Cotton, a vital global cash crop, influences the economy and sustainability. Natural farming is a cost-effective, eco-friendly method. This study examines Natural Farming's effects on cotton yield and the economics of cotton compared to Integrated and organic farming. Field experiments were conducted during 2021-22 and 2022-23 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural College, Coimbatore. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, laid out in Randomized Block Design and replicated thrice. The treatments consist of control (T1), various Indian Natural farming practices including Beejamirit as a seed treatment, Ghanajeevamirit as basal, Jeevamirit with irrigation water, crop residue mulch, intercroping with pulses (T2 to T5), Organic farming practices (T6), Integrated crop management (ICM) practices with organic pest control (T7) and ICM with chemical pest (T8). The results indicated a significant increase in yield components: sympodial branches plant-1 (12.85 and 13.40), number of squares (29.28 and 31.28), bolls plant-1 (10.74 and 11.32), and boll weight (4.30 and 4.38 g) under Integrated Crop Management practices in 2021-22 and 2022-23, respectively. However, organic farming practices, followed by natural farming practices, were at par with integrated crop management. Integrated crop management practices resulted in significantly higher seed cotton yields (2178 and 2232 kg/ha in 2021-22 and 2022-23, respectively) than organic and natural farming practices with a higher cost of cultivation and a gross return. Complete natural farming outperformed organic and integrated farming in cotton, yielding higher net returns and B: C ratios. This approach holds promise for enhancing yield, economic viability and environmental sustainability in cotton cultivation.
Beejamirit, Economics, Ghanajeevamit, Jeevamirit, Organic Cotton, Natural Farming and Yield
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