Local farmers worldwide have complained in recent years that insect pests have become resistant to the majority of insecticides, owing to pesticide abuse. In addition, highly poisonous and harmful substances may cause health and environmental dangers. Friendly alternatives such as plant extracts are the main targets as substituents to synthetic pesticides. The present study aimed to extract total phenols from some plants and evaluate their efficacy on aphids, Aphis craccivora, under laboratory conditions. Four methanolic plant extracts from Punica granatum, Lantana camara, Portulaca oleracea and Ziziphus jujuba, containing phenolic components were evaluated against A. craccivora through: slide dipping, spraying, and leaf dipping techniques. Generally, positive relationships between the concentrations of the tested phenolic extracts and their mortality percentages were noticed in the case of slide dipping and spraying techniques. Conversely, no biological efficacy was found using the leaf dipping technique. The descending order of effectiveness of the tested extracts depending on their EC50 values was 0.017, 0.321, 1.142 and 16.114 ppm for Z. jujuba, P. oleraceae P. granatum and L. comara, respectively, in the case of the slide dipping technique. In contrast, P. granatum, L. camara, P. oleraceae and Z. jujuba had EC50 values of 0.0023, 0.017, 0.321 and 2.3409 ppm, respectively, in the case of the spraying technique. Additionally, a direct proportion was found between mortality percentages and treatment period for plant extracts under study with both techniques. After formulation and completion of additional essential field research, phenols isolated from the plants under study could be employed to combat A. craccivora.
Aphids, Plant Extraction, Phenolic Components
Abdel – Hady, N. M., El-HeLa, A. A. & Morsy, T. A. (2014). Phenolic content of some selected Lamiaceous Egyptian medicinal plants: antioxidant potential and ecological friend mosquito-larvicldal. J. Egypt. Soc Parasitol. 44,(1),21-4. doi: 10.12816/0006442
AL-Snafi, A. E. (2019). Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Lantana camara - A review. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 12 (12), 10-20. doi: https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i12.35662
Aziz, W. Z., Shalaby, M. M. & Tawfik, W. A., (2018). Efficacy of some essential oils on cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae), J. Plant Prot. and Path., Mansoura Univ., 9 (12), 827 – 830.
Berberet R. C., Giles K. L., Zarrabi A. & Payton M. E. (2009). Development, reproduction, and within-plant infestation patterns of Aphis craccivora (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Alfafa. Environ. Entomol. 38 (6): 1765-1771. doi: 10.1603/022.038.0630
Boukria, D. (2020). Aphid harmful insect. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335887114
Boulogne, I., Petit, P., Ozier-Lafontaine, H., Desfontaines, L. & Loranger-Merciris, G. (2012). Insecticidal and antifungal chemicals produced by plants: A review. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 10:325-347. https://link.springe r.com/article/10.1007/s10311-012-0359-1
Czerniewicz, P., Chrzanowski, G., Sytykiewicz, H., Sprawka, I. & Leszczynski, B (2016). Aphicidal and deterrent activity of phenolic acid extracts from some herbal plants towards Myzus persicae Sulz and Rhopalosiphum Padi L. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 25(12a), 5714-5721
Dang, Q. L., Lee, G.Y., Choi, Y. H., Choi G. J., Jang K. S., Park, M. S., Soh, H. S., Han Y. H., Lim, C. H. & Kim, J. C. (2010) Insecticidal activities of crude extracts and phospholipids from Chenopodium ficifolium against Melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Crop Protection, 29, 1124-1129.
Dang, Q. L., Lim, C. H. & Kim, J. C. (2012). Current status of botanical pesticides for crop protection. Res. Plant Dis. 18(3), 175-185. doi:10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.175
Das, B.C. (2002). Ecology and diversity of agricultural crop infesting aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Bangladesh. J. Aphidol., 16, 51–57.
El Kichaoui, A., Fayyad, N., El Hayek, A., Mosleh, F., Amara, N., Shehada, W., Youssief, E. & El Hindi, M. (2016). In vitro, alternative methods to the biological control of the aphids by entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana isolates from Gaza strip. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 5(10), 537-543, doi:10.20546/ijcmas.2016.510.060
El-Kady, M. A, Mohamed, A. I. & mohamady, A. H. (2010). Insecticidal of citric acid and its soluble powder formulations against Aphis craccivora under laboratory conditions. Egypt. Acad. J. Biolog. Soi., 2(1), 7-12. doi: 10.21608/EAJBSF.2010.17457
EL-kayaat, S. A. A. (1986). Pharmacognostical study of certain plants belonging to the family convolvulaceae growing in Egypt, MSc, faculty of pharmacology, Cairo University, Egypt.
FAO (1979). Recommended methods for the detection and measurement of resistance of agricultural pests to pesticides. Methods of Adult Aphids. FAO Method No.17. FAO plant port Bull., 27, 29 -32.
Harborna, J. B. (1973). Phytochemical methods 1st ed Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 34 -188. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5570-7
Ibrahim, M. H., Barry. N. M. & Khaleel, A. I. (2020). In-vitro effect of some secondary metabolism products of Cordia myxa on some aspects of life performance of Aphis Craccivora Koch (Homomptera: Aphididae). Plant Archives, 20(2), 520-522.
