Manoj Kumar Areeba Zaveria Abhishek Anamika Jain Shefalee Singh Vidyanand Tiwari S. P. Trivedi


Aquatic regimes are exposed to a variety of pollutants that are mainly released by anthropogenic activities. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) pose serious hazards to freshwater fish resource for its toxicity and long persistence. It is also a threat to humans who consume fish as a food resource. This study aimed to determine the consequences of acute exposure to HgCl2 in the freshwater food fish Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1973). The acute study of 96 hours was composed of three groups (in triplicates), having ten fish in each group which includes group I (control), group II (0.112 mg/l of HgCl2) and group III (0.224 mg/l of HgCl2). Results showed induction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in erythrocytes of group III (22159 ± 258.036). The biomarkers of oxidative stress, glutathione reduced (GSH) and lipid peroxidase (LPO) showed significant (p < 0.05) decrement and increment in their activity, respectively, in gills, liver, kidney and muscle tissues of the fish treated with HgCl2. Further, micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NAs) were formed in the erythrocytes of the fish of groups II and III, revealing DNA damage, hence showing genotoxicity. Histopathological studies in sample tissues of HgCl2 treated group demonstrated irreversible tissue injuries and anomalies. Thus, the findings from the study demonstrate that biological stress is induced in fish because of acute exposure to HgCl2, leading to health impairment




Histopathological anomalies, Mercuric chloride, Micronuclei, Nuclear abnormalities, Oxidative stress

