Poor seed germination is a major issue in teak (Tectona grandis) propagation. Teak seed dormancy is thought to be the reason for delayed germination. So far, specific dormancy mechanisms have not yet been identified. In order to study the influence of presowing treatments on germination, seedling vigour, and biochemical attributes of fresh teak drupes collected from the seed production area of Top Slip in Tamil Nadu. The collected drupes were subjected to different presowing treatments viz., T1 - control, T2 - soaking and drying for 6 days, T3 – T18 (soaking and drying for 5 days + soaking in different concentrations of thiourea, potassium nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and calcium oxychloride for 12 hours). Treated drupes were placed for germination in earthen pots and kept in open sunlight. In parallel, true seeds extracted from untreated drupes were also subjected to germination under in vitro conditions as a check. A higher percentage of germination (40%) was recorded in true seeds under in vitro conditions when compared to the treated and untreated drupes under in vivo conditions. Among the treated drupes sown under in vivo conditions, the drupes given soaking + drying for 5 days + soaking in 2% calcium oxychloride (CaOCl2) recorded higher germination (17.16) with better seedling vigour. Analysis of teak true seeds and mesocarp extract in high-performance liquid chromatography showed that gibberellic acid was found only in true seeds, whereas the other compounds, viz., indole-3-acetic acid, indole butyric acid, abscisic acid and coumarin, were not present in the true seed or mesocarp.
Biochemical constituent, Germination, Presowing treatment, Teak drupe, True seeds
Amadi, D. C. A., Glory, J., Kwada, D. K., & Thlama, D. M. (2019). The Effect of Three Pre-Germination Treatments on the Germination and Early Growth Studies of Tectona Grandis (Teak) For Rural Afforestation. Journal of Agriculture & Agricultural Technology., 19, 1-15.
Bewley, J. D. & Black, M. (1994). Seeds: Physiology of Development and Germination, Plenum, New York. pp.134.
Billah, M. A. S., Kawsar, M. H., Titu, A. P., Pavel, M. A. A., & Masum, K. M. (2015). Effect of presowing treatments on seed germination of Tectona grandis. International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 1, 37-42.
Cornea-Cipcigan, M., Pamfil, D., Sisea, C. R., & Margaoan, R. (2020). Gibberellic acid can improve seed germination and ornamental quality of selected Cyclamen species grown under short and long days. Agronomy., 10, 516. doi:10.3390/agronomy10040516
Da Silva Junior, G. D., da Silva Reis, A., Leite, M. R. P., da Costa Leite, R., de Sousa Soares, G. O., & de Sousa Soares, J. L. (2017). Methods for overcoming dormancy in teak diaspores. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical.
Dhaka, R. K. & Jha, S. K. (2017). Evaluation of Provenances for Drupe, Seed and Germination Traits in Teak (Tectona grandis L. F). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6, 1721-1727. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.611.208
Evans, J. & Turnbull, J. W. (2004) Plantation forestry in the Tropics. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, pp. 482.
International Seed Testing Association. (1985). International rules for seed testing, Seed Science and Technology., 13, 229-355.
International Seed Testing Association. (1999). International Rules of Seed Testing. Seed Science and Technology., 27, 27-32.
Jayasankar, S., Babu, L. C., Sudhakara, K. & Unnithan, V. K. G. (1999). Provenance variation in seed and germination characteristics of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.). Seed Science and Technology, 27, 131–139.
Jose, S & Indira, E. P. (2010). Variability of seed related characters in teak (Tectona grandis L. f) from Western Ghat region. Gregor Mendel Foundation Journal, 1, 39-44.
Kaosaard, A., Suangtho, V. & Kjaer, E. D. (1998). Genetic improvement of teak (Tectona grandis) in Thailand. Forest Genetic Resources, 26, 21-29.
Keiding, H. (1993). Tectona grandis. Seed Leaflet, pp 4.
Keiding, H., Lauridsen, E. B. & Wellendorf, H. (1986). Evaluation of an international series of teak provenance trials. Danida Forest Seed Centre, Denmark.
Krishnamoorthy, M., Palanisamy, K., Francis, A. P., & Gireesan, K. (2016). Impact of Environmental Factors and Altitude on Growth and Reproductive Characteristics of Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) in Southern India. Journal of Forest and Environmental Science, 32, 353-366. https://doi.org/10.7747/JFES.2016.32.4.353
Kumar, A. (1979). Effect of fruit size and source on germination of teak seeds, Sri Lanka forester. 14:58-63.
