The increasing cost of animal protein has necessitated the need to investigate the use of cheaper and nutritive alternatives in various food formulations. The study was carried out to determine the appropriate level of soy flour inclusion in meatball production. The soy meat balls were formulated to contain 0%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of full-fat soy flour which was combined with beef and some condiments. Treatments were analyzed in triplicates in a randomized complete block design. A 7-point hedonic scale was used to evaluate the sensory characteristics (colour, taste, texture and overall acceptance) of the products using a semi-trained taste panel. Nutrient proximate composition values and production cost were also determined. Results showed that on the average, soy flour inclusion in meatballs increased cooking yield by reducing weight loss from 27.33% to 12.96%. Meatballs with soy flour inclusions at 10% and 15% were most acceptable (very much liked). The 20% and 25% level of soy flour inclusion were moderately acceptable, thereby indicating acceptability up to 25% level of soy flour inclusion. Soy inclusion reduced production cost by N37.50 on the average at N5.00 per ball when compared with all meat products as well as, increasing the number of balls per mix from 64 balls (control) to an average number of 89.5 balls (soy meatball). It is recommended that further studies of the soy flour inclusion in meatballs production be carried out to ensure the availability of cheaper, nutritious and acceptable convenience food in the Nigerian market.
Meatballs, Sensory evaluation, Soy flour-meat
Boles, J.A. and Pegg, R. (2005). Meat colour. Montana State University and Saskatchewan food product innovation programme, University of Saskatchewan.
DFM (2007). Initial public offering prospectus. Dangote Flour Mills A corporate document dated August 29, 2007.
FAO, (1991). Animal Production and Health; papers on guidelines of slaughtering, meat cutting and further processing. Food and Agriculture Organization, pp. 39 â€“ 41.
Friedman, M. and Brandon, D. (2001). Nutritional and Health Benefits of Soy Proteins. J. Agric. Food Chem; 49(3):1069â€“1086.
Igene, J.O., Akinjobi, K.S. and Evivie, S.E. (2012). Preliminary studies on the development of meatballs. J. Appl. Sci. & Env. Manag. 16(2):167-170.
Igene, J.O., Oteku, I.T and Omorogieua, E (2006). Effect of Graded Level of Soyflour Inclusion on the Physical and Sensory Properties of Soy Chicken Burgers. Jormar 3(2):38-48.
Igene, J. O. Oteku, T. I. and Akpata, J.A. (2002). Development of Hamburger using Full Fat Soybean Flour. Global J. of Agric Sci. 1(2):71â€“76.
Iwe, M.O. (2003). The Science and Technology of Soybean. Rejoin Communication Services Ltd. Enugu, Nigeria pp. 258â€“259.
Kinsella, J.E. (1979). Functional Properties of Soy Proteins. J. Am. Oil chem. Soc., 56:242â€“246.
Lecomte, W.B., Zayas, J.F. and Kastner, C.C. (1993). Soy Protein Functional Sensory Characteristics Improved in Commercial Meat. J. Food Sci. 58:466-472.
McWatters, K.H. and Cherry, J.P. (1971). Emulsification forming and protein solubility properties of defatted soy bean, peanut, field pea and pecan flour. J. Food Sci. 45:1444â€“1450.
Olomu, J.M. (2011). Monogastric Animal Nutrition. Principles and Practice 2nd Edition. Jachem Publication, Benin City, Nigeria.
Raji, A.O. and Famurewa, A.V. (2008). Effect of hull on the physico-chemical properties of soy flour. Agric Eng Int; the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript FP 07 018, vol X.
Ray, F.K. Parret, N.A., Vanstavern, B.D. and Ockerman, H.W. (1981). Effect of Soy Level and Storage Time on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Beef Patties. J. Food Sci. 46:1 162â€“1164
Roa, L.O., Droughon. F.A. and Molton, C.C. (1984) sensory character of thiringer sausage extended with soy protein. J. Food Sci 49:334â€“336.
Russell, T.A. (2004). Comparison of sensory properties of whey and soy protein concentrates and isolates. Food Science, vol. Master of Science (p. 132). North Carolina State University. North Carolina State USA.
Sacks, Lichtenstein, A., Van Horn, L. Harris W., Kris-Etherton, P., Winston, M. (2006). American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. â€œSoy Protein Isoflavones and Cardiovascular Healthâ€.
Scheiwger. R.G. (1974). Soy protein concentrate and isolate in comminuted meat system. J. Am Oil Chem Soc. 51:192A- 194A.
Vaisey, M., Tassor, L., McDonald, B.E. and Young, O.G. (1975). Performance of Fababean and Field Pea Protein Concentrates as Ground Beef Extenders. Can inst. Food Sci. techno. 8:74
Waggle, D.H., Decker, C.D. and Kolar, C.W. (1981). Soy products in meat, poultry and sea food. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 20:341â€“342
Watts, B.M., Yimaki, G.L., Jeffery, L.E., Elias, L.G. (1989). Basic Sensory Methods for food Evaluation. Copyright International Development Research Centre. pp. 20
WHF (2004). Soyabean internal: file:11f://New Folder \ the Worldâ€™s Healthiest Foods. The Worldâ€™s Healthiest Foods. Htm. pp. 1â€“16.
Wolf, W.J. and Cowan, J.C. (1975) Soybean as food source. Boca Raton. FL: CRC Press. Pp 45-80.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)