Anbumani, S. & Mohankumar, M.N.(2011). Nuclear and cytoplasmic abnormalities in the fish Catla catla (Hamilton) exposed to chemicals and ionizing radiation. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 5(12), 867–877. https://doi.org/10.3923/rjes.2011.867.877
Ansari, R. A., Kaur, M., Ahmad, F., Rahman, S., Rashid, H., Islam, F. & Raisuddin, S.(2008). Genotoxic and oxidative stress-inducing effects of deltamethrin in the erythrocytes of a freshwater biomarker fish Channapunctata Bloch. Environmental Toxicology, 24, 429–436.
APHA, AWWA & WEF (2017). In E. W. Rice, R. B. Baird, A. D. Eaton, & L. S. Clesceri (Eds.), Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (23rd ed.). Washington, DC: APHA.
Awasthi, Y., Ratn, A., Prasad, R., Kumar, M., Trivedi, A., Shukla, J.P. & Trivedi, S.P.(2019). A protective study of curcumin associated with Cr6+ induced oxidative stress, genetic damage, transcription of genes related to apoptosis and histopathology of fish, Channapunctatus (Bloch, 1793). Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 71, 1–10.
Balali-Mood,M., Naseri, K., Tahergorabi, Z., Khazdair, M.R. & Sadeghi, M. (2021). Toxic mechanisms of five heavy metals: mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, and arsenic. Front. Pharmacol. 12:643972. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.643972
Borges, Â.O.,Erickson, J., da Silva, L.A., Fantin, C. & Domingos-Moreira, F.X.V. (2022). Mercury bioaccumulation, genotoxic and biochemical biomarkers reveal the health status of yellow-spotted amazon river turtles (Podocnemisunifilis) in an environmental protection area in the Amazon. Environmental Sciences,  ActaAmaz. 52 (3)  pp. 254-263.https://doi.org/10.1590/1809-4392202201230
Braham, R.P., Blazer, V.S., Shaw, C.H. &Mazik, P.M.(2017). Micronuclei and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities in fishes from the Great Lakes Basin, USA. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 58, 570–581.
Buege, J.A. &Aust S.D. (1978). Microsomal Lipid Peroxidation. Methods Enzymol. 52,302-310.
Chondrou, V., Trochoutsou, K., Panayides, A., Efthimiou, M., Stephanou, G. &Demopoulos, N.A.(2018). Combined study on clastogenic, aneugenic and apoptotic properties of doxorubicin in human cells in vitro. Journal of Biological Research-Thessaloniki, 25, 1–13
Collodel, G., Moretti, E., Noto, D., Corsaro, R. & Signorini, C. (2022). Oxidation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids as a Promising Area of Research in Infertility. Antioxidants, 11, 1002. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11051002
de Oliveira Ribeiro, C. A., Belger, L., Pelletier, E. &Rouleau, C.(2002). Histopathological evidence of inorganic mercury and methyl mercury toxicity in the arctic charr (Salvelinusalpinus). Environmental research, 90(3), 217–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0013-9351(02)00025-7
Ellman, G.L. (1959). Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 82, 70–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(59)90090-6
Fatma, A.S.M.(2009). Histopathological studies on Tilapia zillii and Solea vulgaris from Lake Qarun, Egypt. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 1(1):29-39.
Garai, P., Banerjee, P., Mondal, P.&Saha, N.C.(2021). Effect of Heavy Metals on Fishes: Toxicity and Bioaccumulation. J ClinToxicol. S18:001.
Hamilton, M.A., Russo, R.C. & Thurston, R.V.(1978). Trimmed Spearman-Karber method for estimating median lethal concentrations in bioassays. Environ. Sci. Technol. 12, 417. https://doi.org/10.1021/es60140a017.
Hayati, A., Wulansari, E., Armando, D. S., Sofiyanti, A., Amin, M. H. F.&Pramudya, M.(2019). Effects of in vitro exposure of mercury on sperm quality and fertility of tropical fishCyprinuscarpioL. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 45(2), 189–195. doi:10.1016/j.ejar.201 9.06.005 
Jan, A. T., Azam, M., Siddiqui, K., Ali, A., Choi, I. &Haq, Q. M. R.(2015). Heavy metals and human health: Mechanistic insight into toxicity and counter defense system of antioxidants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16, 29592–29630
Kaur, S., Khera, K.S.&Kondal, J.K.(2018).Heavy metal induced histopathological alterations in liver, muscle and kidney of freshwater cyprinid, Labeorohita(Hamilton), Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. AkiNik Publications.
Kumar S.P. (2012). Micronucleus assay: a sensitive indicator for aquatic pollution. Int J of R in BioSci 1(2):32–37.
Kumar,M.,Ratan, A., Prasad, R., Trivedi, S.P., Sharma, Y.K.&Shukla, A.K. (2015). Assessment of Zinc bioaccumulation in fish Channapunctatus exposed chronically. Global Journal of Bio-sciences and Biotechnology. 4(4)347-355.
Kumar, M., Gupta, N., Ratn, A., Awasthi, Y., Prasad, R., Trivedi, A. & Trivedi, S. P. (2020). Biomonitoring of Heavy Metals in River Ganga Water, Sediments, Plant, and Fishes of Different Trophic Levels. Biological trace element research, 193(2), 536–547. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01736-0
Kumar, M., Singh, S., Dwivedi, S. &Trivedi, A. (2022a). Copper-induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and alteration in transcriptional level of autophagy-associated Genes in snakehead fish  Channapunctatus. Biol Trace Elem Res .https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-022-03301-8
Kumar, M., Singh, S., Dwivedi, S.& Trivedi, A. (2022b). Altered transcriptional levels of autophagy-related genes, induced by oxidative stress in fish Channapunctatus exposed to chromium. Fish PhysiolBiochem 48, 1299–1313. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-022-01119-8
