Maximum incidence of Varrosis on adults of Apis mellifera L. (8%) was recorded in second fortnight of May 2008 corresponds to the peak in V. destructor population. Percent deformity was calculated by observing 100 adult bees. Deformity in adult bees was low which ranged between 0.0 to 3.0 per cent with an average of 0.52 per cent. Significant positive correlation (r = 0.77) was calculated between per cent mite infestation and per cent bee deformity which revealed that with increase in mite infestation, there was a corresponding increase in deformity of bees.
Adult bees, Apis mellifera, Deformity, Varroa destructor
Burgett, D.M., Kranz, G.M. and Capizzi, J. (1987). An effective field detection method for Varroa jacobsoni, the Asian honey bee brood mite. Speedy bee, 16(11): 2.
Calderone, N.W. and Turcotte, R.M. (1996). Development of sampling methods for estimating levels of Varroa jacobsoni infestation in colonies of Apis mellifera. Journal of Economic Entomology, 91: 851-863.
De Jong, D. (1990). Mites: Varroa and other parasites of brood. In: Honey bee pests, predators and diseases (eds Morse RA and Nowogrodzki R) 2nd edition. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y.: 200-218pp.
De Jong, D., Morse, R.A. and Eickwort, G.C. (1982). Mite pests of honeybees. Annual Review of Entomology, 27: 229-252.
Gulati, R., Sharma, S.K. and Saini, R.K. (2009). Varroa, enemy of honeybees: its effect, life cycle and control. Tech. Bull., Dept of Entomology, CCS HAU, Hisar, 24 pp.
Kokkinis, M. and Liakos, V. (2004). Population dynamics of Varroa destructor in colonies of Apis mellifera macedonica in Greece. Apidologie , 43(4): 150â€“154.
Le Conte, Y., Ellis, M., Ritter, W. and Spivak, M. (2010). Varroa mites and honey bee health: can Varroa explain part of the colony losses? Apidologie, 41: 353â€“363.
Macedo, P.A., Wa, J. and Ellis, M.D. (2002). Using inert dusts to detect and assess Varroa infestations in honey bee colonies. Journal of Apicultural Research, 40(1-2): 3-7.
Martin, S.J., Highfield, A.C., Brettell, L., Villalobos, E.M., Budge, G.C., Powell, M., Nikaido, S. and Schroeded, D.C.(2012). Global honey bee viral landscape altered by a parasitic mite. Science, 336: 1304-1306.
Nazzi, F., Brown, S.P., Annoscia, D., Del Piccolo, F., Di Prisco, G., Varricchio, P., Della Vedova, G., Cattonaro, F., Caprio, E. and Pennacchio, F. (2012). Synergistic parasite-pathogen interactions mediated by host immunity can drive the collapse of honey bee colonies. PLoS Pathogens, 8(6): 1-16.
Salvy, M., Martin, C., BagnÃ¨res, A.G., Provost, E. and Roux, M. (2001). Modifications of the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of Apis mellifera worker bees in the presence of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni in brood cells Parasitology, 122: 145â€“159.
Sammataro, D., Gerson,U. and Needham G. (2000). Parasitic mites of honey bees: life history, implications, and impact. Annual Review of Entomology, 45: 519â€“548.
Schulz, A.E. (1984). Reproduction und Populationsentwicklung der parasitischen Milbe Varroa jacobsoni Oud. in Abhangigkeit vom Brutzyklus ihren Wirtes Apis mellifera L. Apidology, 15: 401 -420.
Woyke, J. (1987). Comparative population dynamics of Tropilaelaps clareae and Varroa jacobsoni mites on honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Research, 26: 196-202.
Yang, X. and Cox-Foster D. (2007). Effects of parasitization by Varroa destructor on survivorship and physiological traits ofApis mellifera in correlation with viral incidence and microbial challenge. Parasitology, 134: 405â€“412.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)