Fall armyworm is a recently occurring invasive pest in India, the most important defoliator causing drastic damage to maize production. Hence, the present study aimed to understand the temporal infestation level of Fall armyworms on maize (Zea mays L.) with weather patterns. Field experiments were conducted during Summer (February-May) and Rainy seasons, 2022 (August-December) at Agro Climate Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Three different growing environments (GE1, GE2 and GE3) were created by providing staggered sowing. Regression models were developed for per cent leaf damage against three-days lagged (LT3) and seven-day lagged (LT7) weather variables. Results showed that irrespective of growing environments, weather variables showed negative correlation (Tmax: r = -0.57, -0.81*, -0.31; SSH: -0.30, -0.48, -0.39; Tmean: -0.49, -0.23, -0.30; and SR: -0.48, -0.94*, -0.40) during summer season whereas same variables (i.e Tmax =0.62*, 0.41, 0.33; SSH = 0.09, 0.68*, 0.24; Tmean = 0.29, 0.32, 0.44; and SR=0.13, 0 .67*, 0.26 ) showed a positive correlation with PLD. Rainfall exhibits positive relation (0.06, 0.54, 0.53) and negative correlation (-0.64*, -0.10, -0.02) during summer and rainy season, respectively. Among the regression models, LT7 model had higher R2 (0.65 and 0.76) than LT3 (0.57 and 0.68) during summer and rainy seasons, respectively. These models had good regression values of 0.56 and 0.70 during Rainy and Summer, respectively. It was concluded that Tmax (32.9 °C), Tmin (23.7 °C), Tmean (28.3 °C), RH-I (85.6%), RH-II (56.4%), SSH (4.1), SR (274.6 cal cm-2 m-2), afternoon cloud cover (4.8 okta) and weekly total rainfall (10.2 mm) were very conducive for the greater leaf damage.
Correlation, Fall armyworm, Maize, Per cent leaf damage, Regression
Anonymous. (2021). Agricultural Statistics at Glance, Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Dept. of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India.
Balikai, R. A. & Venkatesh, H. (2019). Weather based prediction models to forecast major pests of rabi sorghum in Karnataka, India. Journal of Experimental Zoology, India, 22(1), 131-134.
Davis FM, Ng SS, Williams WP (1992) Visual rating scales for screen- ing whorl-stage corn for resistance to fall armyworm. Techni- cal Bulletin 186; Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Research Experiment Station: Mississippi State University, MS, USA. http://www.nal.usda.gov/. Accessed on 1 October 2017.
Goergen, G., Kumar, P. L., Sankung, S. B., Togola, A., & Tamò, M. (2016). First report of outbreaks of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith)(Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a new alien invasive pest in West and Central Africa. PloS one, 11(10), e0165632. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165632
He, L. M., Ge, S. S., Chen, Y. C., Wu, Q. L., Jiang, Y. Y. & Wu, K. M. (2019). The developmental threshold temperature, effective accumulated temperature and prediction model of developmental duration of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Plant Prot, 45(5), 18e26.
He, L. M., Wang, T. L., Chen, Y. C., Ge, S. S., Wyckhuys, K. A. & Wu, K. M. (2021). Larval diet affects development and reproduction of East Asian strain of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(3), 736-744. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62879-0
Kalleshwaraswamy, C. M., Asokan, R., Swamy, H. M., Maruthi, M. S., Pavithra, H. B., Hegbe, K. & Goergen, G. E. (2018). First report of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an alien invasive pest on maize in India.
Khalid, M. F., Hussain, S., Ahmad, S., Ejaz, S., Zakir, I., Ali, M. A. & Anjum, M. A. (2019). Impacts of abiotic stresses on growth and development of plants. In Plant tolerance to environmental stress (pp. 1-8). CRC Press.
Mahesh Haroli and H. Venkatesh (2019) Studies on the relationship of weather on pod borer damage in soybean. J. Farm Sci., 32(1), 87-90.
Niassy, S., Agbodzavu, M. K., Kimathi, E., Mutune, B., Abdel-Rahman, E. F. M., Salifu, D. & Subramanian, S. (2021). Bioecology of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith), its management and potential patterns of seasonal spread in Africa. PloS one, 16(6), e0249042. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0249042
Pandey, P., Irulappan, V., Bagavathiannan, M. V. & Senthil-Kumar, M. (2017). Impact of combined abiotic and biotic stresses on plant growth and avenues for crop improvement by exploiting physio-morphological traits. Frontiers in plant science, 8, 537. https://doi.or g/10.3389/fpls.2017.00537
Prasad, T. V., Rao, M. S., Rao, K. V., Bal, S. K., Muttapa, Y., Choudhary, J. S. & Singh, V. K. (2022). Temperature-based phenology model for predicting the present and future establishment and distribution of recently invasive Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) in India. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 112(2), 271-285. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485321000882
Prasanna, B. M., Huesing, J. E., Eddy, R. & Peschke, V. M. (2018). Fall armyworm in Africa: a guide for integrated pest management.
Rodziewicz, P., Swarcewicz, B., Chmielewska, K., Wojakowska, A. & Stobiecki, M. (2014). Influence of abiotic stresses on plant proteome and metabolome changes. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, (36)1-19. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11738-013-1402-y
Toepfer, S., Fallet, P., Kajuga, J., Bazagwira, D., Mukundwa, I. P., Szalai, M. & Turlings, T. C. (2021). Streamlining leaf damage rating scales for the fall armyworm on maize. Journal of Pest Science, 94(4), 1075-1089. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-021-01359-2
Venkatesh, H., Jahagiradar, S. & Jamadar, M. M. (2001). On influence of weather variables on downy mildew disease of grape in northern Karnataka. In National symposium. Agromet. Anand Agricultural University, Anand. India (pp. 27-28).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)