Li, Z.-H., Li, P. & Wu, Y.(2020). Regulation of glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense system of grass carpCtenopharyngodonidellaunder the combined stress of mercury and temperature. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. doi:10.1007/s11356-020-10587-5 
Monteiro, D.A., Rantin, F.T. & Kalinin, A.L. (2010). Inorganic mercury exposure: toxicological effects, oxidative stress biomarkers and bioaccumulation in the tropical freshwater fish matrinxã, Bryconamazonicus (Spix and Agassiz, 1829). Ecotoxicology 19, 105–123.
OECD(2019). Test No. 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Testing, Section 2: Effects on Biotic Systems. Guidel. Test. Chem. 10.
Patnaik, B.B., Howrelia, J.H., Mathews, T.&Selvanayagam, M.(2011). Histopathology of gill, liver, muscle and brain of Cyprinuscarpiocommunis L. exposed to sublethal concentration of lead and cadmium. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(57):12218-12223.
Ratn, A., Prasad, R., Awasthi, Y., Kumar, M., Misra, A. & Trivedi, S. P.(2018). Zn 2+ induced molecular responses associated with oxidative stress, DNA damage and histopathological lesions in liver and kidney of the fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 151, 10–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoen v.2017.12.058
Ren, Z., Liu, J., Dou, S., Zhou, D., Cui, W., Lv, Z.& Cao, L.(2020). Tissue-Specific Accumulation and Antioxidant Defenses in Flounder (Paralichthysolivaceus) Juveniles Experimentally Exposed to Methylmercury. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol., 79, 406–420. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-020-00775-2
Savassi, L. A., Paschoalini, A. L., Arantes, F. P., Rizzo, E.&Bazzoli, N.(2020). Heavy metal contamination in a highly consumed Brazilian fish: immune histochemical and histopathological assessments. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 192(8), 542. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08515-8
Schmid, W.(1975). The micronucleus test. Mutation Research/Environmental Mutagenesis and Related Subjects, 31(1), 9–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1161(75)90058-8
Shahid, S., Sultana, T., Sultana, S., Hussain, B., Al-Ghanim, K. A., Al-Bashir, F., Riaz, M. N.&Mahboob, S.(2022). Detecting Aquatic Pollution Using Histological Investigations of the Gills, Liver, Kidney, and Muscles of Oreochromisniloticus. Toxics, 10(10), 564. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100564
Shahjahan, M., Khatun, M. S., Mun, M. M., Islam, S. M. M., Uddin, M. H., Badruzzaman, M. &Khan, S.(2020). Nuclear and cellular abnormalities of erythrocytes in response to thermal stress in common carp Cyprinuscarpio. Frontiers in Physiology, 11, 543
Siddiqui, E. & Pandey, J.(2019). Assessment of heavy metal pollution in water and surface sediment and evaluation of ecological risks associated with sediment contamination in the Ganga River: a basin-scale study. Environmental science and pollution research international, 26(11), 10926–10940. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04495-6
Sultana, T., Butt, K., Sultana, S., Al-Ghanim, K.A., Mubashra, R., Bashir, N., Ahmed, Z., Ashraf, A.& Mahboob, S. (2016). Histopathological changes in liver, gills and intestine of Labeorohita inhabiting industrial waste contaminated water of River Ravi. Pak. J. Zool. 48, 172–1177
Trivedi, S. P., Ratn, A., Awasthi, Y., Kumar, M. & Trivedi, A. (2021a). In vivo assessment of dichlorvos induced histological and biochemical impairments coupled with expression of p53 responsive apoptotic genes in the liver and kidney of fish, Channapunctatus (Bloch, 1793). Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology :CBP, 245, 109032. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2021.109032
Trivedi, S.P., Ratn,A., Awasthi,Y., Gupta,N., Kumar, M. & Trivedi, A.(2021b). Micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in phorate exposed fish, Channapunctatus. Journal of Environmental Biology 42(5), 1221-1231
Trivedi, S. P., Singh, S., Trivedi, A., & Kumar, M.(2022). Mercuric chloride-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity, haematological changes and histopathological alterations in fish Channapunctatus (Bloch, 1793). Journal of fish biology, 100(4), 868–883. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.150 19
Vieira, H.C., Bordalo, M.D., Rodrigues, A.C.M., Pires, S.F.S., Rocha, R.J.M., Soares, A. M.V.M. &Morgado, F.(2021). Water temperature modulates mercury accumulation and oxidative stress status of common goby (Pomatoschistusmicrops). Environmental Research, 193, 110585. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2020.110585
Visha, A., Gandhi, N., Bhavsar, S.P. & Arhonditsis, G.B.(2018). Assessing mercury contamination patterns of fish communities in the Laurentian Great Lakes: A Bayesian perspective. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 243(Pt A), 777–789. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.07.070
Yadav, K.K. & Trivedi, S.P. (2009). Sublethal exposure of heavy metals induces micronuclei in fish, Channapunctata. Chemosphere 77, 1495–1500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.022
Zhang, Q.F., Li, Y.W., Liu, Z.H. & Chen, Q.L.(2016).  Reproductive toxicity of inorganic mercury exposure in adult zebrafish: Histological damage, oxidative stress, and alterations of sex hormone and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Aquatic Toxicology, 177, 417–424. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.20 16.0 6.018
Research Articles

How to Cite

Toxicological manifestations in gills, liver, kidney and muscles of Channa punctatus exposed to mercuric chloride. (2023). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 15(2), 498-504. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v15i2.4364