G. Pandidurai S. Amutha S. Kanchana S. Vellaikumar K. Prabhakaran


Drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an incredible plant to humans because of its pharmacognostic and nutraceutical properties. M. oleifera contains vital nutrients such as minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals like tannins and flavonoids. The present work aims to study the optimization and quality attributes retention in drumstick through Heat Pump-assisted dehumidified air Dryer (HPD) because the conventional drying process takes more time and energy, affecting the product quality and safety. Different solvents, such as ethanol, chloroform, hexane, acetone and ethyl acetate, were used to determine the presence of phytochemicals (alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins) in the drumstick. The phytochemicals were highly present in methanol and ethanol extracts from qualitative screening of drumstick. Dried drumstick powder was prepared by using fresh drumstick pieces, steam blanched for 2-5 min and then sulfated at 0.1 % for 10 min. After that, the dehydration process was performed at different temperatures (45, 55 and 65°C) in an HPD drier. HPD dried drumstick powder at 55⁰C was found to have maximum physicochemical properties, drying characteristics and higher retention of bioactive compounds with special reference to high powder recovery (97.22 %), excellent flowability and better retention of nutrients like β – carotene (174.49 mg), total antioxidant (266.02 mg), flavonoids (6.207 mg/RE), phenol (229.54 mg/GAE) and vitamin C (253.16 mg). The extract of fresh and HPD dried drumstick powder contained 50 major bioactive compounds such as 2,6-Dihydroxybenzoic acid 3TMS derivative, Butanal 2-ethyl-3-methyl- etc., these bioactive compounds act as various nutraceuticals and therapeutic values.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Drumstick, GC – MS, HPD dryer, Nutraceutical, Phytochemicals

Abbas, R. K., Elsharbasy, F. S. & Fadlelmula, A. A. (2018). Nutritional Values of Moringa oleifera, Total Protein. Amino Acid, Vitamins, Minerals, Carbohydrates, Total Fat and Crude Fiber, under the Semi-Arid Conditions of Sudan. J. Microb. Biochem. Technol., 10, 56-58. DOI: 10.4172/1948-5948.1000396
Abe-inge, V., AgbenorhevI, J. K., Kpodo, F. M. & Adziny, O. A. (2018). Effect of different drying techniques on quality characteristics of African palmyra palm (Borossusaethiopum) fruit flour. Food. Res, 2(4), 331-339. DOI:10.26656/fr.2017.2(4).050
Abubakar, K., A. Yunus, M. Abubakar, J. Ugwah-Oguejiofor, and A. Muhammad. (2018). Antioxidant and antikindling effect of Tapinanthus globiferus growing on Ficus glumosa in pentylenetetrazole induced kindled rats. African Journal of Biotechnology 17 (4):73-80. doi:org/10.5897/AJB2017.16048
Adeyey, I. A. & Omolayo, F. O. (2011). Chemical composition and functional properties of leaf protein concentrates of Amaranthus hybridus and Telfairia occidentalis. Agriculture And Biology Journal of North America, 2151(7517), 500-511.
Adnan, M., N.U. Chy, A. Mostafa Kamal, M.O.K. Azad, A. Paul, S.B. Uddin, J.W. Barlow, M.O. Faruque, C.H. Park, and D.H. Cho. (2019). Investigation of the biological activities and characterization of bioactive constituents of Ophiorrhiza rugosa var. prostrata (D. Don) & Mondal leaves through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches. Molecules 24 (7),1367. doi.org/10.3390/molecules240 71367
Aktaş, M., Taşeri, L., Şevik, S., Gülcü, M., UysalSeçkin, G., &Dolgun, E. C. (2019). Heat pump drying of grape pomace: Performance and product quality analysis. Drying Technology, 37(14), 1766-1779. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2018.1536983
Aliyu, A., Chukwuna, U. D., Omoregie, E. H. & Folashade, K. O. (2016). Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the leaf of Moringa oleifera lam. from three climatic zones of Nigeria. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 8(8), 93-101.
