Aruna T. Hemalatha G. Kumutha K. Kanchana S. Vellaikumar S.


Essential oils are produced as secondary metabolites of aromatic plants and can be extracted from leaves, seeds or fruit peel of the plants. Citrus peel is a rich source of limonene which is antimicrobial in nature. The present study aimed to deal with the physicochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of citrus peel essential oil from Citrus reticulate (mandarin orange), Citrus limetta (mosambi) and Citrus limon (lemon).  The lemon peel oil had lower peroxide value (1.6 meq/kg of sample), saponification value (112.2 mg KOH/g of oil) and higher iodine value (116 gI2/100g oil) when compared with orange and mosambi peel essential oil. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity of citrus peel essential oil was measured  and the result indicated that the total antioxidant activity of lemon peel oil was 89.2 % Radical Scavenging activity (RSA). The antifungal activity was assessed by agar dilution method, whereas the antibacterial property was assessed by the agar diffusion method. Lemon peel oil recorded better antimicrobial properties with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.3% against Aspergillus flavus MTCC 277, 0.2% for Penicillium  MTCC 1995 and Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284. Likewise, the minimum inhibitory concentration of lemon peel oil against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 was 0.3%; Salmonella enterica MTCC 733 and Erwinia sp MTCC 2760 was 0.5%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 1688 and Escherichia coli MTCC 443 was 0.7%. This comparative study showed that lemon peel oil had better physicochemical and antioxidant property. Lemon peel oil can be used as a preservative in the food system as it exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Antimicrobial activity, Bacteria, Citrus fruits, Essential oil, Fungi, Lemon peel oil

Angane, M., Swift, S., Huang, K., Butts, C. A. & Quek, S. Y. (2022). Essential Oils and Their Major Components: An Updated Review on Antimicrobial Activities, Mechanism of Action and Their Potential Application in the Food Industry. Foods, 11(3), 464. doi.org/10.3390/foods11030464
Bora, H., Kamle, M., Mahato, D. K., Tiwari, P. & Kumar, P. (2020). Citrus essential oils (CEOs) and their applications in food: An overview. Plants, 9(3), 357. doi.org/10.3390/plants9030357doi.org/10.33 90/plants9030357
Djenane D. (2015). Chemical profile, antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Algerian citrus essential oils and their application in Sardina pilchardus. Foods, 4(2), 208-228. doi.org/10.3390/foods4020208
do Evangelho, J. A., da Silva Dannenberg, G., Biduski, B., El Halal, S. L. M., Kringel, D. H., Gularte, M. A., Fiorentini, A. M. & da Rosa Zavareze, E. (2019). Antibacterial activity, optical, mechanical, and barrier properties of corn starch films containing orange essential oil. Carbohydrate Polymers, 222, 114981. doi.org/10.1016/j.carb pol.2019.114981
Etta-francis, I. B. I. P. I. R. I. E. N. E., Akpa, J. & Ehirim, E. (2022). Comparative Study on The Analysis and Utilization of Citrus Peels Essential Oil and Pectin.
Ezejiofor, T. L. N., Eke, N. V., Okechukwu, R. I., Nwoguikpe, R. N. & Duru, C. M. (2011). Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of Nigerian sweet orange (Citrus sinensis. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(33), 6257-6264. DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.1931
Fakayode, O. A. & Abobi, K. E. (2018). Optimization of oil and pectin extraction from orange (Citrus sinensis) peels: a response surface approach. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology, 9(1), 1-16. doi.org/10.1186/s40543-018-0151-3
Farahmandfar, R., Asnaashari, M., Pourshayegan, M., Maghsoudi, S. & Moniri, H. (2018). Evaluation of antioxidant properties of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) essential oil and its capacity in sunflower oil stabilization during storage time. Food science & nutrition, 6(4), 983-990. doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.637
Farahmandfar, R., Tirgarian, B., Dehghan, B. & Nemati, A. (2020). Comparison of different drying methods on bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) peel waste: changes in physical (density and color) and essential oil (yield, composition, antioxidant and antibacterial) properties of powders. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 14(2), 862-875. doi.org/10.1007/s11694-019-00334-x
Fraternale, D., Giamperi, L. & Ricci, D. (2003). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil obtained from in vitro plants of Thymus mastichina L. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 15(4), 278-281. doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2003.9712 142
Giwa, S. O., Muhammad, M. & Giwa, A. (2018). Utilizing orange peels for essential oil production. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 13, 17-27.
