Mukesh Kumar Bikram Jit Singh Tapan Kumar Mukherjee Pooja Sharma Raj Singh


Plant extracts are used to make herbal remedies with no side effects and little expense. During the COVID-19 pandemic, fungal species responsible for mucormycosis were found resistant to a variety of antifungals, including flucytosine, ketoconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and echinocandins, due to their variable susceptibility. Amphotericin B is widely used as an antifungal agent due to its high inhibition capacity against various fungi. The present study aimed to compare the antifungal potential of Amphotericin B and herbal extract in vitro. The experiment was designed to measure zones of inhibition with the help of well-diffusion method. Four solvents, viz. methanol, chloroform, hexane and distilled water, were used to extract plant extract. The efficiency of plant extracts was found to be low compared to Amphotericin B (1.4mm). Chloroform extract of Boerhavia diffusa was found antifungal against Candida albician and C. tropicalis (0.45mm). Methanol and hexane extract of Eichhornia crassipes showed higher antifungal activity (1.35mm) and (1.75mm), respectively. The plant extracts also showed significant antifungal activity against C. tropicalis, revealing its potential to be used as a natural antifungal agent (1.1mm). Additionally, the findings showed that the chloroform and methanol extracts of B. diffusa and E. crassipes were also efficient against C. albician and C. tropicalis. The findings provide important insights about using plant extracts as a potential alternative to conventional antifungal agents.





