Soil test crop response (STCR's) soil fertility gradient approach is based on the idea that complex treatments are superimposed in a field to obtain crop responses for correlating with soil test values that are artificially created by differential fertiliser treatments prior to conducting the regular experiment, thereby providing a scientific basis for balanced fertilisation between applied and available forms of nutrients. The present study aimed to develop the fertility gradient with sorghum as test crop in the field concerning N, P, and K and also to evaluate its impact on sorghum nutrient uptake, and soil fertility. The experimental field was split into three equal strips. Strips I, II, and III each received three graded levels of fertiliser N (nitrogen), P2O5 (phosphorus pentoxide), and K2O (potassium oxide) as urea, single super phosphate, and muriate of potash, respectively. The green fodder yield of sorghum recorded at harvest in strip I, II & III was 16.4, 23.4 and 28.2 t ha-1, respectively. Whereas post-harvest soil available nitrogen in strip I, II & III was 155, 190 & 214 kg ha-1 respectively, for available phosphorus 12.5, 23.2 & 31.8 kg ha-1 respectively and for available potassium it is 332, 370 & 396 kg ha-1 respectively. Wide variations in green fodder yield and soil fertility were observed among the strips, establishing the influence of graded amounts of fertiliser treatment on these parameters and the formation of a soil fertility gradient.
Fertility gradient, Soil enzymes, Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, SCMR
Adebola Ajidahun & Erick Sebetha. (2019). Effects of cultivars, nitrogen fertilizer and plant density on yield and yield components of sorghum. Research on crops, 20(2), 275-284. DOI : 10.31830/2348-7542.2019.040
Arvind Kumar Shukla, Sanjib Kumar Behera, Chaudhari, S. K. & Gajendra Singh. (2022). Fertilizer Use in Indian Agriculture and its Impact on Human Health and Environment. Indian Journal of Fertilisers. 18 (3), 218-237.
Alias, A., Usman, M., Ullah, E. & Waraich, E.A., (2003). Effects of different Phosphorus levels on the growth and yield of two cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 5(4), 632-634.
Almodares, A. & Hadi, M.R., (2009). Production of bioethanol from sweet sorghum: a review. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(9), 772–780.
Bednarz, B. S. & Krzepilko, A., (2009). Effect of different fertilization on enzyme activity in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere of Amaranth. International Agrophys, 23, 409-412.
Singh, B. (2016). Site-specific nitrogen management in cereals in India. Indian Journal of Fertilisers. 12(4), 46- 57.
Chauhan Aditi, Sonal Tripathi, Narendra Singh, Lokesh Saini & Govind. (2019). Effect of fertilizer levels, biocompost and biofertilizer on growth and yield attributes of fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 8(6), 617-620.
Darwin Habinsaran Pangaribuan, Kus Hendarto, Sheilla, R., Elzhivago & Ade Yulistiani. (2018). The effect of organic fertilizer and urea fertilizer on growth, yield and quality of sweet corn and soil health. Asian Journal Agriculture & Biology, 6(3), 335-344.
Department of Agriculture cooperation and farmers welfare (2021). Annual report 2020-2021. Retrieved from https://agricoop.nic.in/Documents/annual-report-2020-21.pdf
Department of Economics and Statistics. (2021). Statistical hand book of Tamil Nadu 2020-21. Retrieved from https://www.tn.gov.in/deptst/agriculture.pdf
Ekta Joshi, Vyas, A.K., Shiva Dhar, Anchal Dass, Sasode, D.S., Kailash Prajapati, Dinesh Jinger, Vibha Singhal, Gaurendra Gupta & Dasharath Prasad. (2021). Soil microbial biomass carbon and soil enzymatic activity under nutrient omission plot technique in maize (Zea mays)–wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 66 (2), 170-179.
Goyal, V. & Bhardwaj, K.K., (2020). Studies on creation of soil fertility gradients with respect to N, P and K in Inceptisols of semi-arid regions of Haryana. Haryana Agric. Univ. J. Res., 50. 15-19.
Hanway, J.J. & Hiedal, H., (1952). Soil analysis method used in Iowa State Soil Testing Laboratory, Iowa Agric. Ameri. Soc. Agron., 57, 1025-1027.