Han, Y., Chen, W. & Sun, Z. (2021). Antimicrobial activity and mechanism of limonene against Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Food Safety, 41(5), e12918. doi.org/10.1111/jfs.12918
Ju, J., Xie, Y., Guo, Y., Cheng, Y., Qian, H. & Yao, W. (2019). Application of edible coating with essential oil in food preservation. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 59(15), 2467-2480. doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2018.1456402
Kademi, H. I. & Garba, U. (2017). Citrus peel essential oils: A review on composition and antimicrobial activities. International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition, Public Health and Technology, 9(5), 38-44.
Li, Y., Fabiano-Tixier, A. S. & Chemat, F. (2014). Essential oils: from conventional to green extraction. Essential oils as reagents in Green Chemistry, 9-20. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08449-7_2
Lin, L. Y., Chuang, C. H., Chen, H. C. & Yang, K. M. (2019). Lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle) essential oils: volatile compounds, antioxidant capacity, and hypolipidemic effect. Foods, 8(9), 398. doi.org/10.3390/foods8090398
Manuranjan, G., Lalduhsanga, P., Lalhlenmawia, H., Bibhuti, K. & Thanzami, K. (2019). Physicochemical, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of fixed and essential oils extracted from the peels of Citrus macroptera Fruit. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 81(1), 82-88. doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000482
Miguel M. G. (2010). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils: a short review. Molecules, 15(12), 9252-9287. doi.org/10.33 90/molecules15129252
Njoku, V. I. & Evbuomwan, B. O. (2014). Analysis and comparative study of essential oil extracted from Nigerian orange, lemon and lime peels. Greener Journal of Chemical Science and Technology, 1(1), 6-14.
Olabanji, I. O., Ajayi, S. O., Akinkunmi, E. O., Kilanko, O. & Adefemi, G. O. (2016). Physicochemical and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the oils and soap of the seed and peel of Citrus sinensis. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 10(8), 245-253. doi.org/10.5897/AJMR20 15.7797
Okhli, S., Mirzaei, H. & Hosseini, S. E. (2020). Antioxidant activity of citron peel (Citrus medica L.) essential oil and extract on stabilization of sunflower oil. OCL, 27, 32. doi.org/10.1051/ocl/2020022
Pathak, P. D., Mandavgane, S. A. & Kulkarni, B. D. (2017). Fruit peel waste: characterization and its potential uses. Current Science, 444-454.
Rao, J. & McClements, D. J. (2012). Impact of lemon oil composition on formation and stability of model food and beverage emulsions. Food chemistry, 134(2), 749-757. doi.org/10.1016/j.food chem.2012.02.174
Singh, B., Singh, J. P., Kaur, A. & Yadav, M. P. (2021). Insights into the chemical composition and bioactivities of citrus peel essential oils. Food Research International, 143, 110231. doi.org/10.101 6/j.foodres.2021.110231
Statista. (2022). Production of citrus fruits in India between financial year 2015 and 2020, with an estimate for 2021, by type. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1038920/india-production-of-citrus-fruits-by-type/#:~:text=In%20fiscal%20year%202021%2C%20the,million%20metric%20tons%20that%20year.
Teneva, D., Denkova-Kostova, R., Goranov, B., Hristova-Ivanova, Y., Slavchev, A., Denkova, Z. & Kostov, G. (2019). Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Citrus aurantium L zest against some pathogenic microorganisms. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, 74(5-6), 105-111. doi.org/10.151 5/znc-2018-0062
Teigiserova, D. A., Tiruta-Barna, L., Ahmadi, A., Hamelin, L. & Thomsen, M. (2021). A step closer to circular bioeconomy for citrus peel waste: A review of yields and technologies for sustainable management of essential oils. Journal of Environmental Management, 280, 111832. doi.org/1 0.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111832
Van Hung, P., Chi, P. T. L. & Phi, N. T. L. (2013). Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils. Natural Product Research, 27(4-5), 506-508. doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2012.7062
Citation Format
How to Cite
T., A., G., H., K., K., S., K., & S., V. (2022). Physicochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of citrus peel essential oils. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 14(2), 640–646. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v14i2.3484
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles