The toxicity of benzothiazole derivatives obtained from 2-cyanomethyl benzothiazole against cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis 2nd and 4th instar larvae has been documented. The main objective of this research was to formulate two previously reported chromen derivatives and test their biological activity against cotton leafworm S. littoralis 2nd and 4th instar larvae under laboratory conditions. According to the standard method, two chromen derivatives with two distinct substituents (salicylaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde) were synthesized. Their physical and chemical properties were evaluated, and both were formulated as 10 and 9.5 percent dustable powder formulations. Both formulae were then evaluated in the laboratory on cotton leafworm S. littoralis 2nd and 4th instar larvae for mortality and developmental effect percentage. Formulation (F2) was more efficient than formulation (F3) in both cases and for both stages. Furthermore, when comparing the developmental effects on the 2nd and 4th instar larvae, the 4th instar larvae demonstrated marked tolerance. Both stages were unable to complete their life cycle. Histopathological analysis of samples from the affected stages was performed to assess the mode of action of these formulations on 4th instar larvae at their LC50 values. Experimental data showed that Formulation (F3) resulted in epidermal cells separated from the cuticular layer, necrosis, ruptured columnar cells with pyknotic nuclei, disrupted basement membrane, and weak epicuticle necrosis and separation. In comparison, formulation (F2) revealed a midgut with vacuoles, damaged columnar, muscle cell necrosis, and a ruined peritrophic matrix. Thus, the cotton leafworm S. littoralis could be combated with the newly prepared formulations (F2) and (F3).
Biological efficacy, Chemical substitution, Dustable powder, Spodoptera littoralis, Thiazole
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