Sheila M. Nuraddin


A urinary tract infection is a colonization of uropathogens anywhere in the urinary tract: kidney, ureter, bladder, and urethra. Most paediatric Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by Gram-negative coliform bacteria arising from faecal flora colonising the perineum, which enter and ascend the urinary tract.The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of UTI among febrile children of different ages presented with specific or non-specific symptoms suggestive of UTI. The samples acquired from children were cultured on MacConkey agar and Blood agar by using disposable loops. The cultures were incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C. The positive cultures were recognized by the bacterial colony features. Gram staining technique was used to distinguish Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while  VITEK® 2 microbial ID/AST was conducted for the entire diagnosis. The study observed the respondents  (48.5%) of the participants were 5 – 10 years old, more than one quarter (28.5%) of them were <5 years, the majority (83.8%) were female, and 16.2% of them were male. Regarding culture and sensitivity tests, 46.2% of children had bacteriuria. About 43.8% of infections were caused by Gram-negative bacteria, while only 2.3% were caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Escherichia coli was the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), accounting for 32.3%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.1%) and only 1.5% of patients had Staphylococcus Aureus.  The uropathogens were mostly resistant to the cephalosporin group.  E. coli remained the most predominant uropathogen in children. The results showed that meropenem, imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin were drug of choice in UTI therapy.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Antibiotics, Bacteria, Children infection, Urinary pathogenic bacteria, UTI

Al-Mijalli, S. H. (2017). Bacterial uropathogens in urinary tract infection and antibiotic susceptibility pattern in Riyadh Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Cell Mol Med, 3, 1-6.
Alatoom, A., Elsayed, H., Lawlor, K., Abdelwareth, l.,El-lababidi, R., Cardona, l., Mooty, M., Bonilla, M. F., Nusair, A. & Mirza, I. (2017). Comparison of antimicrobial activity between ceftolozane–tazobactam and ceftazidime–avibactam against multidrug-resistant isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 62, 39-43.
AlBalawi, S. K., AlBalawi, B. K., Shawmeen, M. O. A. & Alharbi, M. H. H. (2018). Bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in urinary tract infections in children, KSAFH, Saudi Arabia, tabuk. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine, 73, 6952-6954.
AlBarrak, M., Alzomor, O., AlMaghrabi, R., AlSubaie, S., AlGhadhi, F., Bajouda, A., Nojoom, M., Faqeehi, H., Rubeea, S. A. & AlNafeesah, R. (2021). Diagnosis and management of community-acquired urinary tract infection in infants and children: clinical guidelines endorsed by the saudi pediatric infectious diseases society (SPIDS). International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 8, 57-67.
AlEmu, A., Moges, F., Shiferaw, Y., Tafees, K., Kassu, A., Anagaw, B. & Agegn, A. (2012). Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC research notes, 5, 1-7.
AlSharaS, M. (2011). Uropathogens and their susceptibility patterns in children at Princess Rhmah Hospital, Jordan. Jordan Med J, 45, 44-50.
Assafi, M. S., Ibrahim, N. M., Hussein, N. R., Taha, A. A. & Balatay, A. A. (2015). Urinary bacterial profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern among patients with urinary tract infection in duhok city, kurdistan region, Iraq. International Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences and Technology, 30, 54.
Autore, G., Bernardi, L., La Scola, C., Ghidini, F., Marachetti, F., Pasini, A., Pierantoni, L., Casteelini, C., Gatti, C. & Malaventura, C. (2022). Management of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections: A Delphi Study. Antibiotics, 11, 1122.
Belete, Y., Asrat, D., Woldemanuel, Y., Yihenew, G. & Gize, A. (2019). Bacterial profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection among children attending Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Infection and drug resistance, 12, 3575.
Biswas, R., Rabbani, R., Ahmed, H. S., Sarker, M. A. S., Zafrin, N. & Rahman, M. M. (2014). Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of urinary tract infection at a tertiary care hospital. Bangladesh Critical Care Journal, 2, 21-24.
Burd, E. M. & Kehl, K. S. (2011). A critical appraisal of the role of the clinical microbiology laboratory in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 49, S34-S38.