Maideen, S. K., Selvaraj, J. A. & Rai, R. V. (1990). Presowing chemical treatment to hasten germination of Casuarina equisetifolia. International Tree Crops Journal, 6, 173-181. https://doi.org/10.1080/01435698.19 90.9 752882
Masilamani, P., Dharmalingam, C. and Annadurai, K. (2008). Effect of Calcium Oxychloride Presowing Treatment to Hasten Germination of Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) Drupes. Indian Forester, 134, 1680-1685. DOI: 10.36808/if/2008/v134i12/878
Masilamani, P., Nagaraja, A., Yadav, M. P. & D. K. Srivastava. (2015). Influence of Different Presowing Treatments on Germination and Seedling Vigour of Guava (Psedium guajava L.) Seeds. Journal of Non-Timber Forest Products, 22, 7-9.
Masilamani, P., Rajanbabu, V. & Venkatesan, S. (2020). Effect of Drupe size Grading on in Vivo and in Vitro Germination and its Dormancy Mechanism of Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F). Bioscience Biotechnological Research Asia., 17, 673-683. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13005/bb ra/2871
Masilamani, P., Yasodha, P. & Annadurai, K. (2013). Influence of Seed Pretreatments and Sowing Conditions on Germination and Initial Seedling Vigour of Indian Almond (Terminalia Catappa L.). Indian Forester., 139, 248-252.
Morry, Y. Y., Chem, D. & Savid, S. (1972). Inset of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in germination of wheat embryos. Plant Physiology, 49, 20-23.
Murashige, T. & Skoog, F. (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiological Plantarum, 15, 473-497. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x
Omokhua, G. E. & Alex, A. (2015). Improvement on Teak (Tectona Grandis Linn F.) germination for large scale afforestation in Nigeria. Nature and Science, 13, 68-73.
Osborne, J. (1972). Can weed problems be reduced by improving crop establishment. come possibilities for enhancing seed germination. Proc. 11th British weed control conference. Pp. 1161-1172.
Pamei, K., Larkin, A., & Kumar, H. (2017). Effect of different treatments on the germination parameters and seedling quality index of Tectona grandis (Teak) under nursery condition. International Journal of Communication Systems, 5, 2418-2424.
Panse, V. G. & Sukhatme, P. V. (1995). Statistical methods for agricultural workers. Indian Council of Agricultural Research Publications, New Delhi. PP. 330.
Raghu, H. B., Ashwin, R., Ravi, J. E., & Bagyaraj, D. J. (2020). Microbial consortium improved growth and performance of teak (Tectona grandis Lf) in nursery and field trials. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences., 90, 903-909.
Rajput, A & Tiwari, K. P. (2001). Effect of alternate chilling/heating on germination of fresh teak (Tectona grandis L. f) drupes, without scarification of felty mesocarp. Seed Science and Technology, 29, 57-64.
Ravichand, A., & Gunaga, R. P. (2021). Seed Biology and Seed Orchard Dynamics in Teak. In The Teak Genome Springer, Cham. Pp. 139-153. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-79311-1_9
Samapudhi, K. A. (1967). Country Report on Teak in Thailand. FAO Forestry Paper, Rome. 7. 18.
Santosa, S., Soekendarsi, E., Priosambodo, D., & Kasim, A. H. (2022). Water content, resorption of N and P, and the growth of teak Tectona grandis Lf seedlings on four types of growing media under drought stress. Journal of Biological Research. Accepted for publication. https://doi.org/10.4081/jbr.2022.9715
Seenu, G. (1987). Seed quality studies in Acid lime. M. Sc.(Ag.) thesis. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbalore, 143.
Slator, N. J., Callister, A. N. & Nichols, J. D. (2013). Mechanical but not physical dormancy is a cause of poor germination in teak (Tectona grandis L. f.). New Forest., 44, 39-49. DOI 10.1007/s11056-011-9298-0
Solaiman, R & Al-zehouri, J. (2017). Determination of coumarin in methanol extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume) using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 6, 726-729.
Tewari, D. N. (1992). A monograph on teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.). International book distributors, Dehra Dun pp. 479.
Thomas, S. G., Rieu, I. & Steber, C. M. (2005). Gibberellin metabolism and signaling. Vitam Horm., 72, 289- 338. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0083-6729(05)72009-4
Yasodha, R., Sumathi, R. & Gurumurthi, K. (2005). Improved micropropagation methods for teak. Journal of tropical Forest Science, 63-75.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)