistics at a Glance-2011, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.
Huber, D.M. and Arny, D.C. (1985). Interactions of potassium with plant disease, In: Munson, R.D. ed. Potassium in agriculture. Madison, Wisconsin, American Society of Agronomy, 667-688.
Kaur, A. (2000). Characterization on biotically and abiotically induced response of mustard against Albugo candida, Peronospora parasitica and Alternaria brassicae. Thesis, Ph.D. (Plant Pathology), G.B. Pant Univ. of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar, pp 148.
Kaushik, C.D., Kaushik, J.C. and Saharan, G.S. (1984). Field evaluation of fungicides for the control of Alternaria leaf blight of Brassica juncea. Indian J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol., 9-18.
Khan, M.M., Khan, R.U. and Mohiddin, F.A. (2007). Studies on the cost-effective management of alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard (Brassica spp.) Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 46: 201–206.
Klikocka, H., Haneklaus, S., Bloem, E. and Schnug, E. (2005). Influence of sulfur fertilization on infection of potato tubers with Rhizoctonia solani and Streptomyces scabies. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 28: 819–833.
Kolte, S. J., Awasthi, R.P. and Vishwanath (1987). Assessment of yield losses due to Alternaria blight in rapeseed and mustard. Indian Phytopath., 40: 209-211.
Kumar, A., Kumar, S., Kumar, R., Chand, G. and Kolte, S.J. (2014). Fungicidal effect of some non-conventional chemicals for management of alternaria blight disease of mustard. J. Appl. & Nat. Sci., 6: 913-919.
Marschner, H. (1986). Relationship between mineral nutrition and plant diseases and pests. In : Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, New York, pp. 369-390.
McKinney, H.H. (1923). Influence of soil temperature and moisture on infection of wheat seedlings by Helminthosporium sativum. Journal of Agricultural Research, 26: 195-217.
Meena, P.D., Meena, R.L., Chattopadhyay, C. and Kumar, A. (2004). Identification of critical stage for disease development and biocontrol of Alternaria blight of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). J. Phytopathol., 152: 204-209.
Meena, P.D., Rani, A., Meena, R., Sharma, P., Gupta, R. and Chowdappa, P. (2012). Aggressiveness, diversity and distribution of Alternaria brassicae isolates infecting oilseed Brassica in India. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6: 5249-5258.
Meena, P.D., Chattopadhyay, C., Kumar, A., Awasthi, R.P., Singh, R., Kaur, S., Thomas, L., Goyal, P. and Chand, P. (2011). Comparative study on the effect of chemicals on alternaria blight in Indian mustard – A multi-location study in India. Journal of Environmental Biology, 32: 375-379.
Meena, P.D., Gour, R.B., Gupta, J.C., Singh, H.K., Awasthi, R.P., Netam, R.S., Godika, S., Sandhu, P.S., Prasad, R., Rathi, A.S., Rai, D., Thomas, L., Patel, G.A. and Chattopadhyay, C. (2013). Non-chemical agents provide tenable, eco-friendly alternatives for the management of the major diseases devastating Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) in India. Crop Protection, 53: 169-174.
Nene, Y.L. and Thapliyal, P.N. (1993). Fungicides in Plant Disease Control. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, New Delhi, India pp 579.
Pennazio, S. and Roggero, P. (1988). Effect of trace elements on the natural resistance of asparagus bean to tobacco necrosis virus and ethylene production. Advance Hort. Sci., 23-26.
Prasad, R. and Lallu (2006). Management of Alternaria blight of mustard with combination of chemicals and botanicals. Ann. Pl. Protec. Sci., 14: 400-403.
Ram, R.S. and Chauhan, V.B. (1998). Assessment of yield losses due to Alternaria leaf spot in various cultivars of mustard and rapeseed. J. Mycopathol. Res., 36: 109-111.
Reuveni, M., Agapov, V. and Reuveni, R. (1997). A foliar spray of micronutrient solutions induces local and systemic protection against powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginia) in cucumber. European J. Plant Pathol,. 103: 581-588.
Rouxel, T., Kollmann, A. and Balesdent, M. H. (1995). Phytoalexins from the crucifers. In: Daniel, M. and Purkayastha, R.P. eds. Handbook of Phytoalexin Metabolism and Action. Marcel Decker, New York, pp. 229-261.
Sarma, B.K., Basha, S.A., Singh, D.P. and Singh, U.P. (2007). Use of non-conventional chemicals as an alternative approach to protect chickpea (Cicer arietinum) from Sclerotinia stem rot. Crop Protection, 26: 1042-1048.
Sharma, S. R. and Kolte, S. J. (1994). Effect of soil-applied NPK fertilizers on severity of black spot disease (Alternaria brassicae) and yield of oilseed rape. Plant and Soil, 167: 313-320.
Shrestha, S.K., Munk, L. and Mathur, S.B. (2005). Role of weather on Alternaria Leaf Blight Disease and its effect on Yield and Yield Components of Mustard. Nepal Agric. Res. J., 6: 62-72.
Singh, M.P. (1996). Induced host resistance against Alternaria blight, white rust and downy mildew of rapeseed: Role of micronutrients, growth regulators and organic acids. Thesis, Ph.D. (Plant Pathology), G.B. Pant Univ. of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar, pp 262.
Sultana, N.A., Khan, M.A.H., Islam, M.N. and Nahar, K. (2009). Evaluation of appropriate time for the application of rovral against alternaria blight incidence and yield of mustard. International Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 1: 20-23.
Tewari, J.P. (1991). Structural and biochemical bases of black spot disease of crucifers. Adv. Struct. Biol., 1: 325-349.
Vidhyasekaran, P. (1988). Physiology of Disease Resistance in Plants. Vol. II. Boca Raton, Florida, CRC Press Inc., pp 128.
Verma, P.R. and Saharan, G.S. (1994). Monograph on Alternaria diseases of crucifers. Saskatoon Research Station, Technical Bulletin1994-6E, Agric Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, Canada pp 162.
Vishwanath (1987). Studies on some fungicides and micronutrients in the control of three important disease of Toria (Brassica campestris var. toria). Thesis, M.Sc. Ag. (Plant Pathology), G.B. Pant Univ. of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar, pp 235.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)