Maryam Usman Ahmed Martha Ignatus Benjamin Yakubu Isaac John Umaru Zuhairah Ismail Muhammad Bilyaminu Habibu Chikodiri Emmanuel Okoli Dawoye Yusufu


Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are common diseases affecting a lot of people. Alpha amylase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are used to treat type II diabetes and hypertension respectively. This study investigated the alpha amylase and ACE inhibitory potential of Azanza garckeana fruits. Phytochemical screening, α-amylase and ACE inhibitory potential of the aqueous extract of A. garckeana fruit was determined using standard procedures. The mode of inhibition of α-amylase by A. garckeana fruit was determined from the Lineweaver-Burk plot. Alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, steroids, tannins, phenols and terpenoids were present in the aqueous extract of A. garkeana fruit. The percent inhibition of α-amylase  was greater than 50%. The IC50 values were 2.6 ± 0.02 and 0.04 ± 0.09 for the extract and acarbose (standard drug) respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plot showed that extract Vmax did not change when compared to the no inhibitor (no extract) but the km increased. The percent inhibition of ACE by A. garckeana was also greater than 50%. Its IC50 was 0.625 ± 0.03 while that of the standard drug (captopril) was   0.875 ± 0.07. Thus A. garckeana inhibited  α-amylase and ACE and can be used to treat type II diabetes and hypertension. It is a competitive inhibitor of α-amylase.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




α-amylase, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Azanza garckeana, Diabetes, Hypertension