Altameme, H.J., I.H. Hameed, and L.F. Hamza. (2017). Anethum graveolens: Physicochemical properties, medicinal uses, antimicrobial effects, antioxidant effect, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects: A review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance 8 (03):88-91.
Andzouana, M. & Mombouli, J. B. (2012). Assessment of the chemical and phytochemical constituents of the leaves of a wild vegetable-Ochthocharis dicellandroides (Gilg). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11(1), 94-99. http://pjbs.org/pjnonline/fin2202.pdf.
AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington D.C.
AOAC. (1995). Official Methods of Analysis, 16th Edition. Cuniff, P. (Ed.), AOAC International, Washington, p. 7(Chapter 12; Tecn. 960.52).
Arun Prabhu, R., Anand Prem Rajan & Sarita Santhalia. (2011). Comparative analysis of preservation techniques on Moringa oleifera. Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, 4(02), 65-80.
Bamishaiye E. I., Olayemi F. F., Awagu E. F. & Bamishaiye O. M. (2011). Proximate and phytochemical composition of Moringa oleifera leaves at three stages of maturation. Adv. J. Food Sci. Technol, 3(4), 233- 237.
Bernhard HJJ, Haya JA, Alaa MZA, Basmah MHA, Paul G. (2014). Hydroxybenzoic acid isomers and the cardiovascular system. Nutrition Journal, 13, 1-10.doi; 10.1186/1475-2891-13-63
Boudieb, Kaissa, Sabrina Ait Slimane-Ait Kaki & Hayet Amellal-Chibane. (2019). Effect of Maturation Degree on the Fixed Oil Chemical Composition, Phenolic Compounds, Mineral Nutrients and Antioxidant Properties of Pistacia lentiscus L. Fruits. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 47(3), 836-847. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha47311534
Bukhari, D.A.M., M.J. Siddiqui, S.H. Shamsudin, M.M. Rahman, and S.Z.M. So'ad. (2017). Α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of selected Malaysian plants. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences 9 (3), 164. doi: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_35_17.
Cai Y.Z. & Corke. H. (2000). Production and properties of spray-dried Amaranthus betacyanin pigments. Journal of Food Science, 65(6), 1248 -1252. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2000.tb10273.x.
Chandrasekaran, M., A. Senthilkumar, and V. Venkatesalu. (2011). Antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of fatty acid methyl esters from the leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum L." European review for medical and pharmacological sciences 15 (7),775-780.
Chegini, G., & Ghobadian, B. (2005). Effect of spray-drying conditions on physical properties of orange juice powder. Drying Technology, 23(3), 657-668.
Chen, J., Li, F., Li, Z., McClements, D. J. & Xiao, H. (2017). Encapsulation of carotenoids in emulsion-based delivery systems: Enhancement of β-carotene water-dispersibility and chemical stability. Food Hydrocolloids, 69, 49-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.20 17.01.024
Grabowski J., Truong, V.D. & Daubert, C. (2006). Spray- drying of amylase hydrolyzed sweet potato puree and physicochemical properties of powder. J. Food Sci, 71, E209 - E217. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00 036.x
Jusuf, N.K., I.B. Putra, & N.K. Dewi. (2020). Antibacterial activity of passion fruit purple variant (Passiflora edulis Sims var. edulis) seeds extract against Propionibacterium acnes. Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology 13:99. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.15178
Kinki, A., Mezgebe, A., &Lema, T. (2020). Antioxidant and Sensory Properties of Herbal Teas Formulated from Dried Moringa (MoringaStenopetala) and Stevia (Stevia RebaudianaBertoni) Leaves. 10.7176/FSQM/102-01
Klungboonkrong, V., Phoungchandang, S., &Lamsal, B. (2018). Drying of Orthosiphonaristatus leaves: Mathematical modeling, drying characteristics, and quality aspects. Chemical Engineering Communications, 205(9), 1239-1251. https://doi.org/10.1080/00986445.2018.1443080
Kumaravel S, Praveen Kumar, P. & Vasuki, P. (2010). GC–MS Study on Microbial degradation of Lindane, Int. J. of Appl.Chem, 6 (3), 363- 366,
Lakshmipriya Gopalakrishnan, Kruthi Doriya & Devarai Santhosh Kumar. (2016). Moringa Oleifera: A review on nutritive importance and its medicinal application. Food Science and Human Wellness, 5(2), 49-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2016.04.001
Lim Y. Y., T. T. Lim & J. J. Tee. (2007). Antioxidant properties of several tropical fruits: A comparative study. Food Chemistry, 103, 1003-1008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.038
Liu, F. F., Ang, C. Y., & Springer, D. (2000). Optimization of extraction conditions for active components in Hypericum perforatum using response surface methodology. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 48(8), 3364-3371. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf991086m
Lu, J.-J., J.-L. Bao, X.-P. Chen, M. Huang, and Y.-T. Wang. (2012. Alkaloids isolated from natural herbs as the anticancer agents." Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/20 12/485042
Mahmood, K. T., Mugal, T. & Haq, I. U. (2010). Moringa oleifera: a natural gift-A review. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2(11), 775.
