Sandhya Kumari Santwana Rani Arun Kumar


Arsenic poisoning has recently resulted in significant health problems in the exposed population. In India, the Indo-Gangetic plains are the region where the arsenic threat has increased. In Bihar, it is estimated that 10 million people are exposed to arsenic poisoning. The present study aims to develop a novel drug as an antidote against arsenic-induced toxicity in rats. In the present study, arsenic in sodium arsenite at a dose of 8 mg/kg body weight per day was induced (Group-II) in Charles Foster rats at 2 or 6 months to observe chronic exposure. In the arsenic pretreated group (Group-III), Asparagus racemosus was administered at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight per day for 8 weeks. Normal control group (Group I) was taken without any treatment. After completion of  the entire experiment, the animals were sacrificed, and their blood samples were obtained for hematological and biochemical evaluation. At the same time, vital tissues, such as the liver and kidney, were fixed in preservatives for the histopathological study. The study showed that the hematological levels, such as RBC, WBC, platelet counts and hemoglobin percentage, were significantly restored by administering A. racemosus (Group-III), against the arsenic-exposed group. Furthermore, biochemical parameters such as SGPT, SGOT, ALP, bilirubin, urea, uric acid and creatinine were significantly recovered (p<0.05) against arsenic-induced toxicity. The histopathological study also showed remarkable restoration in hepatocytes and nephrocytes by A. racemosus against arsenic-induced toxicity. Therefore, it can be concluded from the entire study that A. racemosus has a significant antidote effect against arsenic-induced toxicity.



Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Arsenic treatment, A.racemosus, Charles Foster rats, Drug development

Acharya, S. R., Acharya, N. S., Bhangale, J. O., Shah, S. K. & Pandya, S. S. (2012). Antioxidant and hepatoprotective action of Asparagus racemosus Willd. root extracts. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 50(11), 795–801.
Andrew, A.S., Burgess, J.L., Meza, M.M., Demidenko, E., Waugh, M.G., Hamilton, J.W. & Karagas, M.R. (2006). Arsenic exposure is associated with decreased DNA repair in vitro and in individuals exposed to arsenic in drinking water. Environ Health Perspect.,114(8),1193-8.
Bhattacharya, S. (2017). Medicinal plants and natural products in amelioration of arsenic toxicity: a short review. Pharmaceutical Biology, 55(1), 349–354. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2016.1235207.
Bones RW and Tausky HH. 1945. Colorimetric determination of creatinine by the Jaffe reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 158:581-591
Bopana, N., & Saxena, S. (2007). Asparagus racemosus--ethnopharmacological evaluation and conservation needs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 110(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.01.001.
Cardiff, R. D., Miller, C. H., & Munn, R. J. (2014). Manual hematoxylin and eosin staining of mouse tissue sections. Cold Spring Harbor protocols, 2014(6), 655–658. https://doi.org/10.1101/pdb.prot073411.
Carter, D. E., Aposhian, H. V., & Gandolfi, A. J. (2003). The metabolism of inorganic arsenic oxides, gallium arsenide, and arsine: a toxicochemical review. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 193(3), 309–334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2003.07.009.
Chen, Y., Parvez, F., Liu, M., Pesola, G. R., Gamble, M. V., Slavkovich, V., Islam, T., Ahmed, A., Hasan, R., Graziano, J. H., & Ahsan, H. (2011). Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and proteinuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study.  International Journal of Epidemiology, 40(3), 828–835. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyr022.
Cohen SM, Arnold LL, Eldan M, Lewis AS, Beck BD. (2006); Methylated arsenicals: the implications of metabolism and carcinogenicity studies in rodents to human risk assessment. Crit. Rev. Toxicol., 36: 99–133.
Draper HH, Hadley M. 1990. Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol, 186: 421-431.
Duker AA, Carranza EJM, Hale M (2005). Arsenic geochemistry and health. Environ. Int. 31, 631-641.
Faita, F., Cori, L., Bianchi, F., & Andreassi, M. G. (2013). Arsenic-induced genotoxicity and genetic susceptibility to arsenic-related pathologies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10(4), 1527–1546. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10041527.
Fawcett JK and Scott JE. 1960. A rapid and precise method for the determination of urea. J. Chem. Pathol. 13:156.
Goyal, R. K., Singh, J., & Lal, H. (2003). Asparagus racemosus--an update. Indian Journal of Medical sciences, 57(9), 408–414.
Hartwig A, Asmuss M, Ehleben I, Herzer U, Kostelac D, Pelzer A, Schwerdtle T, Bürkle A. Interference by toxic metal ions with DNA repair processes and cell cycle control: molecular mechanisms. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Oct;110 Suppl 5, 797-9.
Hassan M (2018) Arsenic in groundwater. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Helleday T, Nilsson R, Jenssen D. (2000); Arsenic [III] and heavy metal ions induce intrachromosomal homologous recombination in the hprt gene V79 Chinese hamster cells. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 35,114–122.
Hsueh, Y. M., Chung, C. J., Shiue, H. S., Chen, J. B., Chiang, S. S., Yang, M. H., Tai, C. W., & Su, C. T. (2009). Urinary arsenic species and CKD in a Taiwanese population: a case-control study. American Journal of Kidney Diseases: The Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation, 54(5), 859–870. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.20 09.06.016.
Huang C, Ke Q, Costa M, Shi X (2004). Molecular mechanisms of arsenic carcinogenesis. Mol. Cell Biochem., 255, 57-66.
Jendrassik GF and Grofs BM. 1938. Quantitative colorimetric determination of bilirubin in serum or plasma. Clin.Chem. Acta. (27),79.
Jha, V., Garcia-Garcia, G., Iseki, K., Li, Z., Naicker, S., Plattner, B., Saran, R., Wang, A. Y., & Yang, C. W. (2013). Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives. Lancet (London, England), 382(9888), 260–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60687-X.
Kannan GM, Tripathi N, Dube SN and Flora SJS (2001) Toxic effects of arsenic (III) on some hematopoietic and central nervous system variables in rats and guinea pigs. Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology, 39(7), 675–682.
Kenneth GB, Gilbert LR (2002) Arsenic, drinking water and health: a position paper of the American council on science and health. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 36(2): 162–174.
Kind PRH and King EJ. 1954. Determination of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Serum. J. Clin. Path. 7: 322.
Kumar, A., Ali, M., Kumar, R., Kumar, M., Sagar, P., Pandey, R.K., Akhouri, V., Kumar, V., Anand, G., Niraj, P.K., Rani, R., Kumar, S., Kumar, D., Bishwapriya, A., Ghosh, A.K., (2021a). Arsenic exposure in Indo Gangetic plains of Bihar causing increased cancer risk. Scientific Reports. 11(1):2376. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81579-9.
Kumar, A., Kumar, V., Akhouri, V., Kumar R., Ali., M, Rashmi T., Chand G.B., Singh S.K., Ghosh A.K. (2022): Protective efficacy of Coriandrum sativum seeds against arsenic induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Toxicol Res. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43188-022-00123-7.
Kumar, A., Ali, M., Kumar, R., Rahman, M.S., Srivastava, A., Chayal, N.K., Sagar, V., Kumari, R., Parween, S., Kumar, R., Niraj, P.K., Anand, G., Singh, S.K., Ghosh, A.K., (2020a). High arsenic concentration in blood samples of people of village Gyaspur Mahaji, Patna, Bihar drinking arsenic contaminated water. Springer Nature J Expos Health. 12, 131–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-018-00294-5.
Kumar, V., Akhouri, V., Singh, S. K., & Kumar, A. (2020b). Phytoremedial effect of Tinospora cordifolia against arsenic induced toxicity in Charles Foster rats. Biometals: an International Journal on the role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine, 33(6), 379–396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10534-020-00256-y.
Kumar, A., Ali, Md., Rahman, S.Md., Iqubal, A.Md., Anand, G., Niraj, P.K., Srivastava, A., Kumar, R., Gahlot, V., (2015). Ground Water Arsenic Poisoning in “Tilak Rai Ka Hatta” Village of Buxar District, Bihar, India Causing Severe Health Hazards and Hormonal Imbalance. J. Environ Anal Toxicol., 5, 290.
Kumar, A., Ghosh, A.K., (2021b). Assessment of arsenic contamination in groundwater and affected population of Bihar. N. Kumar (ed.), Arsenic Toxicity: Challenges and Solutions. [ISBN 978-981-33-6067-9; ISBN 978-981-33-6068-6 (eBook)] https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-6068-6_7.
Kumar, A., Kumar, R., Rahman, M.S., Ali, M., Kumar, R., Nupur, N., Gaurav, A., Raj, V., Anand, G., Niraj, P. K., Kumar, N., Srivastava, A., Biswapriya, A., Chand, G.B., Kumar, D., Rashmi, T., Kumar, S., Sakamoto, M., Ghosh, A.K., (2021c). Assessment of arsenic exposure in the population of Sabalpur village of Saran District of Bihar with mitigation approach. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 10.1007/s11356-021-13521-5. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13521-5.
Kumar, A., Rahman, M.S., Ali, M., Kumar, R., Niraj, P.K., Akhouri, V., Singh, S.K., Kumar, D., Rashmi, T., Bishwapriya, A., Chand G.B., Sakamoto, M., Ghosh, A.K., (2021d). Assessment of arsenic exposure and its mitigation intervention in severely exposed population of Buxar district of Bihar, India. Toxicol. Environ. Health Sci. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13530-021-00086-6.
Kumar, A., Rahman, M.S., Iqubal, M.A., Ali, M., Niraj, P.K., Anand, G., Kumar, P., Abhinav, Ghosh, A.K., (2016). Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 7,100. https://doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.188085.
Kumar, A., Rahman, M.S., Kumar, R., Ali, M., Niraj, P.K., Srivastava, A., Singh, S.K., Ghosh, A.K., (2019a). Arsenic contamination in groundwater causing impaired memory and intelligence in school children of Simri village of Buxar district of Bihar. J Mental Health Hum Behav. 24,132–138. https://doi.org/10.4103/jmhhb.jmhhb_31_18.
Kumar, S., Singh, R., Venkatesh, A.S., Udayabhanu, G., Sahoo, P.R., (2019b). Medical Geological assessment of fluoride contaminated groundwater in parts of Indo-Gangetic Alluvial plains. Scientific Reports. 9(1):1-16.
Liu, J., & Waalkes, M. P. (2008). Liver is a target of arsenic carcinogenesis. Toxicological Sciences: an official Journal of the Society of Toxicology, 105(1), 24–32. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfn120.
Lomelino, C. L., Andring, J. T., McKenna, R., & Kilberg, M. S. (2017). Asparagine synthetase: Function, structure, and role in disease. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 292(49), 19952–19958. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.R117.819060.
Mallikarjuna GU, Dhanalakshmi S, Raisuddin S, Rao AR. (2003); Chemomodulatory influence of Ferula assafoetida on mammary epithelial differentiation, hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant profiles and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Breast Cancer Res Treat.;81:1–10.
Martinez, V. D., Vucic, E. A., Becker-Santos, D. D., Gil, L., & Lam, W. L. (2011). Arsenic exposure and the induction of human cancers. Journal of Toxicology, 431287. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/431287.
Maurya, U. and Srivastava, S. (2011). Traditional Indian herbal medicine used as antipyretic, antiulcer, anti-diabetic and anticancer: A review. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 4:1152-9.
Miller, W.H.; Schipper, H.M.; Lee, J.S.; Waxman, S. (2002) Mechanisms of action of arsenic trioxide. Cancer Res., 62: 3893-3903.
Minatel, B. C., Sage, A. P., Anderson, C., Hubaux, R., Marshall, E. A., Lam, W. L., & Martinez, V. D. (2018). Environmental arsenic exposure: From genetic susceptibility to pathogenesis. Environment international, 112, 183–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.12.017.
Palanisamy, N., & Manian, S. (2012). Protective effects of Asparagus racemosus on oxidative damage in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxic rats: an in vivo study. Toxicology and industrial health, 28(3), 238–244. https://doi.org/10.11 77/0748233711410911.
Patlolla, A.K., Tchounwou, P.B., (2005). Serum acetyl cholinesterase as a biomarker of arsenic induced neurotoxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2: 80-83. http://www.mdpi.com/1660- 4601/2/1/80/pdf.
Rahman, M.S., Kumar, A., Kumar, R., Ali, M., Ghosh, A.K., Singh, S.K., (2019). Comparative Quantification Study of Arsenic in the Groundwater and Biological Samples of Simri Village of Buxar District, Bihar, India. Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine. 23(3):126–132. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_2 40_1 8.
Reitman’s S. and Frankel’s S. (1957). A colorimetric method for determination of serum glutamate oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvate transaminases.” Amer J. Clin. Path., 128(1): 56-63.
