Himanshu S. Swian S. Ratnamanjari Senapati S. J. Meshram R. Mishra H. Shivananda Murthy


The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of carotenoid (marigold oleoresin) on growth, survival and total body carotenoid of Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). The experiment was carried out in 12 fiber aquarium tanks of size 12"×6"×6"(20l capacity). Each tank was stocked with15 fishes of uniform size. The marigold oleoresin were as dietary supplement at levels 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 ppm/kg of the feed and designated as treatment T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively and diet without marigold oleoresin supplementation
served as a control (T0). The result of the experiment showed that there was significant difference found in absolute growth rate and specific growth rate of the fish (P >0.05). However, 180ppm marigold oleoresin fed fishes showed higher mean weight gain of 3.98±0.22g and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 2.81±0.04 than the other treatment groups. The body coloration and total carotenoid concentration of muscle tissue (30.16±0.60?g/g) was significantly higher in fish fed with 180 ppm marigold oleoresin diet. The study showed that incorporation of 180ppm of marigold oleoresin in diet was found better to enhance the growth and coloration in C. carpio.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Carotenoid, Cyprinus carpio, Koi carp, Marigold oleoresin

Ahilan, B., Jegan, K., Felix, N. and Ravaneswaran, K. (2008). Influence of botanical additives on the growth and colouration of adult goldfish, carassius auratus (linnaeus). Tamil Nadu J. Veterinary & Animal Sciences, 4 (4): 129-134.
AOAC. (2005). Official methods of analysis of AOAC, 18th edition, In: Horwitz, W. (Ed.), AOAC, Washington, .D.C., 1094.
APHA.(1995). Standard methods for the Examination of water and Wastewater. 18th . Edn., American Public Health Association, Washington DC. Aquaculture 17: 63-92.
Baby Joseph, S., Sujath, J., Jemima, Shalin and Palavesam, A. (2011). Influence of four ornamental flowers on the growth and colouration of orange sword tail Chicilidae fish (Xiphophorus hellerei, Heckel, 1940). Int J Biol Med. Res., 2(3): 621-626. Boonyarapatin, M. and Lovell, R.T. (1977). Diet preparation for aquarium fish. Aquac., 12: 53-62.
Boonyarapatin, M. and Phrom kunthony, W. (1986). Effects of carotenoid pigments from different sources on colour changes of fancy carp, Cyprinus carpio. Linn. Jour. Sci. Technol., 8(1): 11-20.
Chatzifotis, S., Pavlidis, M., Jimeno, C.D., Vardanis, G., Sterioti, A. and Divanach, P. (2005). The effect of different carotenoid sources on skin coloration of cultured red porgy (Pagrus pagrus). Aquaculture Research, 36:1517-1525.
Choubert, G. (1979). Tentative utilization of spirulina algae as a source of carotenoid pigmentsa for rainbow trout. Aquac., 18: 135-143.
Christiansen, R., Lie, O. and Torrissen, O.J. (1995). Growth and survival of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed different dietary levels of astaxanthin. First-feeding fry. Aquaculture Nutrition. 1: 189-198.
Del Villar-Martinez, M., Serrato-Cruz, M.A., SolanoNavarro, A., Arenas-Ocampo, M.L., Quintero-Gutiérrez, A.G., Sánchez-Millán, J.L., Evangelista-Lozano, S., Jiménez Aparicio, A., García-Jiménez, F.A. and Vanegas-Espinoza, P.E. (2007). Carotenoides en Tagetes erecta L. la modificación genética como alternativa. Rev. Fitotec. Mex., 30 (2):109-118.
De la Mora, G.I., Arredondo-Figueroa, J.L., Ponce-Palafox, J.T., Barriga-Sosa, I.A. and Vernon-Carter, J.E. (2006). Comparison of red chilli (Capsium annuum) oleoresin and astaxanthin on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillet pigmentation. Aquaculture. 258: 487-495.
Ezhil, J., Jeyanthi, C. and Narayanan, M. (2008). Marigold as a carotenoid source on pigmentation and growth of red swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 8: 99-102.
Goodwin, T.W. (1984). The Biochemistry of carotenoids. Volume II. Animals. Chapman and Hall, New York,
Gomelsky B., Cherfas, N., Hulata, G. and Dasgupta, S. (2003). Inheritance of the white-red (kohaku) color complex in ornamental (koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Isr. J. Aquacult. – Bamidgeh, 55(3):147-153.
