In India, about 3.77 million ha of the country's geographical area is affected by sodicity. There is an urgent need to minimize further land degradation and restore the fertility of degraded soils to meet the growing demand for food. The most effective way to overcome salt stress is by applying nutrients through soil and foliar. In this context, a field experiment was conducted at Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute (ADAC & RI), Tiruchirappalli, in the summer of 2022 to study the reclamation potential of soil amendments and foliar nutrition in sodic soil. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. The treatment comprised of soil amendments viz., M1- Pongamia green leaf manure (GLM) @ 6.25 t ha-1, M2- Pressmud @ 10 t ha-1, M3-CSR GROMOR @ 25 kg ha-1, M4-Gypsum @ 50 % GR, M5-Gypsum @ 50 % gypsum requirement (GR) + Pongamia GLM @ 6.25 t ha-1, M6-Gypsum @ 50 % GR + Pressmud @ 10 t ha-1, M7-Gypsum @ 50 % GR + CSR GROMOR @ 25 kg ha-1 and M8- Farmers practice, in main plots and foliar nutrition viz., S1- Foliar spray (FS) of CSR GROMOR @ 3% @ 30 DAS, S2-FS of Brassinosteroid (BRs) 0.2 ppm @ 30 DAS and S3-FS of Melatonin 60 ppm @ 30 DAS in sub plots. The results showed that gypsum @ 50 % GR + Pressmud @ 10 t ha-1+ FS of Brassinosteroid 0.2 ppm @ 30 DAS(M6S2) registered significantly (P=0.05%) lowest pH (8.07), ESP (11.62%), exchangeable Na+ (2.93 c mol (p+) kg-1) with higher exchangeable Ca2+(11.23 c mol (p+) kg-1), Mg2+ (8.09 c mol (p+) kg-1) and K+(0.82 c mol (p+) kg-1). It also increased soil available nutrients (235.6, 24.57 & 309.6 kg NPK ha-1) and grain yield (1110 kg ha-1) of green gram. However, it was on par with gypsum @ 50 % GR + CSR GROMOR @ 25 kg ha-1 + FS of Brassinosteroid 0.2 ppm @ 30 DAS(M7S2). Hence it was concluded that the application of gypsum along with pressmud or CSR GROMOR combined with FS of brassinostroid had a remarkable effect in reducing soil sodicity and increasing the productivity of green gram.
Foliar nutrition, Green gram, Sodicity, Soil amendments, Soil nutrients, Yield
Subbiah, B. V. & Asija, G. L. (1956). A rapid procedure for the estimation of available nitrogen in soils. Current Science, 25:259-260.
Bokhtiar, S. M., Paul, G. C., Rashid, M. A. & Mafizur Rahman, A. B. M. (2001). Effect of press mud and inorganic nitrogen on soil fertility and yield of sugarcane grown in High Ganges River Flood plain soils of Bangladesh. Indian Sugar, 51(4), 235-241.
Chatterjee, R., Jana, J. C. & Paul, P. K. (2012). Enhancement of head yield and quality of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) by combining different sources of nutrients. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 82(4), 324-8.
Choudhary, O. P., Josan, A. S., Bajwa, M. S. & Kapur, M. L. (2004). Effect of sustained sodic and saline-sodic irrigation and application of gypsum and farmyard manure on yield and quality of sugarcane under semi-arid conditions. Field crops research, 87(2-3), 103-116. doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2003.10.001
Daur, I. & Tatar, O. (2013). Effects of gypsum and brassinolide on soil properties, and berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) growth, yield and chemical composition grown on saline soil. Legume Research, 36(4), 306-311.
Dakshinamurthi, C. & Gupta, R. P. (1968). Practicals in soil physics. IARI, New Delhi.
Dotaniya, M. L., Datta, S. C., Biswas, D. R., Dotaniya, C. K., Meena, B. L., Rajendiran, S. & Lata, M. (2016). Use of sugarcane industrial by-products for improving sugarcane productivity and soil health. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 5(3), 185-194. DOI 10.1007/s40093-016-0132-8
Gardiner, D. T. & Miller, R. W. (2004). Soils in our environment (pp. 126-165). NJ.
