Shaheemath Suhara K K Ravikumar V Balaji Kannan Duraisamy M R Patil Santosh Ganapati


Drip simulation software is essential for accurately optimizing and maximizing the efficiency of drip irrigation systems, enabling precise water management and resource conservation. The present study developed a powerful web-based application to assist irrigation system designers in evaluating the effectiveness of the submain design on uniform or non-uniform slope conditions. The software facilitates the simulation and optimisation of submain design by incorporating modern drip design approaches and state-of-the-art software development methodologies. With its intuitive user interface, the software allows users to effortlessly enter important design parameters, including slope specifications, lateral discharge rates, submain length, lateral spacing and submain inlet pressure head. The software calculates to determine the pressure head values at each outlet and the relative variation in pressure head (vh), allowing for comprehensive design evaluation. Extensive testing using various typical sample data ensured the high accuracy and reliability of the developed web application. It empowers users to explore multiple design alternatives and determine the most suitable option. Rigorous testing, employing various typical sample data, has further enhanced the accuracy and reliability of the developed application. Live demonstrations were conducted to evaluate its user-friendliness, yielding overwhelmingly positive feedback from designers. The software can be accessed conveniently via the website https://www.dripdesigncheck.in/telescopic/submain, ensuring easy availability to users.




Darcy-Weisbach equation, Drip irrigation, Python, Simulation, Submain

Ambomsa, A. (2020). Role of drip irrigation system as increasing water use efficiency over furrow irrigation system. Academic Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Research, 8(3), 252-262. 10.14662/ARJASR 2020.225
Ame, M. A. & Shouhua, C. (2022). Economic pipe diameter of laterals in small tube irrigation system. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 61(7), 5361-5370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2021.10.057
Chartres, C. J. & Noble, A. (2015). Sustainable intensification: overcoming land and water constraints on food production. Food Security, 7, 235–245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0425-1
Christiansen, J.E. (1942). Irrigation by sprinkling. Calif Ag Exp Stn Bull 670, University of California, Berkeley
Darwish, M. B. W., El-Howeity, M. A. & Elbelkemy, M. S. (2022). Application of HydroCalc program to choose the optimum drip irrigation system design. Misr Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 39(1), 133-152. https://doi.org/10.21608/mjae.2021.108081.1054
Grafton, R. Q., Williams, J. & Jiang, Q. (2015). Food and water gaps to 2050: preliminary results from the global food and water system (GFWS) platform. Food Security, 7, 209–220. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0439-8
Halbac-Cotoara-Zamfir, R. (2009). Designing a drip irrigation system using HydroCalc irrigation planning. Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 41(1).
Barragan, J., Cots, L., Monserrat, J., Lopez, R. & Wu, I. P. (2010). Water distribution uniformity and scheduling in micro-irrigation systems for water saving and environmental protection. Biosystems Engineering, 107(3), 202-211 .https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2010.07.009
Wang, J., Chen, R., Yang, T., Wei, T. & Wang, X. (2021). A computationally-efficient finite element method for the hydraulic analysis and design of subsurface drip irrigation subunits. Journal of Hydrology, 595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2021.125990
Keller, J. & Bliesner, R.D. (1990). Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. Springer Science + Business Media, LLC, New York. 10.1007/978-1-4757-1425-8
Keller, J. & Karmeli, D. (1974). Trickle irrigation design parameters. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 17(4), 678–684. http://dx.doi.org/1 0.13031/2013.36936
Khan, S., Tariq, R., Yuanlai, C. & Blackwell, J. (2006). Can irrigation be sustainable?. Agricultural Water Management, 80, 87-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.20 05.07.006
Kooij, S. V. D., Zwarteveen, M., Boesveld, H. & Kuper, M. (2013). The efficiency of drip irrigation unpacked. Agricultural Water Management, 123, 103–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2013.03.014
Krishnan, M. & Ravikumar, V. (2002). A software for design of drip subunits with tapered pipes in non-uniform slopes. Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 39(4). http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/JAE/article/view/14143
Lincoln AgriTech Limited (2013). IRRICAD User Guide. Retrieved from https://www.irricad.com/irricad/download/help/IrricadHelp.pdf.
Pereira, L. S., Oweis, T. and Zairi, A. (2002). Irrigation management under water scarcity. Agricultural Water Management, 57(3), 175-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(02)00075-6
Mansour, H. A. & Aljughaiman, A.S. (2020). Assessment of surface and subsurface drip irrigation systems with different slopes by HydroCalc model. International Journal of GEOMATE, 19(73), 91–99. https://doi.org/10.216 60/2020.73.28135
Gallardo, M., Elia, E. & Thompson, R. B. (2020). Decision support systems and models for aiding irrigation and nutrient management of vegetable crops, Agricultural Water Management, 240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2020.1 06209
Mirza, M. (2018). Control and analysis of drip irrigation system. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Renewable. Applied and New Energy Technologies, ICRANET-2018, 19-22 November 2018, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Palau, C. V., Arviza, J, Balbastre, I. & Manzano, J. (2020). DIMSUB, a computer program for designing microirrigation subunits. Tool definition and case studies. Scientia Agricola, 77(3). https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-992x-2018-0184
Patel, N., Rajput, T.B.S., Dinkar, D.K., Ram, S. & Singla, S.K. (2018). DOMIS: a decision support system for design and cost estimation of micro-irrigation systems. Current Science, 115 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.18520/cs/v115/i12/2240-2248
Pedras, C. M .G., Pereira, L. S. & Goncalves, J. M. (2009). MIRRIG: A decision support system for design and evaluation of microirrigation systems. Agricultural Water Management, 96(4), 691–701. https://doi.org/10.1 016/j.agwat.2008.10.006
Philipova, N. (2012). A computer Program for drip Irrigation system Design for Small Plots. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 42(4), 3–18. 10.2478/v10254-012-0016-x
Ravikumar, V. (2022a). Drip irrigation components. In: Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2775-1_7
Ravikumar, V. (2022b). Design with telescopic pipes in uniform and non-uniform slopes. In: Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2775-1_11
Ravikumar, V. (2022c). Hydraulics of micro irrigation pipes. In: Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2775-1_9
Ravikumar, V. (2022d). Drip subunit design with uniform diameter pipes in uniform slopes. In: Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2775-1_10
Sidhu, R. K., Kumar, R., Rana, P. S. & Jat, M. L. (2021). Automation in drip irrigation for enhancing water use efficiency in cereal systems of South Asia: Status and prospects. In: Advances in Agronomy, 167, 247–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.agron.2021.01.002
TORO (2014). AquaFlow User’s manual. Retrieved from https://www.toro.com/~/media/Files/Toro/Agriculture/Resources/AquaFlow%204%20Manual_140606.ashx
Wang, J. & Chen, R. (2020). An improved finite element model for the hydraulic analysis of drip irrigation subunits considering local emitter head loss. Irrigation Science, 38(2), 147–162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-019-00656-0
Zhang, L., Wu, P. & Zhu, D. (2013). Hydraulic design procedure for drip irrigation submain unit based on relative flow difference. Irrigation Science, 31(5), 1065–1073. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-012-0388-3
Research Articles

How to Cite

Development of a web-based simulation application for efficient drip irrigation submain design. (2023). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 15(3), 1195-1203. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v15i3.4799