Sk. Riyazuddin A. Ram Sailesh K. Suresh Kumar Ch. Ramakrishna Namuduri Srinivas


The consumption of different food-based goods produces a considerable amount of waste that needs to be conserved in an eco-friendly manner. A study was carried out on food waste compost made from the in-vessel compost process for use in agriculture and its marketability for its fertility and contamination potential. Food waste samples were collected from the canteen and hostels of GITAM University,  Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), India and were transferred to a 125Kg in-vessel food waste composter (Molten Mind F125) and allowed to digest for 24 hrs followed by curing for seven days. After curing, the samples were characterized for nutrient content for fertility index (FI) and heavy metal contamination for clean index (CI). The compost quality index was derived from FI and CI to assess its suitability for agriculture. The pH of the food waste compost sample was reported as 8.4 and the C/N ratio was 28, which was higher than the standard ratio (15-20). The other physicochemical characteristics were analyzed using the standard methods and the concentration of metals was analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry ( ICPMS). From the analysis, it was evident that heavy metal concentrations were well within the permissible limits. Further, the compost was characterized to know the fertility index (FI) and contamination index (CI) and its suitability to the soil. FI value was reported as more than 3.1 and CI value more than 4, which indicated that compost was best in quality, having high-value potential and low heavy-metal content, which will be suitable for high-value crops such as organic farming. 




Fertility index, Food waste, Heavy metals, In-vessel composter, Index method 

Abdallah, A. M., Jat, H. S., Choudhary, M., Abdelaty, E. F., Sharma, P. C. & Jat, M. L. (2021). Conservation Agriculture Effects on Soil Water Holding Capacity and Water-Saving Varied with Management Practices and Agroecological Conditions: A Review. Agronomy 2021, Vol. 11, Page 1681, 11(9), 1681. https://doi.org/10.3390/AGRONOMY11091681 
Abdel-Shafy, H. I. & Mansour, M. S. M. (2018). Solid waste issue: Sources, composition, disposal, recycling, and valorization. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 27(4), 1275–1290. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.EJPE.2018.07.003 
Al-Bataina, B. B., Young, T. M., & Ranieri, E. (2016). Effects of compost age on the release of nutrients. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 4(3), 230–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ISWCR.2016.07.003
Ameen, A., Ahmad, J. & Raza, S. (2016). Effect of pH and moisture content on composting of Municipal solid waste. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 6(5), 35-37. https://www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-0516/ijsrp-p5310.pdf
 Awasthi, S. K., Sarsaiya, S., Awasthi, M. K., Liu, T., Zhao, J., Kumar, S. & Zhang, Z. (2020). Changes in global trends in food waste composting: Research challenges and opportunities. Bioresource Technology, 299. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BIORTECH.2019.122555 
Bhushan, C., Swati, W. :, Sambyal, S., Basu, D. D., Henam, S. D. & Sambyal, S. S. (2017). Integrated Waste Management Policy and Legislation for African Nations (Issue 2). 
Castiglione, S., Oliva, G., Vigliotta, G., Novello, G., Gamalero, E., Lingua, G., Cicatelli, A., & Guarino, F. (2021). Effects of Compost Amendment on Glycophyte and Halophyte Crops Grown on Saline Soils: Isolation and Characterization of Rhizobacteria with Plant Growth Promoting Features and High Salt Resistance. Applied Sciences 2021, Vol. 11, Page 2125, 11(5), 2125. https://doi.org/10.3390/APP11052125 
Cerda, A., Artola, A., Font, X., Barrena, R., Gea, T., & Sánchez, A. (2018). Composting of food wastes: Status and challenges. Bioresource Technology, 248(Pt A), 57–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BIORTECH.2017.06.133 
Chaari, L., Elloumi, N., Mseddi, S., Gargouri, K., Rouina, B. ben, Mechichi, T., & Kallel, M. (2015). Changes in Soil Macronutrients after a Long-Term Application of Olive Mill Wastewater. Undefined, 04(01), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.4236/JACEN.2015.41001 
Chaves, B., de Neve, S., Boeckx, P., van Cleemput, O., & Hofman, G. (2005). Screening organic biological wastes for their potential to manipulate the N release from N-rich vegetable crop residues in soil. AGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT, 111(1–4), 81–92. http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-350691 
Chaves, B., de Neve, S., Piulats, L. M., Boeckx, P., van Cleemput, O. & Hofman, G. (2007). Manipulating the N release from N-rich crop residues by using organic wastes on soils with different textures. Soil Use and Management, 23(2), 212–219. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1475-2743.20 06.00063.X 
Das, S., Chatterjee, A., Pal, T. K., Das, S., Chatterjee, A. & Pal, T. K. (2021). Organic farming in India: a vision towards a healthy nation. Food Quality and Safety, 4(2), 69–76. https://doi.org/10.1093/FQSAFE/FYAA018 
Elayaraja, M. M. & Vijai, C. (2021). Organic farming in India: Benefits and Challenges. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 7(11), 3021–3029. https://ejmcm.com/article_6326.html 
Eliazer Nelson, A. R. L., Ravichandran, K. & Antony, U. (2019). The impact of the Green Revolution on indigenous crops of India. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 6(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/S42779-019-0011-9/TABLES/2 
Gao, M., Liang, F., Yu, A., Li, B., & Yang, L. (2010). Evaluation of stability and maturity during forced-aeration composting of chicken manure and sawdust at different C/N ratios. Chemosphere, 78(5), 614–619. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.056 
Girkin, N. T. & Cooper, H. v. (2022). Nitrogen and ammonia in soils. Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-822974-3.00010-0 
Guo, R., Li, G., Jiang, T., Schuchardt, F., Chen, T., Zhao, Y. & Shen, Y. (2012). Effect of aeration rate, C/N ratio and moisture content on the stability and maturity of compost. Bioresource Technology, 112, 171–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BIORTECH.2012.02.099 
Ritchie, H. & Roser, M. (2020). Environmental impacts of food production. Our world in data. https://ourworldindata.org/environmental-impacts-of-food 
Haug, R. T. (2018). The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203736234 
Kucbel, M., Raclavská, H., Růžičková, J., Švédová, B., Sassmanová, V., Drozdová, J., Raclavský, K. & Juchelková, D. (2019). Properties of composts from household food waste produced in automatic composters. Journal of Environmental Management, 236, 657–666. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JENVMAN.2019.02.018 
Kurmana, A. & Srinivas, N. (2021). Quality assessment of compost from Centralized windrow composter (CWC) and Source segregate automatic vessel composter (AVC) at  Hyderabad city in India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(2), 450–454. https://doi.org/10.31018/JANS.V13I2.2583 
Lotter, D. W., Seidel, R., & Liebhardt, W. (2003). The performance of organic and conventional cropping systems in an extreme climate year. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 18(3), 146–154. https://doi.org/10.1079/AJAA200345 
Mandal, P., Chaturvedi, M. K., Bassin, J. K., Vaidya, A. N. & Gupta, R. K. (2014). Qualitative assessment of municipal solid waste compost by indexing method. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 3(4), 133–139. https://doi.org/10.1007/S40093-014-0075-X 
Melikoglu, M., Lin, C. S. K. & Webb, C. (2013). Analysing global food waste problem: Pinpointing the facts and estimating the energy content. Central European Journal of Engineering, 3(2), 157–164. https://doi.org/10.2478/S13531-012-0058-5/MACHINEREADABLECITATION/RIS 
Michel, F. C., Forney, L. J., Huang, A. J. F., Reddy, C. A., Drew, S., Lindeberg, J. D. & Czuprenski, M. (1996). Effects of turning frequency, leaves to grass mix ratio and windrow vs. Pile configuration on the composting of yard trimmings. Compost Science and Utilization, 4(1), 26–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.1996.10701816 
Mohammed, H. M. E. (2018). Gum Arabic: Structure, Properties, Application and Economics - Google Books.
Neves, A. C., da Costa, P., de Oliveira E Silva, C. A., Pereira, F. R. & Mol, M. P. G. (2021). Analytical methods comparison for pH determination of composting process from green wastes. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 20(1), 133–139. https://doi.org/10.30638/EEMJ.2021.014 
Ogwu, M. C. (2019). Understanding the Composition of Food Waste. 212–236. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-7706-5.CH011 
Oosterhuis, D. M., Loka, D. A., Kawakami, E. M. & Pettigrew, W. T. (2014). The Physiology of Potassium in Crop Production. Undefined, 126, 203–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800132-5.00003-1 
Oudart, D. (2013). Modélisation de la stabilisation de la matière organique et des émissions gazeuses au cours du compostage d’effluents d’élevage. 338 p. https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00935691 
Pandey Kiran & Sengupta Rajit (2018). India has the highest number of organic farmers globally, but most of them are struggling. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/agriculture/india-has-the-highest-number-of-organic-farmers-globally-but-most-of-them-are-struggling-61289 
Lal, R., J. Kimble & R. F. Follett. (2022). Soil Processes and the Carbon Cycle - Google Books.
Ramnarain, Y. I., Ansari, A. A. & Ori, L. (2019). Vermicomposting of different organic materials using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 8(1), 23–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/S40093-018-0225-7/TABLES/7 
Reddy, A. A. , Raju, S. S. & Bose, A. (2019). (PDF) Farmers’ Income, Indebtedness and Agrarian Distress in India. Microfinance Rev. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/346974675_Farmers’_Income_Indebtedne ss_and_Agrarian_Distress_in_India 
Saha, J. K., Panwar, N. & Singh, M. V. (2010). An assessment of municipal solid waste compost quality produced in different cities of India in the perspective of developing quality control indices. Waste Management, 30(2), 192–201.
Sayara, T., Basheer-Salimia, R., Hawamde, F. & Sánchez, A. (2020). Recycling of organic wastes through composting: Process performance and compost application in Agriculture. Agronomy 2020, Vol. 10, Page 1838, 10(11), 1838. https://doi.org/10.3390/AGRONOMY1011 1838 
Sharma, A., Ganguly, R. & Gupta, A. K. (2019). Spectral characterization and quality assessment of organic compost for agricultural purposes. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 8(2), 197–213. https://doi.org/10.1007/S40093-018-0233-7/TABLES/11 
Singh, W. R., Pankaj, S. K. & Kalamdhad, A. S. (2015). Reduction of bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during agitated pile composting of Salvinia natans weed of Loktak lake. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 4(2), 143–156. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40093-015-0094-2 
Soobhany, N., Mohee, R. & Garg, V. K. (2017). A comparative analysis of composts and vermicomposts derived from municipal solid waste for the growth and yield of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(12), 11228–11239. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11356-017-8774-2
Sudharmaidevi, C. R., Thampatti, K. C. M. & Saifudeen, N. (2017). Rapid production of organic fertilizer from degradable waste by thermochemical processing. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 6(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/S40093-016-0147-1 
Timofeeva, A., Galyamova, M., & Sedykh, S. (2022). Prospects for Using Phosphate-Solubilizing Microorganisms as Natural Fertilizers in Agriculture. Plants 2022, Vol. 11, Page 2119, 11(16), 2119. https://doi.org/10.3390/PLANTS11162119 
Tripetchkul, S., Pundee, K., Koonsrisuk, S. & Akeprathumchai, S. (2012). Co-composting of coir pith and cow manure: initial C/N ratio vs physico-chemical changes. International Journal Of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/2251-7715-1-15 
Tudi, M., Ruan, H. D., Wang, L., Lyu, J., Sadler, R., Connell, D., Chu, C. & Phung, D. T. (2021). Agriculture Development, Pesticide Application and Its Impact on the Environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(3), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.3390/IJERPH18031112 
UNEP (2021). Food Waste Index Report 2021. JSWQ/317133 
Valerie, G., Wafo, D., Nguemte, M., Arsène, W., Nzouebet, L., Djocgoue, P. F. & Kengne, I. M. (2016). Co-composting of sewage sludge and Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase plant material from a constructed wetland system treating domestic wastewater in Cameroon. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 10(9), 272–282. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajest.v10i9. 
Vochozka, M., Maroušková, A. & Šuleř, P. (2017). Obsolete Laws: Economic and Moral Aspects, Case Study Composting Standards. Science and Engineering Ethics, 23(6),1667–1672. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-016-98 31-9 
Vogt, M. A. B. (2021). Ecological sensitivity within human realities concept for improved functional biodiversity outcomes in agricultural systems and landscapes. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1057/S41599-021-00837-3 
Waqas, M., Nizami, A. S., Aburiazaiza, A. S., Barakat, M. A., Rashid, M. I. & Ismail, I. M. I. (2018). Optimizing the process of food waste compost and valorizing its applications: A case study of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Cleaner Production, 176, 426–438. https://www.academia.edu/354 82465/Optimizing_the_process_ of_food_waste_comp ost_and_valorizing_its_applications:_A_case_study_of_Saudi_Arabia_pdf 
Xie, X. Y., Zhao, Y., Sun, Q. H., Wang, X. Q., Cui, H. Y., Zhang, X., Li, Y. J. & Wei, Z. M. (2017). A novel method for contributing to composting start-up at low temperature by inoculating cold-adapted microbial consortium. Bioresource Technology, 238, 39–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BIORTECH.2017.04.036 
Xu, X., Du, X., Wang, F., Sha, J., Chen, Q., Tian, G., Zhu, Z., Ge, S. & Jiang, Y. (2020). Effects of Potassium Levels on Plant Growth, Accumulation and Distribution of Carbon, and Nitrate Metabolism in Apple Dwarf Rootstock Seedlings. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11, 904. https://doi.org/10.3389/FPLS.2020.00904/BIBTEX 
Zhao, S., Lian, F. & Duo, L. (2011). EDTA-assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals by turfgrass from municipal solid waste compost using permeable barriers and associated potential leaching risk. Bioresource Technology, 102(2), 621–626. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BIORTECH.20 10.08.006
Research Articles

How to Cite

Study on the qualitative assessment of in-vessel food waste compost by indexing method . (2022). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 14(4), 1518-1525. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v14i4.3801