The glands associated with the sting apparatus of worker honey bee Apis florea produce Venom which is known to be composed of a wide spectrum of biomolecules ranging from biogenic amines to peptides and proteins. The Venom apparatus showed the presence of two important associated exocrine glands i.e. Venom gland and Dufors gland. The secretions of both glands are apocrine and are released into the lumen to be stored in the venom sac. The presence of some exocrine cells in the distal part of venom sac which is otherwise known to only store the component of Venom gland led to the present study. The present study that there were considerable differences in the biochemical composition of Venom gland and Venom sac secretions of Apis species The concentration of lipids (Sting gland =1.423±0.0001 and Reservoir = 1.21±0.0067), proteins (Sting gland=0.440±0.0226, Reservoir = 0.390± 0.032), activity of acid phosphatase (Sting gland=112.09±21.100, Reservoir=22.63±1.467) and hexokinase (Sting gland=20.7±4.016, Reservoir=10.66±2.465) was found to be more in case of Venom gland while cholesterol(Sting gland=0.138±0.0161 reservoir=0.324±0.00323), glucose (Sting gland=189±1.31, Reservoir=321±7.19), free amino acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase (Sting gland=21.03±0.195 Reservoir=22.4±0.685) was more in Venom sac. Glycogen was absent in both Venom gland and Venom sac of Apis species as confirmed by the absence of glucose-6-phosphatase activity. It is established from the present study that Venom sac also secretes various biochemicals and enzymes which are added to the total Venom.
Apis florea, Dufors gland, Honeybee, Venom, Venom gland
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