Derese, B., Kedir, H., Teklemariamt, Z., Weldegebreal, F. & Balakrishnan, S. (2016). Bacterial profile of urinary tract infection and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending at Antenatal Clinic in Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 251-260.
Edlin, R. S., Shapiro, D. J., Hersh, A. L. & Copp, H. L. (2013). Antibiotic resistance patterns of outpatient pediatric urinary tract infections. The Journal of urology, 190, 222-227.
Gales, A. C., Jones, R. N., Gordon, K. A., Sader, H. S., Wilke, W. W., Beach, M. L., Pfaller, M. A., Doern, G. V. .(2000). Activity and spectrum of 22 antimicrobial agents tested against urinary tract infection pathogens in hospitalized patients in Latin America: report from the second year of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1998). Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 45, 295-303.
Hameed, T. M., Al-Saadi, H. A. & Al-Obaidy, Q. M. (2022). The utility of human neutrophil peptide (1–3) in upper and lower pediatric urinary tract infections in kerbala province. Materials Today: Proceedings, 57, 337-342.
Hanna-Wakim, R. H., Ghanem, S. T., El Helou, M. W., Khafaja, S. A., Shaker, R. A., Hassan, S. A., Saad, R. K., Hedari, C. P., Khinkarly, R. W. & Hajar, F. M. (2015). Epidemiology and characteristics of urinary tract infections in children and adolescents. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 5, 45.
Hossain, A., Hossain, S. A., Fatema, A. N., Wahab, A., Alam, M. M., Islam, M. N., Hossain, M. Z. & Ahsan, G. U. (2020). Age and gender-specific antibiotic resistance patterns among Bangladeshi patients with urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli. Heliyon, 6, e04161.
Kaufman, J., Temple-Smith, M. & Sanci, L. (2019). Urinary tract infections in children: an overview of diagnosis and management. BMJ paediatrics open, 3.
Khan, A. M., Al Baiti, K. M., Siwji, Z. A. & Al Zaabi, A. Z. (2010) Urinary Tract Infections in Children: A Hospital-Based Study.
Mrabeea, M., M El Akkad, N., M Zayed, K., W Abou Bakr, B. & M Mahmoud, A. (2015). Incidence of urinary tract infection among febrile children. Al-Azhar Journal of Pediatrics, 18, 1303-1319.
Mohamed , A. A., Haftu, H., Hadgu, A., Seoum, D., Gebrekidan, G., Ebrahim, M. M., Yusuf, A. A. & Mustefa, M. (2022). Prevalence, Clinical Profile and Risk Factors of Nosocomial Infection in Ayder Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Tigray, Ethiopia. International Journal of General Medicine, 7145-7153.
Oliveira, E. A. & Mak, R. H. (2020). Urinary tract infection in pediatrics: an overview. Jornal de pediatria, 96, 65-79.
Sahu, C., Jain, V., Mishra, P. & Prasad, K. N. (2018). Clinical and laboratory standards institute versus European committee for antimicrobial susceptibility testing
guidelines for interpretation of carbapenem antimicrobial susceptibility results for Escherichia coli in urinary tract infection (UTI). Journal of laboratory physicians, 10, 289-293.
Sawalha, R. M. H. (2009). Prevalence of urinary tract infection among children of primary schools in Nablus.
Sood, A., Penna, F. J., Eleswaraou, S., Pucheril, D., Weaver, J., Wagner, J. C., Lakshmanan, Y., Menon, M., Trinh, Q.-D. & Sammon, J. D. (2015). Incidence, admission rates, and economic burden of pediatric emergency department visits for urinary tract infection: data from the nationwide emergency department sample, 2006 to 2011. Journal of Pediatric Urology, 11, 246. e1-246. e8.
Stein, R., Dogan, H. S., Hoebeke, P., Kocvara, R., Numan, R. J., Radmayr, C. & Tekgul, S. (2015). Urinary tract infections in children: EAU/ESPU guidelines. European urology, 67, 546-558.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Nuraddin, S. M. (2023). Profile and antibiotic susceptibility of urinary pathogenic bacteria in children attending Raparen Hospital, Erbil, Iraq. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 15(2), 678–684. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v15i2.4462
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles