Ruqia Fadhel Habeeb Noor Salman Khadim Al-Khafaji


Extremely diverse human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes may contribute in special ways to the immune system's defense against CoV-2 infection caused by SARS. In the present investigation, the human leukocyte antigen was measured levels in the serum (HLA-DRB1). The severity of infection among acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus patients was compared with healthy controls. This case-control study was conducted on 180 acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus patients, including 40 cases of severe corona patients without pneumonia, 40 cases of severe corona patients with pneumonia, 40 cases of non-severe corona patients without pneumonia, 40 cases of non-severe corona patients with pneumonia and 20 cases healthy controls. HLA-DRB1 was identified among four cases and compared to healthy controls. The patients with SARS-CoV-2 had a reduced frequency of HLA-DRB1 when the results using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis were compared. The serum concentration for HLA-DRB1 through individuals with respiratory distress symptoms brought on by viral, and bacterial infections decreased, falling to 38.88 ng/L in severe corona patients without pneumonia, 34.35 ng/L in severe corona patients with pneumonia cases, 46.20 ng/L in non-severe corona patients without pneumonia cases, 51.13 ng/L in non-severe corona patients with pneumonia cases, and 59.95 ng/L in healthy controls ( P ≤0.02). HLA-DRB1 was also found at a reduced frequency in all acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibody-positive patients compared to controls. The SARS CoV-2 illness and HLA-DRB1 were related and may have protective properties in acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. In addition, DRB1 was associated with protection from SARS-CoV-2 and bacterial infection.                                                       




Acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DRB1), ELSA test

Crux, N. B. & Elahi, S. (2017). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and immune regulation: How do classical and non-classical HLA alleles modulate immune response to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections? Frontiers in Immunology, 8, 8,832‏.https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00832.
Debnath, M., Banerjee, M. & Berk, M. (2020). Genetic gateways to COVID-19 infection: Implications for risk, severity, and outcomes. FASEB Journal, 34(7), 8787–8795-8795‏.https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001115R.
Littera, R., Campagna, M., Deidda, S., Angioni, G., Cipri, S., Melis, M., Firinu, D., Santus, S., Lai, A., Porcella, R., Lai, S., Rassu, S., Scioscia, R., Meloni, F., Schirru, D., Cordeddu, W., Kowalik, M. A., Serra, M., Ragatzu, P., . . . & Chessa, L. (2020). Human leukocyte antigen complex and other immunogenetic and clinical factors influence susceptibility or protection to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of the disease course. The Sardinian experience. Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 605688‏, 605688. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.605688. ‏
Domon, H., Maekawa, T., Isono, T., Furuta, K., Kaito, C. & Terao, Y. (2021). Proteolytic cleavage of HLA class II by human neutrophil elastase in pneumococcal pneumonia. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-9‏‏. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82212-5.‏
Nguyen, A., David, J. K., Maden, S. K., Wood, M. A., Weeder, B. R., Nellore, A. & Thompson, R. F. (2020). Human leukocyte antigen susceptibility map for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Journal of Virology, 94(13), e00510-20. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00510-20 ‏
Poulton, K., Wright, P., Hughes, P., Savic, S., Welberry Smith, M., Guiver, M., Morton, M., van Dellen, D., Tholouli, E., Wynn, R. & Clark, B. (2020). A role for human leucocyte antigens in the susceptibility to SARS‐Cov‐2 infection observed in transplant patients. International Journal of Immunogenetics, 47(4), 324–328-328‏. https://doi.org/10.1111/iji.12505.
Restrepo, B. I., Twahirwa, M. & Jagannath, C. (2021). Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia: Reduced HLA-DR expression in monocyte subpopulations from diabetes patients. Human Immunology, 82(2), 124–129-129‏‏. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humi mm.2020.11.005.
Valtierra-Alvarado, M. A., Castañeda-Delgado, J. E., Lugo-Villarino, G., Dueñas Arteaga, F., Rivas-Santiago, B., Enciso-Moreno, J. A. & Serrano, C. J. (2022). Increased frequency of CD14+ HLA-DR−/low cells in type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control. Human Immunology, 83(11), 789–795-795‏‏. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2022.08.011. ‏
Wang, F., Hou, H., Yao, Y., Wu, S., Huang, M., Ran, X., Zhou, H., Liu, Z. & Sun, Z. (2020). Systemically comparing host immunity between survived and deceased COVID-19 patients. Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 17(8), 875–877-877‏‏. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0483-y.
Zhang, L., Li, R., Song, G., Scholes, G. D. & She, Z. S. (2021). Impairment of T cells’ antiviral and anti-inflammation immunities may be critical to death from COVID-19. Royal Society Open Science, 8(12), 211606‏‏, 211606. https://doi.org/10.1098/r sos.211606.
Research Articles

How to Cite

Human leukocyte antigen-DRB1 ( HLA-DRB1) serum level act as a protective gene among acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus patients. (2023). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 15(2), 526-529. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v15i2.4395