Agarwal, P. & Gupta, R. (2016). Alpha amylase inhibition can treat diabetes mellitus. Research and Reviews Journal of Medical and Health Sci. 5(4), 1- 8.
Ahmed, M. U., Ibrahim, A., Dahiru, N. J. & Mohammed, H. S. (2020). Alpha amylase inhibitory potential and mode of inhibition of oils from Allium sativum (garlic) and Allium cepa (onion). Clin. Med. Insights: Endocrinology and Diabetes. 13, 1-5. Doi: 10.1177/1179551420963106.
Ahmed, R. H., El-hassan, M. S. & El-hadi, H. M. (2016). Potential capability of Azanza garckeana fruits aqueous extract on enhancement of iron absorption in wistar albino rats. Int. J. Adv. Res. Biol. Sci. 3, 245 – 250.
Alfred, M. (2017). Azanza garkeana fruit tree. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, nutritional and primary healthcare application as herbal medicine; a review. Res. J. Med. Plant. 11, 115 – 123. DOI; 10.3923/RJMP.2017.115.123
Ali, H, Houghton, P. J. & Soumyanath, A. (2006). Alpha amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to Phyllanthus amarus. J Ethnopharmacol. 107, 449 - 455. Doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.04.004.
Atkinsin, M. A. (2015). Type 1 diabetes mellitus. In: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology.13th ed. 1451-1473.
B ioltif, Y. E., Edward, N. B. & Tyeng, T. D. (2020) A chemical overview of Azanza garckeana. Biol. Med. and Natural Product. 9(2), 91 – 95. DOI: 10.14421/biomedich.2020.92.91-95.
Canivell, S. & Gomis, R. (2014) Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune diabetes mellitus. Autoimmune Rev. 13, 403-407. DOI: 10.1016/j.autrev.2014.01.020.
Centers for Disease Control Prevention. (2020). National Diabetes Statistics Report 2020. Atlanta, GA. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S Dept. of Health and Human Services.
de Leeuw, P. W. (1999). How do angiotensin II receptor antagonists affect blood pressure? Am. J. Cardiol. 22, 84 (2A): 5K – 6K. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9149(99(00399-9.
Elsheikh, Y. H & Ali, M. A. M. (2020). Preliminary phytochemical screening, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Azanza garckeana (fruits). GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 11 (03), 125 – 129. DOI: 10.30574/GSCBPS.2020.11.3.0179.
Glew, R. S., Vanderjagt, D. J., Chuang, L. T., Huang, Y. S., Millson, M. & Glew, R. H. (2005). Nutrient content of four edible wild plants from West Africa. Plant Foods, Hum. Nutri. 60, 187 – 193. Doi: 10.1007/s11130-005-8616-0.
Guang, C., Phillips, R. D., Jiang, B. & Milani, F. (2012). Three key proteases-angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE 2 and renin within and beyond the renin angiotensin system. Archieves of Cardiovascular Disease. 105, 373 – 385. Doi: 10.1016/j.acvd.2012.02.010.
Harbone, J. B. (1993). Phytochemicals Methods. In; A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis (ed J.B. Harbone). 182 – 196
Holmquist, B., Bünning, P. & Riordan, J. F. (1979). A continuous spectrophotometric assay for angiotensin-converting enzyme. Anal. Biochem. 95(2), 540 – 548. Doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(79)90769-3.
Klein, O., Lynge, J., Endahl, B., Damholt, B., Nosek, L. & Heise, T. (2007). Albumin bound basal insulin analogues (insul determir and NN344): comparable time action profiles but less variability that insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 9(3), 290 -299. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2006.00685.x.
Kouchmeshky, A, Jamere, S. B., Amin, G. & Ziai, S. A. (2012). Investigation of angiotensin –converting enzyme inhibitory effects of medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine for treatment of hypertension: screening study. Thrita Stud. J. Med. Sci. 1(1), 13 – 23. DOI: 10.561 2/thrita.4264
Lebovitz, H. E. (1997). α-glucosidase inhibitors. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. 26, 539 – 551. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0889-8529(05)70266-8
Li, K. E., Yao, F., Xue, Q., Fan, H., Yang, L., Li, X., Sun, L. & Liu, Y. (2018). Inhibitory effects against α – glucosidase and α – amylase of the flavonoids rich extract from Scutellaria-baicatensis shoots and interpretation of structure activity relationship of its eight flavonoids by a refined assign score method. Chemistry Central Journal.12, 82 - 93. DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0445-y.
Mancea, G., De Backer, G., Dominiczak, A., Cifkova, R., Fragad, R., Germano, G., Grassi, G., Heagarty, A. M., Kjelfsen, S. E., Laurent, S., Narkiewicz, K., Ruilope, C., Rynkiewicz, A., Schmieder, R. E., Bouder, H. A. & Zanchatti, A. (2007). ESH-ESC Task force on the management of arterial hypertension 2002. ESH-ESC Practice guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur. Heart J. 28, 1462 – 1536.
McCue, P., Kwon, Y. I. & Shetty, K. (2005). Antidiabetic and anti-hypetensive potential of sprouted and solid-state bioprocessed soybean. Asian Pacific J Clin Nutri.14, 145 - 152.
Naha, S., Gardner, M. J., Khangura, D., Kurukuisuriya, L. R., & Sowers, J. R. (2021). Hypertension in Diabetes In: Feingold, KR, Anawalt, B, Boyce, A. editors. Endotext (Internet) South Dartmouth (MA): MD Text Com. Inc
Oboh, G., Ademiluyia, A. O., Akinyemi, A. J., Hentaleb, T., Saleva, J. A. & Schwarzenbolzb, U. (2012) Inhibitory effect of polyphenol-rich extracts of jute leaf (Carchorus olitorius) on key enzyme linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension (angiotensin -1- converting enzyme ) in vitro. J. Funct. Foods. 4, 450 – 458. DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2012.02.003.
Poovitha, V. & Paran, M. (2016). In vitro and in vivo α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the protein extracts from two varieties of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia C.) BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 16(suppl 1), 185. Doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1085-1.
Rahimzadeh, M., Jahanshashi, S., Moein, S. & Moein, M. R. (2014). Evaluation of alpha amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts. Iranian J. of Basic Medical Sciences. 17(6), 465 – 469.
Ruschitzka, F. & Tadder, S. (2012). Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: first line agents in cardiovascular protection. European Heart Journal. 33,1996 – 1998. Doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehs108.
Subhedar, S. & Goswanmi, P. (2011). Ethnobotany and literature survey of herbal antidiabetic drugs. Int. J. Drug Discovery Herbal Res. 1(3), 177 – 184.
Sudha, P., Zinjarde, S. S., Bhargaya, S. Y. & Kumar, A. R. (2011). Potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian ayuverdic medicinal plants. BMC Comp Altern Med. 11-50. Doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-5.
Van de kar, F. A. (2008) Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in the early treatment of diabetes. Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 4, 1189 – 1195. Doi: 10.2147/vhrm.s3119.
Vazquez-Armenta, F. J., Cruz-Valenzuela, M. R. & Ayala-Zavala, J. F. (2015). Onion (Allium cepa) essential oils. In: Essential Oils in Food, Preservation, Flavor and Safety. Chapter 50. 1st ed. Academic press; 2015, 617-623.
Wu, H. & Xu, B. (2014) Inhibitory effects of onion against α-glucosidase activity correlation with phenolic antioxidants. Int. J. Food Proper.,17, 599-609.https://doi.or g/10.1080/10942912.2012.654562.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Ahmed, M. U. ., Ignatus, M. ., Yakubu, B. ., Umaru, I. J. ., Muhammad, Z. I. ., Habibu, B. ., Okoli, C. E. ., & Yusufu, D. . (2022). Alpha amylase and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory potential of aqueous extract of Azanza garckeana fruit. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 14(2), 283–288. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v14i2.3305
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles