R. I. Yazhini M. R. Latha R. Rajeswari S. Marimuthu A. Lakshmanan K. S. Subramanian


Sulphur is rapidly being recognized as the fourth key nutrient for plants after nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. It functions in several critical metabolic and physiological processes, such as Chlorophyll synthesis, Protein synthesis, Activation of enzymes, Stress tolerance and Seed production. In this background, an attempt was made to synthesize nano sulphur fertilizers for slow release using the reverse microemulsion (water-in-oil microemulsion) technique. Cyclohexane was used as oil phase. Tween-80 and ethanol were used as surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. Hydrochloric acid and sodium polysulfide solution acted as an aqueous phase. This technique resulted in the successful synthesis of nano sulphur fertilizer. The sulphur nano fertilizer was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD pattern revealed the orthorhombic nature of nano sulphur and the lattice face-centred. The FTIR spectra at 1406 cm-1 confirmed the sulphur vibrations. The microemulsion method yielded stable, uniform, spherical nano sulphur particles with dimensions ranging from 25 to 47 nm. The thermal disintegration between 117°C to 122°C in TGA graph was attributed to the sublimation of sulphur in orthorhombic crystalline form, indicating the successful synthesis of nano sulphur. A laboratory study on nano sulphur fertilizer and conventional sulphur fertilizer was studied with a Percolator reaction system to evaluate the slow release of sulphur from both fertilizers at ambient temperature. Percolation reactor experiment indicated that sulphate release from nano sulphur was longer for 42 days than gypsum amended soil which exhausted within 35 days. Hence, synthesized nano sulphur fertilizer maximizes nutrient retention, eliminates environmental nutrient loses and decreases fertilizer requirements.




FT-IR, Microemulsion, Nano sulphur, Percolation reactor, SEM, Slow release of sulphate, XRD