Marcel, A., Hubert, M., Bienvenu, M. J. & Pascal, O. (2016). Physicochemical characteristics and biochemical potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.(Moringaceae). Der Pharmacia Lettre, 8(18), 43-47. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13915
Mazumder, K., A. Nabila, A. Aktar & A. Farahnaky. (2020). Bioactive variability and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of unprocessed and processed flour of Nine cultivars of Australian lupin species: A comprehensive substantiation. Antioxidants 9 (4), 282. doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040282.
Meda, A., Lamien, C.E., Romito, M., Millogo, J. & O. G. Nacoulma, (2005). Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chemistry, 91(3), 571–577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.1 0.006
Melappa, G., R. Channabasava, C. Chandrappa & T. Sadananda. (2014). In vitro antidiabetic activity of three fractions of methanol extracts of Loranthus micranthus, identification of phytoconstituents by GC-MS and possible mechanism identified by GEMDOCK method. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 4 (34),34. doi: 10.15272/ajbps.v4i34.520
Muñoz-Tebar, N., González-Navarro, E. J., López-Díaz, T. M., Santos, J. A., Elguea-Culebras, G. O. D., García-Martínez, M. M., ... & Berruga, M. I. (2021). Biological activity of extracts from aromatic plants as control agents against spoilage molds isolated from sheep cheese. Foods, 10(7), 1576. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071576
Nalawade, T.M., K. Bhat, & S.H. Sogi. (2015). "Bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400, and polyethylene glycol 1000 against selected microorganisms." Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry 5 (2):114. https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2F2231-0762.155736
Nithyapriya, S., R. Vishwanathan, Z. John Kennedy & R. Kasthuri. (2013). Preservation of ready to eat drumstick products by canning and retort packaging. International Journal of Processing and Post Harvest Technology, 4(2), 122-13.
Nweze, N. O. & Nwafor, F. I. (2014). Phytochemical, proximate and mineral composition of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. from Nsukka, South-Eastern Nigeria.
Okwu D. E. & Okwu M. E. (2004). Chemical composition of Spondias mombin Linn plant parts. J. Sustain. Agric. Environ, 6, 140-147.
Pinto, M.E., S.G. Araujo, M.I. Morais, N.P. Sá, C.M. Lima, C.A. Rosa, E.P. Siqueira, S. Johann & L.A. Lima. (2017). Antifungal and antioxidant activity of fatty acid methyl esters from vegetable oils. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 89:1671-1681. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201720160908
Potisate, Y., Phoungchandang, S. & Kerr, W. L. (2014). The effects of predrying treatments and different drying methods on phytochemical compound retention and drying characteristics of Moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera Lam.). Drying Technology, 32(16), 1970-1985. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2014.926912
Potisate, Y., Kerr, W. L. & Phoungchandang, S. (2015). Changes during storage of dried M oringa oleifera leaves prepared by heat pump-assisted dehumidified air drying. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 50(5), 1224-1233. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12744
Quettier-Deleu C., Gressier, B., Vasseur, J., Dine, T., Brunet, C. & Luyckx M. (2000). Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of buckwheat (Fagopyrum sculentum Moench) hulls and flour. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 72, 35-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00196-3
Ranganna S. (1995). Manual of analysis of fruits and vegetables products. Tata McGraw Hill publishing Co, Ltd., New Delhi. P. 1-2, 7- 13.
