The studies to manage the honey bee bacterial European foul brood ( EFB) disease caused by Melisococcus plutonius and ectoparasitic brood mite disease caused by Varroa destructor in the colonies of Apis mellifera (L.) at different locations of Uttarakhand were conducted during 2012- 2013 by applying eco-friendly formulations i.e. spraying of cow urine (desi cow breed), plant decoctions prepared in cow urine, cow dung cake and cow dung ash powders , ajwain seed powder and compared to an antibiotic, terramycin sugar syrup and synthetic chemicals, sulphur and thymol powder with two applications in a month. The data revealed that the cow urine sprays @ 50, 75 and 100% reduced the disease infection to below detectable limit in 10 to 14 days, respectively, as terramycin treated infected colonies where only 50-55% recovery was seen in EFB infection with highest sealed worker brood areas ( SWBA) in cow urine treated honeybee colonies in comparison to terramycin and untreated colonies. Similarly, on the other hand, cow urine (100%) significantly reduced brood mite infestation (72.10%) with highest mean mite fall (48.73) and highest (SWBA) (854.00 cm2) followed by ajwain powder with reduction in brood mi te infestation(65.84%) with mite fall (46.39) and SWBA (749.00 cm2), cow dung powder with reduction in brood mite infestation (71.35%) ,mite fall ( 42.87), SWBA (682.33 cm2), , followed by cow dung ash powder, cow urine @ 25%, in comparison to plant decoctions prepared in cow urine, synthetic chemicals i.e. thymol and sulphur powder after 4 weeks of treatments. Thus, the animal origin products and ajwain powder can serve as a
potential eco- friendly measure for management of honeybee diseases in A. mellifera colonies at different locations of Uttarakhand as they significantly increased sealed worker brood area without affecting the activities of workers, queen bee and bee brood in comparison to chemicals and plant decoctions.
Animal origin products, Ajwain, Bacterial disease, Cow urine, Honey bee, Varroa mite
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