Isman, M. B. (2006). The role of botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. Annual Review of Entomology. 51, 45-66. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.51.11010 4.151 146
Liburd, O. E., Nyoike, T. W. & Razze, J. M. (2015). Biology and management of aphids in sustainable field production of cucurbits, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301867434
Lichiheb, N., Bedos, C., Personne, E., Benoit, P., Bergheaud, V., Fanucci, O., Bouhlel, J. & Barriuso, E. (2015). Measuring leaf penetration and volatilization of chlorothalonil and epoxiconazole applied on wheat leaves in a laboratory-scale experiment. Journal of Environmental Quality, 44(6), 1782-1790. doi: 10.2134/jeq2015.03.0165.
Lima, G. P. P., Vianello, F., Corrêa, C., R., Campos, R. & Borguini M., G. (2014). Polyphenols in fruits and vegetables and its effect on human health. Food Nutr. Sci. 5(11), 1065-1082. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.511117
Mathew, S., Abraham, T. E. & Zakaria, Z. A. (2015). Reactivity of phenolic compounds towards free radicals under in vitro conditions. J. Food Sci. Tech. 52(9), 5790–5798. doi: 10.1007/s13197-014-1704-0 [CrossRef]
Mehrparvar, M., Madjdzadeh, S. M., Mahdavi, Arab N., Esmaeilbeygi, M. & Ebrahimpour, E. (2012). Morphometric discrimination of black legume aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae), populations associated with different host plants. North-West J. Zool., 8(1), 172–180.
Michałowicz, J. & Duda, W. (2007). Phenols–sources and toxicity. Polish J. of Environ. Stud., 16(3), 347-362.
Miller, R. H. (2003). Probit analysis of pesticide toxicity to aphids Guam. Micronesica Supplement 7:113-123
Mohamed, A. I. & El-Kady, M. A. (2010). Effect of wetting agents on some biological activity of alum soluble powder formulations against Aphis craccivora Egypt. Acad. J. Biolog. Sci.,3(1) 89-93. doi: 10.21608/eajbsa.2010.15211
Osman, A. & Elsobki, A. E. A. M. (2019). Insecticidal Activity and Chemical Composition of Moringa oleifera extract against the leguminous aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch on broad bean plants. J. of Plant Protection and Pathology, Mansoura Univ., 10 (12), 567-571. doi: 10.21608/JPPP.2019.77958
Paramasivam, M. & Selvi, C. (2017). Laboratory bioassay methods to assess the insecticide toxicity against insect pests-A review, Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5(3), 1441-1445
Pavela, R. (2009). Effectiveness of Some Botanical Insecticides against Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctudiae), Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Tetranychus uriticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Plant Protection Science, 45, 161-167. https://doi.org/10.17221/16/2009-PPS
Randhir, R., Lin, Y.T. & Shtty, K. (2004). Phenolics their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in dark germinated fenugreek sprouts. J. Clin, Nutr., 13(3), 295 -307
Sabbah, A., Nasser, M., As-sadi, F., Hijazi, A., Rammal, H. & Nasser, G. (2017). Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Lebanese Punica Granatum Peels. International Journal of Pharma Research and Health Sciences. 5 (1): 1552-1557. doi:10.21276/ijprhs.
Sayeda, F. F., Torkey, H. M. & Hala, A.Y. (2009). Natural Extracts and Their Chemical Constituents in Relation to Toxicity against Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and Aphid (Aphis craccivora). Australian Journal of Basic Applied Sciences, 3 (4), 3217-3223.
Silva P. H. S., Carneiro J. S. & Quindere, M. A. W. (2005). Pragas. In: Freire Filho FR, Lima JAA and Ribeiro VQ (Eds), Feijão-caupi: avanços tecnológicos. Brasília: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, Teresina: Embrapa Meio Norte, p. 369-402.
Smaili, M. C., & El Ghadraoui, L., Gaboun, F., Benkirane, R & Blenzar, A. (2014). Impact of some alternative methods to chemical control in controlling Aphids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) and their side effects on natural enemies on Young Moroccan Citrus Groves. Phytoparasitica, 42,421–436 doi 10.1007/s12600-013-0379-9
Souto, A. L., Sylvestre, M., Tölke, E. D., Tavares, J. F., Barbosa-Filho, J. M. & Cebrián-Torrejón, G. (2021). Plant-Derived pesticides as an alternative to pest management and sustainable agricultural production: Prospects, applications and challenges. Molecules, 26, 4835.doi.org/10.3390 /molecules26164835
Torkamand, M., Heidari, A., Ghajarieh, H. & Faravardeh, L. (2013). Comparison of susceptibility of melon aphid populations, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), from seven regions in Iran to Pirimicarb and Malathion. J. Crop Prot. 2 (2): 183-192
Wanga, S., Zhangb, J., Zhangc, Z., Yanc, W. G. Y., Lic, X. & Liud, C. (2014). Identification of chemical constituents in the extract and rat serum from Ziziphus Jujuba Mill. by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Researc. 13 (3), 1055-1063
Wasi S., Tabrez, S. & Ahmad M. (2013). Toxicological effect of major environmental pollutants: An overview. Environ. Monit. Assess. 185, 2585-2593. doi:10.1007/s10661-012-2732-8
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)