Jackson, M. L. (1967). Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of India (P) Ltd., New Delhi.
Joseph Xorse Kugbe, Ayamba Michael Mbawuni & Agyiri Wisdom. (2019). Growth, Yield and Yield Components Response of Local Sorghum Varieties to Nitrogenous Fertilizer Rates in Northern Ghana. World Journal of Agriculture and Soil Science, 3(4).DOI: 10.33552/WJASS.2019.03.000574.
Kaushik Batabyal, Dibyendu Sarkar & Biswapati Mandal. (2015). Fertilizer-prescription equations for targeted yield in radish under integrated nutrient management system. Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 10(1), 18-23.
Khosa, M.K., Sekhon, B.S., Mavi, M.S., Benipa, D.S. & Benbi D.K., (2012). Performance of target yield based fertiliser prescription equations in rice-wheat cropping system in Punjab. Indian Journal of Fertilisers. 8(2), 14-18.
Mageshen, VR., Bagavathi Ammal, U., Sankar, R. & Pradip Dey. (2020). Effect of varying fertilizer doses and soil test crop response based integrated plant nutrient system on enzyme activity in Bahour soil series of Puducherry. The Pharma Innovation Journal, 9(7), 452-455. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22271/tpi.2020.v9.i7g.4969.
Maragatham, S., Santhi, R., Sellamuthu, K.M. & Pradip Dey., (2018). Yield Targeting for Rice under SRI on Alfisols of Tamil Nadu through Soil Test based Integrated Plant Nutrition System,Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.,7(08),11341143.doi:https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.708.129.
Meena, A.M, Pushpendra Singh & Pushpa Kanwar. (2012). Effect of nitrogen levels on yield and quality of [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] sorghum genotypes. Forage Research, 37(4), 238-240.
Moghimi, N. & Emam, Y. (2015). Growth and yield responses of two forage sorghum cultivars to different nitrogen fertilizer rates. Iran Agricultural Research, 34(1), 39-45. DOI: 10.22099/iar.2015.3041
Muhammad Aamir Iqbal, Zahoor Ahmad, Qaiser Maqsood, Sher Afza & Mian Munir Ahmad. (2015). Optimizing Nitrogen Level to Improve Growth and Grain Yield of Spring Planted Irrigated Maize (Zea mays L.). Advanced Botany and Zoology, 2(3).DOI: 10.15297/JABZ.V2I3.02.
Muhammad Aamir Iqbal, Zahoor Ahmad, Qaiser Maqsood, Sher Afzal & Mian Munir Ahmad. (2015). Optimizing Nitrogen Level to Improve Growth and Grain Yield of Spring Planted Irrigated Maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Advanced Botany and Zoology, 2(3). DOI: 10.15297/JABZ.V2I3.02.
Mwadalu, R., Mochoge, B., Mwangi, M., Maitra, S. and Gitari, H. (2022). Response of Gadam Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) to Farmyard Manure and Inorganic Fertilizer Application. Int. J. Ag. Env. Biotech, 15(1), 51-60. DOI: 10.30954/0974-1712.01.2022.6
Olsen, S.R. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. US Department of Agriculture.
Parbati, A., Bandhu, R.B. & Jiban, S. (2016). Maize response to time of nitrogen application and planting seasons. Journal of Maize Research and Development, 2(1), 83-93. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmrd.v2i1.16218
Raghavendra, K., Rao, N., Swamy, M. & Wani, S.P. (2018). Influence of nutrient management approaches on soil enzyme activity, soil microbial population and grain yield of dry direct-seeded rice. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, 7(6), 2,558–2,567. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.706.302
Ramamoorthy, B., Narasimham, R. & Dinesh, R. (1967). Fertilizer application for specific yield targets on Sonora 64 (wheat). Indian Farming. 17: 43-45.
Rashid and Iqbal, M. 2011. Response of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) fodder to phosphorus fertilizer on torripsamment soil. The J. Animal Plant Sci., 21(2), 220-225.
Redai Weldegebriel, Tesfay Araya & Yemane G.Egziabher. (2018). Effect of NPK and Blended Fertilizer Application on Nutrient Uptake and Use Efficiency of Selected Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Varieties Under Rain-fed Condition in Sheraro District, Northern Ethiopia. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science, 10(1), 140-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mejs.v10i1.8.
