Arun Kumar Sharma A. K. Chopra


The present investigation observed the effect of current density (CD), operating time (OT), inter electrode distance (IED), electrode area (EA), initial pH and settling time (ST) using Al-Al electrode combination on the removal of color, total suspended solids (TSS), hardness (HR) and alkalinity (ALK) from biologically treated municipal wastewater (BTMW) of Sewage Treatment Plant (STP), Jagjeetpur, Haridwar, India. The maximum removal of color (99.86%), TSS (98.7%), HR (78.9%) and ALK (43.69 %) from BTMW was found with the optimum operating conditions of CD (2.65 A/m2), OT (40 mins.), IED (0.5 cm), EA (160 cm2), initial pH (7.5) and ST (60 min.). However, the maximum removal of ALK was found with the optimum operating conditions of CD (1.68 A/m2), OT (40 mins.), IED (1.0 cm), EA (80 cm2), initial pH (7.5) and ST (90 min.) The electrolytic treatment ( ET) brought down the concentration of HR and ALK to the desirable limit of the BIS standards of drinking water. There was no need of pH adjustment of the BTMW during ET as the optimal removal efficiency was close to the pH of 7.5. Under optimal operating conditions, the operating cost was found to be 1.01 $/m3 in terms of the electrode consumption (23.71x 10-5 kg Al/m3) and energy consumption (101.76 Kwh/m3). The study revealed that BTMW can be effectively treated with the Al-Al electrode combination for color, TSS, HR and ALK removal.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Al-Al Electrode combinations, Electrolytic treatment, Operating conditions, Removal efficiency

Aiyuk, S., Forrez, I., Kempeneer, D. L., Haandel, A. and Verstraete, W. (2006). Anaerobic and complementary treatment of domestic sewage in regions with hot climates— A review. Bioresource Technology, 97:2225–2241.
Aoudj, S., Khelifa, A., Drouiche, N., Hecini, M. and Hamitouche, H. (2010). Electrocoagulation process applied to wastewater containing dyes from textile industry. Chem. Eng. Process., 49: 1176-1182.
APHA (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, 21st edn. Washington, DC. .
Ashtoukhy, ES.Z.E. and Amin, N.K. (2010). Removal of acid green dye 50 from wastewater by anodic oxidation and electrocoagulation—A comparative study. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 179:113–119.
Bayramoglu, M., Kobya, M., Can, O.T. and Sozbir, M. (2004). Operating costs analysis of electrocoagulation of textile dye wastewater. Sep. Purif. Technol., 37: 117–125.
BIS (1991).Specifications for Drinking Water, IS: 10500:1991, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
Bukhari, A.A.(2008). Investigation of the electro-coagulation treatment process for the removal of total suspended solids and turbidity from municipal wastewater. Bioresour. Technol., 99:914-921.
Chen, X., Chen, G. and Yue, P. L.(2000). Separation of pollutants from restaurant waste water by electro – coagulation. Separation and purification technology. 19:65-76.
Chopra A. K. and Sharma A. K. (2013). Removal of turbidity, COD and BOD from secondarily treated sewage water by electrolytic treatment. Appl. Water Sci., 3:125-132.
Chopra, A. K. and Sharma, A. K.(2012). Efficiency of turbidity and BOD removal from secondarily treated sewage by electrochemical treatment. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 4:304-309.
Comninellis, Ch.(1994). Electrocatalysis in the electrochemical conversion/combustion of organic pollutants for wastewater treatment, Electrochim. Acta, 39:1857–1862.
Daneshava, N., Oladegaragoze, A. and Djafarzadeh, N. (2005). Decolorization of Basic Dye Solutions by Electrocoagulation: an investigation of the effect of operational parameters, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 129:116-122.
Daneshvar, N., Khataee, A.R., Amani Ghadim, A.R. and Rasoulifard M.H., (2007). Decolorization of C.I. acid yellow 23 solution by electrocoagulation process: investigation of operational parameters and evaluation of specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC), J. Hazard. Mater., 148: 566-572.
Daneshvar, N., Oladegaragoze, A. and Djafarzadeh, N., (2006). Decolorization of basic dye solutions by electro coagulation: An investigation of the effect of operational parameters; Journal of Hazardous Materials B,129:116- 122.
Escobara, C., Cesar S.S. and Toral, M. (2006). Optimization of the electrocoagulation process for the removal of copper, lead and cadmium in natural waters and simulated wastewater. J. Environ. Manag., 81(4): 384–391.