Gouveia, L. and Rema, P. (2005). Effect of microalgal biomass concentration and temperature on ornamental fish (Cyprinus carpio) skin pigmentation. Aquaculture Nutrition, 11: 19-23.
Gouveia, L., Rema, P., Pereira, O. and Empis, J. (2003). Colouring ornamental fish (Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus) with microalgal biomass. Aquaculture Nutrition, 9: 123-129.
Ha, B. S., Kang, D. S., Kim, J.H., Choi O. S. and Ryu, H. Y. (1993). Metabolism of dietary carotenoids and effects to improve the body color of cultured flounder and red sea bream. Bulletin of Korean Fishery Society, 26: 91- 101.
Hardy, R. (1980). Fish feed formulation, In: ADCP (Eds.), Fish feed Technology, Agriculture development coordination programme. FAO/ADCP/Rep., 80(1-1): 233-239.
Harpaz S. and Padowicz, D. (2007). Color enhancement in the ornamental dwarf cichlid Microgeophagus ramirezi by addition of pant carotenoids to the fish diet. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture, 59 (4), 195-200.
Kalinowski, C.T., Robaina, L.E., Fernadez-Palacios, H., Schuchardt, D. and Izquierdo, M.S. (2005). Effect of different carotenoid sources and their dietary levels on red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) growth and skin colour. Aquaculture, 244: 223-231.
Kiriratnikom, S., Zaau, R. and Suwanpugdee, A. (2005). Effects of various levels of Spirulina on growth performance and pigmentation in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 27: 133-139.
Liang, Y., Dong-qing Bai, Guang Yang, Dong Wei, MeiGuo, Shan-shan Yan, Xuan Wu, Bo Ning (2012). Effect of astacin on growth and color formation of Juvenile Red-White ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi L) The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture, 64.748: 1-6.
Lovell, R.T. (2000). Nutrition of ornamental fish. In: J. Bonagura (Ed.). Kirk´s Current Veterinary Therapy XIISmall Practice, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 1191-1196.
McGraw, K.J. and Ardia, D.R. (2003). Carotenoids, immunocompetence, and the information content of sexual colors: and experimental test. American Nature, 162: 704-712.
Navarrete-Bolanos, J.L., Rangel-Cruz, C.L., Jimenez-Islas, H., Botello-Alvarez, E. and Rico-Martinez, R. (2005). Pre-treatment effects on the extraction efficiency of xanthopylls from marigold flower (Tagetes erecta) using hexane. Food Research International, 38: 159-165
Olson, A. (1979). A simple dual assay for vitamin A and carotenoids in human and liver. Nutrition report international, 19: 807-813.
Ramamoorthy, K., Bhuvaneswari, S., Sankar, G. and Sakkaravarthi, K. (2010). Proximate composition and carotenoid content of natural carotenoid sources and its colour enhancement on marine ornamental fish Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuveir, 1880). World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 2 (6): 545-550.
Shahidi, F., Metusalach and Brown, J.A. (1998). Carotenoid pigments in seafoods and aquaculture. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 38: 1–67.
Sinha, A. and Asimi, O. A. (2007). China rose (Hibiscus rosasinensis) petals: a potent natural carotenoid source for goldfish (Carassius auratus L.). Aquaculture Research, 38: 1123-1128.
Sommer, T. R., Souza, F. M. L. D. and Morrisssy, N. M. (1992). Pigmentation of adult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, using the green alga Haematococcus Pluvialis. Aquaculture, 106: 63-74.
Tveranger, B. (1986). Effect of pigment content in broodstock diet subsequent fertilization rate,survival and growth rate of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) offspring. Aquaculture, 53: 85-93.
Watanabe, T. and Carotenoid Vasallo-Agius, R. (2003). Broodstock nutrition research on marine finfish in Japan. Aquaculture, 227: 35-61.
Xu, X., Jin, Z., Wang, H., Chen, X., Wang, C. and Yu, S. (2006). Effect of astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhus on pigmentation of goldfish, Carassius auratus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 37: 282-288.
Yanar, M., Erçen, Z., Hunt, A.O. and Buyükçapar, H.M. (2008). The use of alfafa, Mendicago sativa as natural carotenoid source in diets of goldfish, Carassius auratus. Aquaculture, 284: 196-200.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Swian, H. S., Senapati, S. R., Meshram, S. J., Mishra, R., & Murthy, H. S. (2014). Effect of dietary supplementation of marigold oleoresin on growth, survival and total muscle carotenoid of Koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 6(2), 430–435. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v6i2.478
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles