The climate trend is one of the most dominant factors likely to affect the structure and function of the wetlands of Keoladeo and Bhitarkanika. This study compares the climate conditions and trends of two Ramsar sites in India, the Bhitarkanika and Keoladeo wetlands. Forty-year climate data (1980-2020) were used to identify and measure the strength of possible climate change in these habitats. Mann-Kendall’s test, Sen’s slope estimates and Sequential Mann-Kendall’s (SQMK) test were used to study the long-term and short-term trends of rainfall and climate of Bhitarkanika and Keoladeo. The results of this study matched those of earlier studies conducted at a larger geographical scale. The study indicated significant changes in the parameters of rainfall and temperature trends. A significant increase in annual rainfall (Sen’s slope = 5.24E+00, New p value = 2.75E-02) was observed at Bhitarkanika, while the trend at Keoladeo was positive but insignificant. Both ecosystems are getting warmer. Seasonal changes were also identified in the rainfall and temperature. The summer temperature rise was comparatively stronger at Keoladeo (Tmax: Sen’s slope=2.33E-02, New p value=2.45E-02; Tmin: Sen’s slope=2.68E-02, New p value=1.39E-02). An increase in monsoon temperature was also recorded in both ecosystems. Both wetland ecosystems are vulnerable to climate change, but the Keoladeo wetland is at higher risk because stronger temperature changes have occurred in the past four decades. The SQMK test also suggests a more erratic climate in the Keoladeo wetlands. The study highlights the comparative changes occurring in both ecosystems. This is the first study identifying both long-term and short-term changes in these wetlands at a smaller geographical scale.
Long-term and short-term climate trend, Wetland, Keoladeo, Bhitarkanika, SQMK test
Bal, G. & Banerjee, K. (2019). Carbon storage potential of tropical wetland forests of South Asia: a case study from Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191(3), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7690-y
Dieleman, C.M., Branfireun, B.A., McLaughlin, J.W. & Lindo, Z. (2015). Climate change drives a shift in peatland ecosystem plant community: implications for ecosystem function and stability. Global Change Biol. 21, 388–395 https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12643
Dwevedi, R., Deo, V., Sethy, J., Gupta, R. & Mylswamy, M. (2021). Performance of imputation-based models in predicting breeding population trend of a near-threatened bird in changing water regime: A 36-year long-term case study of Painted Stork, Mycteria leucocephala. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(3), 1072-1082. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v13i3.2876
Gopi, G. V. & Pandav, B. (2007). Avifauna of Bhitarkanika mangroves, India. Zoos’ Print Journal, 22(10), 2839-2847.
Hamed, K. H. & Rao, A. R. (1998). A modified Mann-Kendall trend test for autocorrelated data. Journal of hydrology, 204(1-4), 182-196.
Jhurawat, R., Pani, P. & Mahala, A. (2020). Aridity Assessment Of Semi-Arid Agro-Climatic Zones: A Study Of Eastern Rajasthan. Annals of the National Association of Geographers India 40(2), 173-186. https://doi.org/10.32381/ATNAGI.2020.40.01.6
Kumar, A (2009). Keoladeo National Park Management Plan, Department of Forest, Government of Rajasthan, India
Laine, M.P.P., Str ̈ommer, R. & Arvola, L., (2014). DOC and CO2-C releases from pristine and drained peat soils in response to water table fluctuations: a mesocosm experiment. Appl. Environ. Soil Sc. 2014(ArticleID 912816). https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/912816
Mehta, D. & Yadav, S. M. (2021). Analysis of Long-Term Rainfall Trends in Rajasthan, India. In Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources (pp. 293-306). Springer, Cham.
Mondal, A., Khare, D. & Kundu, S. (2015). Spatial and temporal analysis of rainfall and temperature trend of India. Theoretical and applied climatology, 122(1), 143-158. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-014-1283-z
Mondal, A., Kundu, S. & Mukhopadhyay, A. (2012). Rainfall trend analysis by Mann-Kendall test: A case study of north-eastern part of Cuttack district, Orissa. International Journal of Geology, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2(1), 70-78.
Pal, L., Ojha, C. S. P., Chandniha, S. K. & Kumar, A. (2019). Regional scale analysis of trends in rainfall using nonparametric methods and wavelet transforms over a semi‐arid region in India. International Journal of Climatology, 39(5), 2737-2764. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5985
Partal, T. & Kahya, E. (2006) Trend analysis in Turkish precipitation data. Hydrol Proced 20(9):2011–2026 https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.5993
Patra, J. P., Mishra, A., Singh, R., & Raghuwanshi, N. S. (2012). Detecting rainfall trends in twentieth century (1871–2006) over Orissa State, India. Climatic Change, 111(3), 801-817. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0215-5
Pingale, S. M., Khare, D., Jat, M. K., & Adamowski, J. (2014). Spatial and temporal trends of mean and extreme rainfall and temperature for the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India. Atmospheric Research, 138, 73-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosre s.2013.10.024
Pingale, S. M., Khare, D., Jat, M. K. & Adamowski, J. (2016). Trend analysis of climatic variables in an arid and semi-arid region of the Ajmer District, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Water and Land Development, 28(1), 3.
Pradhan, S. D. & Kar, S. (2018). Decade Long Study on Colonial Nesting of Waterbirds in Bhitarkanika National Park, Odisha, India. Indian Forester, 144(10), 958-962. DOI: 10.36808/if/2018/v144i10/139580
Prasad, K. A., Gnanappazham, L., Selvam, V., Ramasubramanian, R. & Kar, C. S. (2015). Developing a spectral library of mangrove species of Indian east coast using field spectroscopy. Geocartography International, 30(5), 580-599. https://doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2014.985743
Prasad, S. N., Ramachandra, T. V., Ahalya, N., Sengupta, T., Kumar, A., Tiwari, A. K., Vijayan, V. S. & Vijayan, L. (2002). Conservation of wetlands of India-a review. Tropical Ecology, 43(1), 173-186.
Radziejewski, M., & Kundzewicz, Z. W. (2004). Detectability of changes in hydrological records/Possibilité de détecter les changements dans les chroniques hydrologiques. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 49(1), 39-51. https://doi.org/10.1623/hysj.188.8.131.52002
Ramarao, M. V. S., Sanjay, J., Krishnan, R., Mujumdar, M., Bazaz, A. & Revi, A. (2019). On observed aridity changes over the semi-arid regions of India in a warming climate. Theoretical and applied climatology, 136(1), 693-702. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-018-2513-6
Ramnathan, A. L., Ranjan, R. K., Prasad, M. B. K., Chauhan, R., & Singh, G. (2010). Sediment-nutrient dynamics in selected Indian mangrove ecosystems-land use and climate change implications. IAHS-AISH publication, 337, 84-92.
Salehi, S., Dehghani, M., Mortazavi, S. M. & Singh, V. P. (2020). Trend analysis and change point detection of seasonal and annual precipitation in Iran. International Journal of Climatology, 40(1), 308-323. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6211
Salimi, S., Almuktar, S. A., & Scholz, M. (2021). Impact of climate change on wetland ecosystems: A critical review of experimental wetlands. Journal of Environmental Management, 286, 112160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvma n.2021.112160
Singh, N. P., Singh, S., Anand, B. & Bal, S. K. (2019). Climate vulnerability assessment in semi-arid and arid region of Rajasthan, India: An enquiry into the disadvantaged districts. Journal of Agrometeorology, 21(2), 197-202. https://doi.org/10.54386/jam.v21i2.233
Sippo, J. Z., Lovelock, C. E., Santos, I. R., Sanders, C. J. & Maher, D. T. (2018). Mangrove mortality in a changing climate: An overview. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 215, 241-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2018.1 0.011
Sugandh, S., & Joshi, P. K. (2018). Evaluation of ecosystem services of Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan, India) using geospatial tools. In Land-use Related Biodiversity in India, 18.
Verma, A. & Prakash, V. (2007). Winter roost habitat use by Eurasian marsh harriers Circus aeruginosus in and around Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. Forktail, 23, 17.
Weltzin, J.F., Pastor, J., Harth, C., Bridgham, S.D., Updegraff, K. & Chapin, C.T. (2000). Response of bog and fen plant communities to warming and water-table manipulations: Appendix B. Methods for estimation of ANPP in mesocosm plots. Ecology 81, 3464–3478 https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[3464:ROBAFP]2.0.CO;2
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)