Amphotericin B, Antifungal, Boerhavia diffusa, Eichhornia crassipes, Weeds

Agarwal, S., Ramamurthy, P.H., Fernandes, B., Rath, A. & Sidhu, P. (2019). Assessment of antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Tinospora cordifolia against Streptococcus mutans: An In vitro study. Journal of Dental Research, 16(1), 24-28.
Al Khoury, A., Sleiman, R., Atoui, A., Hindieh, P., Maroun, R.G. & Bailly, J.D. (2021). Antifungal and anti-aflatoxigenic properties of organs of Cannabis sativa L.: relation to phenolic content and antioxidant capacities. Archive Microbiology, 203(7), 4485-4492. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02444-x
Alam, M.A., Karim, M.R. & Rahman, M.A. (2019). In vitro antifungal activity of Eichhornia crassipes extract against some pathogenic fungi. Journal of pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, 8, 2408-2411.
Alekseyev, K., Didenko, L. & Chaudhry, B. (2021). Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis and COVID-19 Pneumonia. Journal of Medical Cases Reports, 12(3), 85-89. doi: 10.14740/jmc3637
Baharuddin, N.S., Abdullah, H. & Wahab, W.N.A.W.A. (2015). Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species. Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences, 7(1), 15.
Borman, A.M., Fraser, M., Palmer, M.D., Szekely, A., Houldsworth, M., Patterson, Z. & Johnson, E.M. (2017). MIC distributions and evaluation of fungicidal activity for amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin and 20 species of pathogenic filamentous fungi determined using the CLSI broth microdilution method. Journal of Fungi, 3(2), 27-40. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3020027
Chowdhary, A., Singh, R. & Sharma, A. (2017). Antifungal efficacy of Boerhavia diffusa against Candida albicans: an in vitro study. Journal of Ayurveda Integrative Medicine, 8, 17-20.
Dhale, D.A. & Chaudhari, P.D. (2016). Antifungal activity of Boerhavia diffusa against Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. International Journal of chemistry, 4, 70-72.
Dinesh, Y., Abilasha, R., Ramani, P. & Rajeshkumar, S. (2021). Assessment of Cytotoxic, Antioxidant, Thrombolytic, Anti Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activity of Curcuma longa Linn, Cissus quadrangularis and Boerhaavia diffusa Herbal Mixture-An In vitro Study. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 33(60B), 1766-1777.
Garg, D., Muthu, V., Sehgal, I.S., Ramachandran, R., Kaur, H., Bhalla, A. & Agarwal, R. (2021). Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) associated mucormycosis (CAM): case report and systematic review of literature. Mycopathologia 186:289-298.(https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046-021-00528-2).
Joshi, B., Panda, S.K., Jouneghani, R.S., Liu, M., Parajuli, N., Leyssen, P. & Luyten, W. (2020). Antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anthelmintic activities of medicinal plants of Nepal selected based on ethnobotanical evidence. Journal of Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/1043471
Khan, H.S.G., Sarmin, N.M., Arzmi, M.H., Amiruddin, H.F. & Radzi, A.M. (2020). Antifungal Activities of Ziziphus mauritiana against Candida albicans: In Vitro Study. Compendium of Oral Science, 7, 1-12.
Kumar, D. & Kumar, S. (2016). In vitro antifungal activity of plant extracts against some human pathogenic fungi. International Journal of Life Sciences Research, 4:105-112.
Laniado-Laborín, R. & Cabrales-Vargas, M.N. (2009). Amphotericin B: side effects and toxicity. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología 26, 223–227.
Mawardi, R., Rahman, F. & Astuti, E.P. (2019). Antifungal activity of ethanol extract of Eichhornia crassipes against Candida albicans. Journal of Physics Conference Series, 1249(1), 012059.
Onkar, D., Dhingra & James, B. (1995). Basic plant pathology method, CRC press, Inc, USA, pp 287-305.
Oura, M., Sternberg, T.H. & Wright, E.T. (1955). A new antifungal antibiotic, amphotericin B. Antibiotics Annual, 3:566–573.
Pakkirisamy, M., Kalakandan, S.K. & Ravichandran, K. (2017). Phytochemical screening, GC-MS, FT-IR analysis of methanolic extract of Curcuma caesia Roxb (Black Turmeric). Pharmacognosy Journal, 9(6), 952-956.
Prakash, H. & Chakrabarti, A. (2021). Epidemiology of Mucormycosis in India. Microorganisms, 9, 523. (https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030523).
Priya, P., Ganesan, V., Rajendran, T. & Geni, V.G. (2020). Mucormycosis in a Tertiary Care Center in South India: A 4-Year Experience. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine, 24, 168-171.
Rafiq, M.A., Javaid, & Shoaib, A. (2021). Antifungal activity of methanolic leaf extract of Carthamus oxycantha against Rhizoctonia solani. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 53,1133-1139. http://dx.doi.org/10.30848/PJB2021-3(17).
Renuka, J. (2023). Study of active principle of Boerhavia diffusa and its antifungal activity against oral candidiasis. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 12(13), 1282-1295.
Saleem, S., Muhammad, G., Hussain, M.A., Altaf, M. & Bukhari, S.N.A. (2020). Withania somnifera L.: Insights into the phytochemical profile, therapeutic potential, clinical trials, and future prospective. Iranian Journal of Basic Medicine Science, 23:1501-1526.10.22038/IJBMS.2020.44254.10378.
Sardi, J.C., Scorzoni, L., Bernardi, T., Fusco-Ameida, A.M. & Mendis Giannin, M.J.S. (2013). Candida species: current epidemiology, pathogenicity, biofilm forma-tion, natural antifungal products and new therapeutic options. Journal of Medicine Microbiology, 62,10–24. DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.045054-0.
Singh, R., Malik, P., Kumar, M., Kumar, R., Alam, M.S. & Mukherjee, T.K. (2023). Secondary fungal infections in SARS-CoV-2 patients: pathological whereabouts, cautionary measures, and steadfast treatments. Pharmacological Reports, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43440-023-00506-z
Singh, R., Upadhyay, S.K., Rani, A., Kumar, P., Sharma, P., Sharma, I. & Kumar, M. (2020). Ethnobotanical study of weed flora at district Ambala, Haryana, India: comprehensive medicinal and pharmacological aspects of plant resources. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 12(1), 1941-1956.
Singh, P., & Singh, R.P. (2016). Antifungal activity of some plant extracts against human pathogenic fungi. International Journal of Biomedicine Science, 7,101-105.
Soni, S., Siddiqui, A.A., Dwivedi, J. & Soni, S.K. (2018). Antifungal activity of crude extracts of Boerhavia diffusa against some human pathogenic fungi. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 12, 339-342.
Veeraswamy, S.D., Raju, I. & Mohan, S. (2022). An Approach to Antifungal Efficacy through Well Diffusion Analysis and Molecular Interaction Profile of Polyherbal Formulation. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal, 15, 2069-2084.
Vijay, R., Drisya, V.M., Selta, D.R.F., Rathi, M.A., Gopalakrishnan, V.K., Alkhalifah, D.H.M. & Hozzein, W.N. (2023). Synthesis and characterization of silver nanomaterial from aqueous extract of Commelina forskaolii and its potential antimicrobial activity against Gram negative pathogens. Journal of King Saud University-Science, 35(1), 102373.
Vrchotova, N. & Bednar, J. (2021). Antifungal and insecticidal potential of the essential oil from Ocimum sanctum L. against dangerous fungal and insect species and its safety for non-target useful soil species Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Plants 10:2180-2189. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102180.
Yan, Y., Liao, Z., Shen, J., Zhu, Z. & Cao, Y. (2022). Nicotinamide potentiates amphotericin B activity against Candida albicans. Virulence, 13:1533-1542. https://doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2022.2119656
Zanna, H., Tijani, Y., Abubakar, S., Modu, B., Damasak, A.A. & Uzairu, S.M. (2021). Fungicidal potential of selected plant extracts against human pathogenic fungi. Scientific African, 13, e00864. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2021.e00864
Zareshahrabadi, Z., Khorram, M., Pakshir, K., Tamaddon, A.M., Jafari, M., Nouraei, H. & Zomorodian, K. (2022). Magnetic chitosan nanoparticles loaded with Amphotericin B: Synthesis, properties and potentiation of antifungal activity against common human pathogenic fungal strains. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 222, 1619-1631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.09.244
Research Articles

How to Cite

Evaluation of Boerhavia diffusa and Eichhornia crassipes plant extracts in vitro as potential antifungal agents against human pathogenic fungi Candida albician and Candida tropicalis : A comparative study. (2023). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 15(4), 1636-1645. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v15i4.5010