Essadki A.H., Bennajah, M., Gourich, B., Vial, C., Azzi, N. and Delmas, H. (2008). Electrocoagulation/ electroflotation in an external-loop airlift reactor- Application to the decolorization of textile dye wastewater A case study. Chem. Eng. Process., 47:1211-1223.
Feng, C, Sugiura, N., Shimada, S. and Maekawa, T.(2003). Development of a high performance electrochemical wastewater treatment system. J. Hazard. Mater. B, 103 : 65- 78.
Ghosh, D., Medhi, C.R., Solanki, H., and Purkait, M. K., (2008). Decolorization of Crystal Violet Solution by Electrocoagulation. Journal of environmental protection science, 2:25 – 35.
Golder, A.K., Samanta, A.N., and Ray, S. (2007). Removal of trivalent chromium by electrocoagulation, Sep. Purif. Technol., 53:33–41.
Gurses, A., Yalcin, M., and Dogar, C.(2002). Electro coagulation of some reactive dyes: a statistical investigation of some electrical variables. Waste management, 22:, 491-499.
Holt P.K., Barton, G.W. and Mitchell, C.A. (2005). The Future For: Electrocoagulation as a localized water treatment technology. Chemosphere, 59:355-367
Holt, P. K., Barton, G. W., Wark, M. and Mitchell, C. A. (2002). A quantitative comparison between chemical dosing and electro coagulation; Colloids and Surfaces, 211:233-248.
Iniesta, J., Exposito, E., Gonzalez-Garcia, J., Monitel, V., Aldaz, A.,(2002). Electrochemical Treatment of Industrial Wastewater Containing Phenols. Journal of Electrochemical Society, 149: 57-62.
Khemis, M., Leclerc, J.P., Tanguy, G., Valentin, G. and Lapicque, F., (2006). Treatment of industrial liquid wastes by electro-coagulation: Experimental investigations and an overall interpretation model; Chemical engineering science, 61:3602- 3609.
Kobya, M. and Delipinar, S. (2008). Treatment of the baker’s yeast wastewater by electrocoagulation. J Hazard Mater., 154:1133– 1140
Kobya, M., Can, O. T. and Bayramoglu, M.(2003). Treatment of textile waste waters by electro coagulation using iron and aluminum electrodes. Journal of hazardous materials, B 100:163-178.
Lettinga, G., Van Lier, Van, J.B., Buuren, J.C.L. and Zeeman, G.(2001). Sustainable development in pollution control and the role of anaerobic treatment. Water Sci. Technol., 44: 181–188.
Li Xu, Wang Wei, Wang Mingyu, Cai Yongyi (2008). Electrochemical degradation of tridecane dicarboxylic acid wastewater with tantalum-based diamond film electrode. Desalination, 222: 388–393.
Lin, S.H. and Chen, M.L.(1997). Treatment of textile wastewater by electrochemical methods for reuse. Water Res.,31:868–876.
Matteson, M.J., Dobson, R.L., , Glenn, R.W., Kukunoor, N.S., Waits, W.H. , Clayfield, E.J.(1995). Electro coagulation and separation of aqueous suspensions of ultrafine particles. Colloids Surf. A, 104: 101–109.
Simonsson, D.(1997). Electrochemistry for a cleaner environment. Chem. Soc. Rev., 26: 181–189.
Song, S., Yao, J., He, Z., Qiu, J. and Chen, J. (2008). Effect of operational parameters on the decolorization of C.I. Reactive Blue 19 in aqueous solution by ozoneenhanced electrocoagulation. J. Hazard. Mater., 152: 204-210.
Vijayaraghavan, K., Ahmad, D., Yuzri, A. and Yazid, A. (2008). Electrolytic treatment of latex wastewater. Desalination, 219:214–221
Yi, Q.(2001). A sustainable technology for developing countryanaerobic digestion, In: Proc. 9th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion–Anaerobic Conversion for Sustainability (Part 1). Antwerp, Belgium, September. 2–6: 23–30.
Zaroual, Z, Azzi, M. and Saib, N. (2006). Contribution to the study of electrocoagulation mechanism in basic textile effluent. J Hazard Mate, 131(1-3):73–78.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Sharma, A. K., & Chopra, A. K. (2014). Influence of operating conditions on the electrolytic treatment for the removal of color, TSS, hardness and alkalinity using Al-Al electrode combination. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 6(1), 279–285. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v6i1.415
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>