Choudhary Sarita, Pradeep Kumar, Santosh Yadav, Prakash Chand Gurjar, Ajit Kumar Meena, Seema Pooniyan, Jaipal Yadav, Suman Dhayal & Suman Dhaka. (2022). Effect of long term continuous application of STCR based fertilizer in calcareous soil on soil properties under rice based cropping system. The Pharma Innovation Journal, 11(4), 1871-1874.
Shuaimin, C., Tatoba, R., Waghmode, Ruibo Sun, Eiko, E., Kuramae, Chunsheng Hu and Binbin Liu. (2019). Root-associated microbiomes of wheat under the combined effect of plant development and nitrogen fertilization. Microbiome, 7,1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0750-2
Singh, Y.V. (2014). STCR based gradient experiment with sorghum (Sorghum biocolar L.) to NPK fertilizers in the alluvial soil. Indian J. Crop Ecol., 2(2), 83-86.
Singh, Y.V., Shiva, A.M. & Dey, P. (2015). Soil test crop response based gradient experiment on rice (Oryza sativa L.) to NPK fertilizers in the alluvial soil of the Indo-Gangetic plains. Crop Res., 50(1, 2&3), 9-11.
Song, D., Chen, L., Zhang, S., Zheng, Q. & Wang, X. (2020). Combined biochar and nitrogen fertilizer change soil enzyme and microbial activities in a 2-year ﬁeld trial. Eur. J. Soil Biol, 99, 103212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2020.103212
Sonune, B.A., S.S. Rewatkar, Prerana Gadge, & Gabhane, V.V. (2010). Effect of nitrogen levels on yield and quality of [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] sorghum genotypes. Ann. Plant Phys., 24, 33-37.
Subbaiah, B. (1956). A rapid procedure for estimation of available nitrogen in soil. Current Science, 25: 259-260.
Sujathamma, P., Kavitha, K. & Suneetha, V. (2015). Response of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Cultivars to different fertilizer levels under rainfed condition. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5 (1), 381-385.
Sun, W., Liu, S., Feng, J., Wang, P., Ma, D., Xie, Y., Lu, H. & Wang, C. (2020). Effects of water and nitrogen source types on soil enzyme activity and nitrogen utilization efﬁciency of wheat. China Journal of Applied Ecology, 31, 2583–2592. DOI: 10.13287/j.1001-9332.202008.023
Sunita Rani, Geeta Kandpal, Mansukh Singh Jatana & Gurwinder Singh. (2018). Effect of Different Fertilizers on Growth Parameters of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Int.J.Curr. Microbiol.App.Sci, 7(06),2086-2091.doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.706.246.
Timu, A.G., Mulwa, M.R., Okello, J. & Kamau, M. (2012). The role of varietal attributes on adoption of improved seed varieties. The case of sorghum in Kenya. Tegemeo Institute of agricultural policy development, Nairobi, Kenya.
Udayakumar, S. & Santhi, R. (2017). Impact of Artificial Soil Fertility Gradient Strategy on Soil Fertility, Nutrient Uptake and Fodder Yield of Sorghum. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 6(3), 938-944. http://dx.doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.603.111
Varshini, S.V. & Babu, R. (2020). Influence of graded levels and split application of nitrogen on growth and physiological attributes of hybrid maize. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 9(12), 180-184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22271/tpi.2020.v9.i12c.5432
Vijay Kant Singh, Poonam Gautam, Sobaran Singh, Navneet Pareek & Singh. V. P. (2020). Evaluation of soil fertility gradient experiment on the basis of crop yield, nutrient uptake and soil fertility. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 9(02), 2435-2440. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.902.278.
Walkley, A. & Black, C.A. (1934). An examination of degtjareff method for determining soil organic carbon and a proved modification of chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci., 37: 29-38.
Zhang, X., Dippold, M.A., Kuzyakov, Y. & Razavi, B.S. (2019). Spatial pattern of enzyme activities depends on root exudate composition. Soil Biol. Biochem, 133, 83–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2019.02.010
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)