Anandgaonker, P., Kulkarni, G., Gaikwad, S. & Rajbhoj, A. (2019). Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by electrochemical method and their antibacterial application. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 12(8), 1815-1822. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.12.015
Carmona, F. J., Guagliardi, A. & Masciocchi, N. (2022). Nanosized calcium phosphates as novel macronutrient nano-fertilizers. Nanomaterials, 12(15), 2709. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12152709
Cheng, G., Zhang, J., Su, H. & Zhang, Z. (2023). Synthesis and characterization of a novel collector for the desulfurization of fine high-sulfur bauxite via reverse flotation. Particuology, 79(64-77. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.partic.2022.11.012
Chesnin, L. & Yien, C. (1951). Turbidimetric determination of available sulfates. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 15(C), 149-151. doi: https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1951.036159950015000C0032x
Debnath, S. & Basu, A. (2013). Effect of sulphur on seed yield and oil content in safflower. Journal of Crop Weed, 9(2), 113-114
Dhaliwal, S. S., Sharma, V., Shukla, A. K., Verma, V., Kaur, M., Shivay, Y. S., Nisar, S., Gaber, A., Brestic, M. & Barek, V. (2022). Biofortification—A frontier novel approach to enrich micronutrients in field crops to encounter the nutritional security. Molecules, 27(4), 1340. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041340
Ghosh, G. K. 2022. "Crop Productivity and Quality via-a-vis Sulphur Management Strategies in Indian Agriculture." Souvenir, National Seminar on “Recent Developments in Nutrient Management Strategies for Sustainable Agriculture: The Indian Context.
Gogoi, R., Singh, P., Kumar, R., Nair, K., Alam, I., Srivastava, C., Yadav, S., Gopal, M., Choudhury, S. & Goswami, A. (2013). Suitability of nano-sulphur for biorational management of powdery mildew of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) caused by Erysiphe cichoracearum. J. Plant Pathol. Microbiol, 4(4), 171-175. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7471.1000171
Joshi, D. P. (2022). Comparative study of green synthesised sulphur nanoparticles in different acidic media. Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience Nanotechnology, 13(2), 025003. doi: DOI 10.1088/2043-6262/ac6c21
Lateef, A., Nazir, R., Jamil, N., Alam, S., Shah, R., Khan, M. N. & Saleem, M. (2019). Synthesis and characterization of environmental friendly corncob biochar based nano-composite–A potential slow release nano-fertilizer for sustainable agriculture. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring Management, 11(100212. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enmm.2019.100212
Laue, M. (2023). Microscopy Conference 2023 (MC 2023)-Proceedings.
Momoniat, F. & Rahmanian, N. (2022). Characterization of sulphur particles: prills vs. granules. Particulate Science Technology, 40(4), 391-400. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/02726351.2021.1942342
Muhammad, Z., Inayat, N. & Majeed, A. (2020). Application of nanoparticles in agriculture as fertilizers and pesticides: challenges and opportunities. New Frontiers in Stress Management for Durable Agriculture, 281-293. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1322-0_17
Nazar, R., Iqbal, N., Masood, A., Syeed, S. & Khan, N. A. (2011). Understanding the significance of sulfur in improving salinity tolerance in plants. Environmental Experimental Botany, 70(2-3), 80-87. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2010.09.011
Paralikar, P. & Rai, M. (2018). Bio‐inspired synthesis of sulphur nanoparticles using leaf extract of four medicinal plants with special reference to their antibacterial activity. Nanobiotechnology, 12(1), 25-31. doi: https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2017.0079
Radhika, G., Subadevi, R., Krishnaveni, K., Liu, W.-R. & Sivakumar, M. (2018). Synthesis and electrochemical performance of PEG-MnO2–sulfur composites cathode materials for lithium–sulfur batteries. Journal of Nanoscience Nanotechnology, 18(1), 127-131. doi: https://doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2018.14568
Rao, K. T., Rao, A. U. & Sekhar, D. (2013). Effect of sources and levels of sulphur on groundnut. Journal of Academia Industrial Research, 2(5), 268-270
Roy, A., Velusamy, S., Sundaram, S. & Mallick, T. (2021). Eggshell membrane assisted CdS nanoparticles for manganese removal in water treatment. Advanced Materials Letter, 12(3). doi: https://doi.org/10.5185/amlett.2021.0 31609
Scherer, H. W. (2001). Sulphur in crop production. European Journal of agronomy, 14(2), 81-111. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301(00)00082-4
Shah, M. A., Manaf, A., Hussain, M., Farooq, S. & Zafar-ul-Hye, M. (2013). Sulphur fertilization improves the sesame productivity and economic returns under rainfed conditions. Int J Agric Biol, 15(1301-1306
Shalaby, M. G., Al-Hossainy, A. F., Abo-Zeid, A. M., Mobark, H. & Mahmoud, Y. A.-G. (2022). Combined Experimental Thin Film, DFT-TDDFT Computational Study, structure properties for [FeO+ P2O5] bio-nanocomposite by Geotrichum candidum and Environmental application. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1258(132635. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2022.132635
Shankar, S., Pangeni, R., Park, J. W. & Rhim, J.-W. (2018). Preparation of sulfur nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity and cytotoxic effect. Materials Science Engineering, 92(508-517. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2018.07.015
Shankar, S. & Rhim, J.-W. (2018). Preparation of sulfur nanoparticle-incorporated antimicrobial chitosan films. Food Hydrocolloids, 82(116-123. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2018.03.054
Soleimani, M., Aflatouni, F. & Khani, A. (2013). A new and simple method for sulfur nanoparticles synthesis. Colloid Journal, 75(1). doi: DOI: 10.1134/S1061933X12060142
Subramanian, K., Rajeswari, R., Yuvaraj, M., Pradeep, D., Guna, M. & Yoganathan, G. (2022). Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Sulfur and Its Impact on Growth, Yield, and Quality of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 53(20), 2700-2709. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/0010 3624.2022.2072867
Subramanian, K. S., Manikandan, A., Thirunavukkarasu, M. & Rahale, C. S. (2015). Nano-fertilizers for balanced crop nutrition. Nanotechnologies in Food Agriculture, 69-80. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14024-7_3
Sugumaran, V., Kamalakkannan, A. & Subramanian, B. (2023). Extricating the effect of sodium monovalent cation in the crystallization kinetics of bioactive glass and its influence on bioactivity. Materials Chemistry Physics, 305(127897. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.202 3.127897
Thirunavukkarasu, M. & Subramanian, K. (2014). Surface modified nano-zeolite used as carrier for slow release of sulphur. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 6(1), 19-26. doi: https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v6i1.369
Verma, J., Kushwaha, S., Singh, S. P. & Pandey, P. R. (2020). Effect of sulphur on oilseeds. Environment, Agriculture Health, 32
Zenda, T., Liu, S., Dong, A. & Duan, H. (2021). Revisiting Sulphur—The once neglected nutrient: It’s roles in plant growth, metabolism, stress tolerance and crop production. Agriculture, 11(7), 626. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11070626
Citation Format
How to Cite
Synthesis and characterization of Nano sulphur: Exploring its potential as slow release fertilizer . (2023). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 15(3), 937-944. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v15i3.4665
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles

How to Cite

Synthesis and characterization of Nano sulphur: Exploring its potential as slow release fertilizer . (2023). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 15(3), 937-944. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v15i3.4665