Soil is a complex structure and contains mainly five major components i.e. mineral matter, water, air, organic matter and living organisms. The quantity of these components in the soil does not remain the same but varies with the locality. Soil possesses not only a nucleus position for existence of living being but also ensures their future existence. Therefore, it is essential to make an adequate land management to maintain the quality of soil in both rural and urban soil. The presence of different kinds of heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, Mn, Bi and Zn etc. in trace or in minimum level is a natural phenomenon but their enhanced level is an indicator of the degree of pollution load in that specific area. The precise knowledge of these kinds of heavy metals, their forms and their dependence on soil provides a genuine base for soil management. The heavy metals have potent cumulative properties and toxicity due to which they have a potential hazardous effect not only on crop plants but also on human health. The metal contaminants can be reduced by immobilization of contaminants using macrophytes and also by using genetically engineered microorganisms.
Heavy metal, Contamination, Agricultural soil
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