The present investigation observed the effect of current density (CD), operating time (OT), inter electrode distance (IED), electrode area (EA), initial pH and settling time (ST) using Fe-Fe electrode combination on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from biologically treated municipal wastewater (BTMW) of Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). The maximum removal of COD (92.35%) from BTMW was found with the optimum operating conditions of CD (2.82 A/m2), OT (40 mins.), IED (0.5 cm), EA (160 cm2), initial pH (7.5) and ST (60 min.), while the maximum removal of BOD (84.88%) was found with the ST (30 min.) at the same operating conditions. There was no need of pH adjustment of the BTMW during ET as the optimal removal efficiency was close to the pH of 7.5. Under optimal operating conditions, the operating cost was found to be 54.29 Rs./m3 / 1.08 US$/m3 in terms of the electrode consumption (78.48 x 10-5 kg Al/m3 ) and energy consumption (108.48 Kwh/m3).
Biologically treated municipal wastewater, Current density, BOD, COD, Electrochemical treatment, Electrode consumption, Energy consumption
APHA (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, American Public Health Association, 21st edn. Washington, DC.
Ashtoukhy, ES.Z.E.and Amin, N.K. (2010). Removal of acid green dye 50 from wastewater by anodic oxidation and electrocoagulation-A comparative study. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 179:113–119.
Bayramoglu, M., Kobya, M., Can, O.T. and Sozbir, M. (2004). Operating costs analysis of electrocoagulation of textile dye wastewater. Sep. Purif. Technol., 37: 117–125.
Chen X., Chen G. and Yue P. L. (2000). Separation of pollutants from restaurant waste water by electro - coagulation. Separation and Purification Technology, 19: 65 – 76.
Chopra A. K. and Sharma A. K. (2012). Efficiency of turbidity and BOD removal from secondarily treated sewage by electrochemical treatment. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 4 (2): 304-309.
Chopra, A. K. and Sharma, A. K. (2013). Removal of turbidity, COD and BOD from secondarily treated sewage water by electrolytic treatment Appl. Water Sci., 3(1):125-132.
Daneshava, N., Oladegaragoze, A. and Djafarzadeh, N. (2005). Decolorization of basic dye Solutions by Electrocoagulation: an investigation of the effect of operational parameters, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 129:116-122.
Daneshvar, N., Khataee, A.R., Amani, Ghadim, A.R. and Rasoulifard, M.H. (2007). Decolorization of C.I. acid yellow 23 solution by electrocoagulation process: investigation of operational parameters and evaluation of specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 148: 566-572.
Daneshvar, N., Oladegaragoze, A. and Djafarzadeh, N., (2006). Decolorization of basic dye solutions by electro coagulation: An investigation of the effect of operational parameters; Journal of Hazardous Materials B,129:116- 122.
Diaz B.C, Pardave P.M, Romo R.M and Martinez S (2003). Chemical and electrochemical considerations on the removal process of hexavalent chromium from aqueous media. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 33: 61–71.
Escobara, C., Cesar S.S. and Toral, M. (2006). Optimization of the electrocoagulation process for the removal of copper, lead and cadmium in natural waters and simulated wastewater. J. Environ. Manag., 81(4):384–391
Ghosh, D., Medhi, C.R., Solanki, H., and Purkait, M. K., (2008). Decolorization of Crystal Violet Solution by Electrocoagulation. Journal of Environmental Protection Science, 2:25-35.
Gurses, A., Yalcin, M. and Dogar, C. (2002). Electro coagulation of some reactive dyes: a statistical investigation of some electrical variables. Waste Management, 22:491-499.
Holt, P. K., Barton, G. W., Wark, M. and Mitchell, C. A. (2002). A quantitative comparison between chemical dosing and electro coagulation. Colloids and Surfaces, 211:233-248.
Kobya, M. and Delipinar, S. (2008). Treatment of the baker’s yeast wastewater by electrocoagulation. J. Hazard Mater., 154:1133– 1140.
Kobya, M., Can, O. T. and Bayramoglu M. (2003). Treatment of textile waste waters by electro coagulation using iron and aluminum electrodes. Journal of Hazardous Materials, B-100:163-178.
Kobya, M., Demirbas, E., Can, O.T. and Bayramoglu, M. (2006). Treatment of levafix orange textile dye solution by electrocoagulation. J. Hazard. Mater., 132: 183-188.
Lettinga, G., Van Lier, Van, J.B., Buuren, J.C.L. and Zeeman, G. (2001). Sustainable development in pollution control and the role of anaerobic treatment. Water Sci. Technol., 44:181-188.
Li, X., Wang, W., Wang, M. and Yongyi, C. (2008). Electrochemical degradation of tridecane dicarboxylic acid wastewater with tantalum-based diamond film electrode. Desalination, 222: 388-393.
Lin, S.H. and Chen, M.L. (1997). Treatment of textile wastewater by electrochemical methods for reuse. Water Res., 31:868–876.
Mollah, M.Y.A., Morkovsky, P., Gomes, A.G.J., Kesmez, M., Parga, J. and Cocke, D. L., (2001). Fundamentals, present and future perspectives of electro coagulation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, B114:199-210.
Mollah, M.Y.A., Morkovsky, P., Gomes, A.G.J., Kesmez, M., Parga, J.. and Cocke, D.L. (2004). Fundamentals, present and future perspectives of electro-coagulation. J. Hazard Mater. B, 114: 199 - 210.
Nasrullaha, M., Singh, L. and Wahida, Z.A. (2012). Treatment of sewage by electrocoagulation and the effect of high current density. Energy and Environmental Engineering Journal, 1 (1):27-31.
Niam, F., Othman, M.F., Sohaili, J. and Fauzia, Z. (2007). Removal of cod and turbidity to improve wastewater quality using electrocoagulation technique. The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 11:198-205.
Philippe R., Haenni, W. and Pupunat, L. (2003). Water treatment without chemistry. Chimia, 57(10):655-78.
Yi,Q. (2001). A sustainable technology for developing countryanaerobic digestion, In: Proc. 9th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion–Anaerobic Conversion for Sustainability (Part 1), Antwerp, Belgium, September 2-6, 2001. pp. 23–30.
Rahmani, A.R. (2008) Removal of water turbidity by the electrocoagulation method. J. Res. Health Sci., 8(1) : 18-24.
Rajeshwar, K., Ibanez, J.G. and Swain, G.M. (1994). Electrochemistry and the environment. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 24:1077–1091.
Tezcan, U., Ugur, U., Koparal S., Bakýr A.S. and Ogutveren, U.(2006). Electrocoagulation of olive mill wastewaters. Separ. Purif. Technol., 52 (1):136-141.
Vijayaraghavan, K., Ahmad, D., Yuzri, A. and Yazid, A. (2008). Electrolytic treatment of latex wastewater. Desalination, 219:214–221.
Zaroual, Z, Azzi, M. and Saib, N. (2006). Contribution to the study of electrocoagulation mechanism in basic textile effluent. J. Hazard. Mater., 131(1-3):73–78.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)