A study was performed under natural environment to compare heavy metal accumulation in soil and Vigna unguiculata L. (Cowpea) irrigated with five rates of SME viz. 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% concentrations and DAP treatment (applied @100Kg/ha i.e. 0.7g / per 5 Kg) and control (Bore well water) separately in both the rainy (Kharif) and summer (Zaid) seasons for 90 days. Results revealed that among various concentration of SME and DAP treatment, irrigation with 100% SME concentration significantly (P<0.001) increased Zn (323.07-341.02 %), Cu (371.23-389.04%), Ni (3666.66-4133.33%), Cd (525.00-725.00%), Cr (1444.4-1477.77%) and Fe (224.08-244.89%) in the soil. In case of V. unguiculata irrigated with different SME concentrations, maximum range of heavy metals such as Zn (2.43-2.98 mg Kg-1), Cu (2.39-2.73 mg Kg-1), Ni (0.55-0.91 mg Kg-1), Cr (1.01-1.21 mg Kg-1), Cd (0.13- 0.17 mg Kg-1), and Fe (5.54-6.18) were observed at 100% concentration of SME than that of DAP treatment in both the cultivated seasons. However, the concentration of all the metals Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr and Fe in soil and plant were lower than toxicity threshold i.e. within the permissible limit. Enrichment factor (Ef) for soil/V. unguiculata was recorded maximum with Ni (37.66-42.33) / (24-30.33) and minimum with Fe (3.24-3.44) / (2.28-2.52) after 90 days of SME irrigation than DAP in both the cropping seasons of Kharif and Zaid. The minimum accumulation of Fe in both soil and crop showed that metals with completely filled d orbitals (d8, Fe) were least incorporated into the V. unguiculata crop.
Enrichment factor, Heavy metals, Sugar mill effluent, Soil characteristics, Vigna unguiculata
Awashthi, S.K. (2000). Prevention of Food Adulteration Act no. 37 of 1954. Central and State Rules as amended for 1999,third ed. Ashoka Law House, New Delhi.
Chaturvedi, R.K. and Sankar, K. (2006). Laboratory manual for the physico-chemical analysis of soil, water and plant. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, pp. 97.
Chopra, A.K. and Pathak, C. (2013). Enrichment and translocation of heavy metals in soil and Spinacea oleracea grown in Sugar mill effluent irrigated soil. Sugar Tech., 15:77-83.
FAO/WHO. (2011). Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme codex committee on contaminants in foods. fifth session, Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization, pp 64-89.
Farooq, M., Farooq, A. and Rashid, U. (2008). Appraisal of heavy metal contents in different vegetables grown in the vicinity of an industrial area. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 40: 2099-2106.
Hati, K.K., Swarup, A. and Dwivedi, A.K. (2007). Changes in soil physical properties and organic carbon status at the topsoil horizon of a Vertisol of central India after 28 years of continuous cropping, fertilization and manuring. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 119: 127–134.
Itanna, F. (2002). Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological implications. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 6:295–302.
Kabata-Pendias, A. and Pendias, H. (1992). Trace elements in soil and plants, 2nd edn. Boca Raton: CRC, USA, pp365.
Kumar, V. and Chopra, A. K. (2010). Influence of Sugar mill effluent on physico-chemical characteristics of soil at Haridwar (Uttarakhand), India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 2(2):269-279.
Kumar, V. and Chopra , A.K. (2013) Response of sweet sorghum after fertigation with sugar mill effluent in two seasons. Sugar Tech., 15(3):285-299.
Lahham, O., El Assi, N.M. and Fayyad, M. (2007). Translocation of heavy metals to tomato (Solanum lycopersicom L.) fruit irrigated with treated wastewater. Scientia Horticulturae, 113:250-254.
Moore, F., Attar, A. and Rastmanesh, F. (2011). Anthropogenic sources of heavy metals in deposited sediments from runoff and industrial effluents, Shiraz, SW Iran. International Proceedings of Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering, 6:215-219.
Moshood, N.T. and Agakwu, A.A. (2007). An assessment of soil - plant transfer of trace metals and contamination of shallow ground water under amended irrigated fields. African crop science conference proceedings, 8:1693-1697.
Muchuweti, M., Birkett, J.W., Chinyanga, E., Zvauya, R., Scrimshaw, M.D. and Lister, J.N. (2006). Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: implication for human health. Agri. Ecosys. Environ., 112:41-48.
Pandey, S.N. (2006). Accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn) in Raphanus sativus L. and Spinacia oleracea L. plants irrigated with industrial effluent. Journal of Environmental Biology, 27(2):381-384.
Qishlaqi, A., Moore, F. and Forghani, G. (2008). Impact of untreated wastewater irrigation on soils and crops in Shiraz suburban area, SW Iran. Environ. Monit. Assess. 141(1-3):257-273.
Samuel, S. and Muthukkaruppan, S.M. (2011). Amelioration of Sugar mill effluent polluted soil using microbial isolates and its response on Paddy. Current Botany, 2 (8):14-18.
SEPA (2005). The limits of pollutants in food. State Environmental Protection Administration, China, GB 2762-2005.
Temmerman, L.O., Hoeing, M. and Scokart, P.O. (1984). Determination of ‘normal’ levels and upper limit values of trace elements in soils. Zournal Pflanzenernahr Bodenkd, 147: 687–694.
Valenzuela, H. and Smith, J. (2002). Cowpea, college of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. University of Hawaii at Monoa, Honolulu, Hawaii. pp 1-4.
Zia-ul-haq, M., Ahmad, S.E., Chiavaro, M. and Ahmed, S. (2010). Studies of oil from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walp.) cultivars commonly grown in Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot., 42(2):1333-1341.
Singh, R., Gautam, N., Mishra, A. and Gupta, R. (2012). Heavy metals and living systems: An overview. Indian J Pharmacology, 43(3): 246-253.
Srivastava, S. and Chopra, A.K. (2014). Irrigational impact of distillery effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus L. Okra with special reference to heavy metals. Environ. Monit. Assess. DOI 10.1007/s10661-014-3688-7.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)