Hashmi, S., Younis, U., Danish, S. & Munir, T. M. (2019). Pongamia pinnata L. leaves biochar increased growth and pigments syntheses in Pisum sativum L. exposed to nutritional stress. Agriculture, 9(7), 153. doi:10.3390/agriculture9070153
Jackson, M. L. (1973). Soil Chemical Analysis, (2nd Indian Print) Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, 38-336.
Korai, P. K., Rajper, A. A., Baloch, S. F. & Korai, S. K. (2015). Nutrient availability and maize growth in soil amended with mineral fertilizer and pressmud Biocompost. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: D Agriculture and Veterinary, 15(5), 93-100.
Muhammad, D. O. S. T. & Khattak, R. A. (2011). Wheat yield and chemical composition as influenced by integrated use of gypsum, pressmud and FYM in saline-sodic soil. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 33(1), 82-89.
Olsen, S, R., Sterling, Watanabe, F. S., Cosper, H. R., Larson, W.E. & Nelson, L.B. (1954). Residual phosphorus availability in long-time rotations on calcareous soils. Soil science, 78 (2), 141-152.
Oo, A. N., Iwai, C. B. & Saenjan, P. (2015). Soil properties and maize growth in saline and nonsaline soils using cassava industrial waste compost and vermicompost with or without earthworms. Land Degradation & Development, 26(3), 300-310. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2208
Pawar, S. K., Kumbhar, G. A. & Dighe, P. K. (2020). Comparative study of crop residue, green manuring and gypsum on chemical properties and yield of cotton in salt affected soils of purna valley. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 9(2), 442-445.
Piper, C. S. 1966. Soil and Plant Analysis. Prentice Hall of India (P) Ltd., New Delhi.
Rao, M., Verma, K. K., Gyani, G., Singh, A. & Kumar, A. (2018). Effect of Soil Amendments on Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Sodic Soil. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(9), 595-599. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.709.0 70
Sheoran, P., Kumar, A., Singh, A., Kumar, A., Parjapat, K., Sharma, R. & Sharma, P. C. (2021). Pressmud alleviates soil sodicity stress in a rice–wheat rotation: Effects on soil properties, physiological adaptation and yield related traits. Land Degradation & Development, 32(9), 2735-2748. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.3953
Shrivastava, P. & Kumar, R. (2015). Soil salinity: A serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 22(2), 123-131. https://doi.org/10.1 016/j.sjbs.2014.12.001
Singh, N. J., Athokpam, H. S., Devi, K. N., Chongtham, N., Singh, N. B., Sharma, P. T. & Dayananda, S. (2015). Effect of farm yard manure and press mud on fertility status of alkaline soil under maize-wheat cropping sequence. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 10(24), 2421-2431. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2013.8233
Sridhar, S. M., Supriya, C. & Krishnaveni, S. A. (2020). Productivity Enhancement through Foliar Nutrition in Green Gram (Vigna radiata). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 9(4), 807-811. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.904.096
Stanford, G. & English, L. (1949). Use of the flame photometer in rapid soil tests for K and Ca. Agronomy Journal, 41(9), 446-447.
Sundhari, T., Thilagavathi, T., Baskar, M., Thuvasan, T. & Eazhilkrishna, N. (2018). Effect of gypsum incubated organics used as an amendment for sodic soil in green gram. International Journal of Chemical Studies, 6,(1), 304-308.
Tan, D. X., Hardeland, R., Manchester, L. C., Korkmaz, A., Ma, S., Rosales-Corral, S. & Reiter, R. J. (2012). Functional roles of melatonin in plants, and perspectives in nutritional and agricultural science. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63(2), 577-597. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/err256
Toth, S.J. & Prince, A. (1949). Estimation of cation exchange capacity and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium contents of soils by flame photometer techniques. Soil Science, 67, 439 - 445.
USSL. (1954). Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. United State Development Agency Handbook. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (pp 147).
Walkley, A. & Black, I. A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37(1), 29-38.
Wang, S. J., Chen, Q., Li, Y., Zhuo, Y. Q. & Xu, L. Z. (2017). Research on saline-alkali soil amelioration with FGD gypsum. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 121, 82-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rescon rec.2016.04.005
Yaduvanshi, N. P. S. (2017). Nutrient management for sustained crop productivity in sodic soils: a review. Soil Salinity Management in Agriculture, 365-394.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)