Roy, J. S., Chatterjee, D., Das, N., & Giri, A. K. (2018). Substantial Evidence Indicate That Inorganic Arsenic Is a Genotoxic Carcinogen: a Review. Toxicological Research, 34(4), 311–324. https://doi.org/10.5487/TR.2018.34.4.311
Singh R. and Geetanjali (2016). Asparagus racemosus: a review on its phytochemical and therapeutic potential. Natural product research, 30(17), 1896–1908. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2015.1092148.
Singh, S. K., A. K. Ghosh, A. Kumar, K. Kislay, C. Kumar, R. R. Tiwari, R. Parwez, N. Kumar, and M. D. Imam. (2014). Groundwater arsenic contamination and associated health risks in Bihar, India. International Journal of Environmental Research 8 (1), 49-60.
Smith AH, Goycolea M, Haque R and Biggs ML (1998) Marked increase in bladder and lung cancer mortality in a region of northern Chile due to arsenic in drinking water. American Journal of Epidemiology 147(7), 660–669.
Soni KB, Rajan A, Kuttan R. (1993); Inhibition of aflatoxin-induced liver damage in ducklings by food additives. Mycotoxin Res.; 9:22–7.
Stýblo, M., Drobná, Z., Jaspers, I., Lin, S., & Thomas, D. J. (2002). The role of biomethylation in toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic: a research update. Environmental health perspectives, 110 Suppl 5(Suppl 5), 767–771. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.110-1241242.
Tao, Y., Qiu, T., Yao, X., Jiang, L., Wang, N., Jia, X., Wei, S., Wang, Z., Pei, P., Zhang, J., Zhu, Y., Yang, G., Liu, X., Liu, S., & Sun, X. (2020). Autophagic-CTSB-inflammasome axis modulates hepatic stellate cells activation in arsenic-induced liver fibrosis. Chemosphere, 242,124959. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosp here.2 019.124959.
Toro,G. and Ackermann, P.G., (1975) practical clinical chem. P:154
US NRC (2001) Arsenic in drinking water, 2001 update. Washington, DC, US National Research Council, National Academy Press.
Vahidnia A, Romijn F, van der Voet GB and de Wolff F A (2008) Arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in relation to toxicokinetics: Effects on sciatic nerve proteins. Chemico Biological Interactions, 176(2-3), 188–195.
Wanibuchi H, Yamamoto S, Chen H, Yoshida K, Endo G, Hori T, Fukushima S. (1996) Promoting effects of dimethylarsinic acid on N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis, 17, 2435–2439.
Wiboonpun, N., Phuwapraisirisan, P., & Tip-pyang, S. (2004). Identification of antioxidant compound from Asparagus racemosus. Phytotherapy Research: PTR, 18(9), 771–773. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1526.
Yamamoto S, Konishi Y, Matsuda T, Murai T, Shibata MA, Matsui-Yuasa I, Otani S, Kuroda K, Endo G, Fukushima S. (1995): Cancer induction by an organic arsenic compound, dimethylarsinic acid (cacodylic acid), in F344/DuCrj rats after pretreatment with five carcinogens. Cancer Res., 5,1271–1276.
Yamanaka K, Kato K, Mizoi M, An Y, Takabayashi F, Nakano M, Hoshino M, Okada S. (2004); The role of active arsenic species produced by metabolic reduction of dimethylarsinic acid in genotoxicity and tumorigenesis. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 198: 385–393.
Zheng L, Kuo CC, Fadrowski J, Agnew J, Weaver VM, Navas-Acien A. Arsenic and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2014;1(3):192–207. doi:10.1007/s40572-014-0024-x.
Zheng, L. Y., Umans, J. G., Tellez-Plaza, M., Yeh, F., Francesconi, K. A., Goessler, W., Silbergeld, E. K., Guallar, E., Howard, B. V., Weaver, V. M., & Navas-Acien, A. (2013). Urine arsenic and prevalent albuminuria: evidence from a population-based study. American journal of kidney diseases: the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation, 61(3), 385–394. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.201 2.09.011.
Zheng, L., Liu, Z., Yan, Z., Yi, X., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Zheng, X., & Zhu, Y. (2017). Deriving water quality criteria for trivalent and pentavalent arsenic. The Science of the Total Environment, 587-588, 68–74. https://doi.org/10.10 16/j.scitotenv.2017.02.004.
Citation Format
How to Cite
Kumari, S., Rani, S., & Kumar, A. (2022). Phytoremedial effect of Asparagus racemosus on sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in Charles Foster rats . Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 14(2), 302–309. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v14i2.3164
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)