Ranganna, S. (1986). Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruits and vegetable
Rosario, R. D. & Flores, D. M. (1981). Functional properties of flour types of mung bean flours. J. Sci. Food. Agric, 32, 172-180. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740320213
Seerangurayar, T., Manickavasagan, A., Al-Ismaili, A. M., & Al-Mulla, Y. A. (2017), Effect of carrier agents on flowability and microstructural properties of foam-mat freeze dried date powder. Journal of Food Engineering, 215, 33-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2017.07.016
Sekhar, C., Venkatesan, N., Murugananthi, D. & Vidhyavathi, A. (2018). Status of Value Addition and Export of Moringa Produce in Tamil Nadu A Case Study. Economic Botany, 34(3), 276-283.
Shailendra Patni, Krishan Kumar Bijarnia, Harsh Enaniya, Kailash Sharma, Bhanwar Lal & Raaz K Maheshwari. (2016). Drumstick tree: A miracle forwell-beingand sociopecuniary diverse therapeutic applicability. International Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(2),108 - 114.
Sivakumar, R., A. Jebanesan, M. Govindarajan & P. Rajasekar. (2011). Larvicidal and repellent activity of tetradecanoic acid against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.)(Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine 4 (9), 706-710. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60178-8
Stadtlander, T. & Becker, K. (2017). Proximate composition, amino and fatty acid profiles and element compositions of four different Moringa species. Journal of Agricultural Science, 9(7), 46-57. https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v9n7p46
Trirattanapikul, W. & Phoungchandang, S. (2012). Microwave blanching and drying characteristics of Centella Asiatica (L.) urban leaves using tray and heat pumpassisted dehumidified drying. Journal of Food Science and Technology, Doi 10.1007/s 13197-012-0876-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-012-0876-8
Tunckal, C. & Doymaz, İ. (2020). Performance analysis and mathematical modelling of banana slices in a heat pump drying system. Renewable Energy, 150, 918-923. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2020.01.040
Tummanichanont, C., Phoungchandang, S. & Srzednicki, G. (2017). Effects of pretreatment and drying methods on drying characteristics and quality attributes of Andrographis paniculata. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 41(6), e13310. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13310
Vijayakumari, B., P. C. Vengaiah & P. Kiranmayi. (2015)."Qualitative phytochemical screening, GC–MS analysis and antibacterial activity of palmyra fruit pulp (Borassus flabellifer L.)." International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 6(2), 430-435.
Wang, G. X., Han, J., Feng, T. T., Li, F. Y. & Zhu, B. (2009). Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of active compounds from Fructus Arctii against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Parasitology research, 106(1), 247-255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-009-1659-7
Xu, B., Feng, M., Chitrakar, B., Wei, B., Wang, B., Zhou, C. & Duan, X. (2022). Selection of drying techniques for Pingyin rose on the basis of physicochemical properties and volatile compounds retention. Food Chemistry, 132539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132539
Yohana, E., Yulianto, M. E., Bahar, S., Muhammad, A. A. & Indrayani, N. L. (2018). A study of tea leaves drying using dehumidification process and regeneration of liquid desiccant in a closed-cycle dehumidification-humidification. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 159, p. 02025). EDP Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201815902025
Zhao, Y., Bi, J., Yi, J., Jin, X., Wu, X. & Zhou, M. (2019).Evaluation of sensory, textural, and nutritional attributes of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinulaedodes) as prepared by five types of drying methods. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 42(4), e13029. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.13029.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Pandidurai, G., Amutha, S., Kanchana, S., Vellaikumar, S., & Prabhakaran, K. (2022). Optimization of Heat pump-assisted dehumidified air drying (HPD) temperature on phytochemicals, drying characteristics and nutrient compound retention of drumstick by GC-MS and principle component analysis. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 14(SI), 119–128. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v14iSI.3577
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles