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Manoj Kumar Monika Bhardwaj Poonam Yadav Divya Vashishth Sulekha Chahal Sunita Dalal Sudhir Kumar Kataria

Abstract

Urease, a nickel-containing metalloenzyme is getting remarkable attention due to a diverse range of applications for mankind. Urease plays a magnificent role in various field like agriculture, analytical, geological phenomena, beverage industry and is an important diagnostic tool. Urease is mainly present in bacteria, fungi, plants and invertebrates and its manifestation in specific genera may open new vistas for its taxonomic position. Various qualitative and quantitative assays are also reported for the estimation of urease enzyme. Urease based biosensors utilizing green synthesis on nanoparticles are also trending. Recently developed inhibitors against urease were discussed in the review. Inhibitory mechanisms involving the structural similarity of the substrate through modification or derivatization can also help in rational drug design by two possible competitive ways either by mimicking monodentate urea binding or binding as a tetrahedral intermediate. Immobilisation of urease through gel entrapment, using non-covalent and covalent protein tags, cross linkage, covalent bonding, using composite films, Teflon, co-precipitation and coating on nanoparticles is also reported. This review also comprised of various application of urease including enhancement of fertility in the soil, cell to cell organization, protection to predators, treatment of various bladder related diseases and infections, analysis of urea and heavy metal ions, biocementation, pollution control by bioleaching of heavy metals and making beverages urea and ethyl carbamate free. As researchers have a keen interest in urease enzyme at present, most of its aspects were incorporated in the article to make it helpful to the scientific community for further research related to the development of new inhibitors and add on applications of urease for the upliftment of the human as well as environment.


 

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Keywords

Applications, Enzyme Inhibitors, Genetic Organization, Immobilization, Urease

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Kumar, M., Bhardwaj, M., Yadav, P., Vashishth, D., Chahal, S., Dalal, S., & Kataria, S. K. (2022). A review on distribution, properties, genetic organization, immobilisation and applications of urease . Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 14(4), 1413–1429. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v14i4.3668
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