In an agro-ecosystem, phosphorus (P) is found in organic and an inorganic form which includes soluble P, sorbed P and mineral bounded P. In soil, added P sources undergo various soil processes like mineralization, immobilization, precipitation, weathering, dissolution, sorption and desorption. For understanding the P dynamics in clay loam (Vertic Ustropept) soil, the present study was undertaken in P dynamics under rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere environment of maize in Long Term Fertilizer Experiment at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The results revealed that the fractions of various pools of inorganic NaOH extractable Fe - P, H2SO4 extractable Ca- P, NH4F extractable Al- P, NH4Cl extractable Saloid P and Na citrate - Dithionate extractable Reductant soluble P were dominant in the non-rhizospheric soil than rhizospheric environment. The order of inorganic P fractions in the non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric region of the soil was found as Ca-P > Fe-P > Al-P > Reductant soluble-P > Saloid P and the knee-high stage of the non - rhizosphere soil recorded the highest inorganic as well organic P fractions. Irrespective of P fractions, Ca – P was recorded high (192.5 & 186.7 mg kg-1 ) followed by Fe - P (40.8& 34.9 mg kg-1) at a knee-high stage in non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. Practising various nutrient management systems, application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer along with FYM @ 10 t ha-1 (T8) recorded significant changes in all inorganic (Ca-P, Fe-P, Al-P, Reductant soluble-P, Saloid P), organic fractions and also Total P followed by 150% NPK (T3) in sandy clay loam soil. Nowadays, increasing demand for P fertilizer in India, judicious use of P fertilizer is important. Despite that, intensively cultivated soils have a lot of P reserves like organic and inorganic P pools and effective way of P transformation management could reduce the quantum of P fertilization in soil.
Inorganic P, Organic P, Phosphorus, Rhizosphere, Transformation
Condron L.M., Turner B.L. & Cade-Menun. (2005). Chemistry and dynamics of soil organic phosphorus. In JT Sims, AN Sharpley (eds). Phosphorus: Agriculture and the Environment. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, WI, pp 87-121. https://doi.org/10.2134/agron vmonogr46.c4.
Cordell, D. (2008). The story of phosphorus: missing global governance of a critical resource. SENSE Earth Systems Governance, Amsterdam. http://www.glogov.de/im ages/doc/Cordell. pdf.
Hinsinger, P. & P. Marschner. (2006). Rhizosphere - perspectives and challenges - a tribute to Lorenz Hiltner 12–17 September 2004 - Munich, Germany. Plant and Soil, 283 (1), vii-viii. 10.1007/s11104-008-9774-2.
Mehta, N., Legg, J., Goring, C. & Black, C. (1954). Determination of organic phosphorus in soils: I. Extraction method. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 18(4),443-449. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1954.0361599 5001800040023x.
Mitran, T., Mani, P. K., Basak, N., Mazumder, D. & Roy, M. (2016). Long-term manuring and fertilization influence soil inorganic phosphorus transformation vis-a-vis rice yield in a rice–wheat cropping system. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 62(1),1-18. https://doi.org/10.10 80/03650340.2015.1036747.
NCoMM.(2017). Maize. NCoMM Special report. https://www.ncml.com/Upload/New/Pdf/c7495fab-54d7-4b03-a04a-47c2da337039.pdf.
Oelkers, E.H. & Valsami-Jones, E. (2008). Phosphate mineral reactivity and global sustainability. Elements, 4, 83-87. https://doi.org/10.2113/GSELEMENTS.4.2.83.
Petersen, G. & Corey, R. (1966). A modified Chang and Jackson procedure for routine fractionation of inorganic soil phosphates. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 30(5), 563-565. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1966.036159 95003000050012x.
Purohit, D., Mandal, M., Dash, A., Rout, K. K. & Panda, N. (2020). Impact of long term fertilization on soil phosphorous availability in the rhizosphere of rice grown in acid inceptisols. Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research, 38(1):19-26.
Qian, P. & Schoenau, J. (2000). Fractionation of P in soil as influenced by a single addition of liquid swine manure. Canadian J. of Soil Sci., 80(4),561-566. https://doi.or g/1 0.4141/S00-020.
Shen, J., Yuan, L., Zhang, J., Li, H., Bai, Z., Chen, X., Zhang, W. & Zhang, F. (2011). Phosphorus dynamics: from soil to plant. Plant Physiology,156(3),997-1005. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.111.175232.
Soremi, A., Adetunji, M., Azeez, J., Adejuyigbe, C. & Bodunde, J. (2017). Speciation and dynamics of phosphorus in some organically amended soils of southwestern Nigeria. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 29(1): 42-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/09542299.2017.1287549.
Sun, B., Gao, Y., Wu, X., Ma, H., Zheng, C., Wang, X., Zhang, H., Li, Z. & Yang, H. (2020). The relative contributions of pH, organic anions, and phosphatase to rhizosphere soil phosphorus mobilization and crop phosphorus uptake in maize/alfalfa polyculture. Plant and Soil. 447. DOI. 10.1007/s11104-019-04110-0.
Wu, Q., Zhang, S., Zhu, P., Huang, S., Wang, B., Zhao, L. & Xu, M. (2017). Characterizing differences in the phosphorus activation coefficient of three typical cropland soils and the influencing factors under long-term fertilization. PLoS One, 12(5),e0176437. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176437.
Yin, Y. & Liang, C. (2013). Transformation of phosphorus fractions in paddy soil amended with pig manure. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition.13(4),809-818. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-95162013005000064.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) © Author (s)