The current study aimed to assess the pathophysiology mechanisms that mediate the effect on albin winstar rats' memory induced by the co -administration of fluoride and aluminum sulfate, as a model of Alzheimer's disease. This was done by assessing monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity, antioxidant activity, H2O2 and amyloid-β concentration in the hippocampus, embedded deep into the brain's temporal lobe, and level of cytokines in serum. The polymerase chain reaction approach was used to genotyping MAO-A, followed by single -stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) coupled with sequencing technique. The experimental animals were divided into two groups: control and treated groups. The uptake of heavy metals led to significantly increased MAO-A activity, amyloid -β deposition, H2O2 and cytokines levels in the treated group. However, the finding showed a significant decrease in antioxidant activity in the treated group. The results indicated that metals caused memory and learning impairments. PCR -SSCP genotyping showed many SNPs and haplotypes of the MAO-A exon 2 region, which showed the MAO-A gene polymorphism changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. The overall results indicated a role of metals to induce oxidative stress stimulating pathophysiological hallmarks in the hippocampus due to an increase in the influx of monoamine oxidase expression, which has been implicated in impaired memory, this study focused on the genetic variation of the exon 2 in monoamine oxidase-A gene and its relationship to Alzheimer's disease with the presence of several single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be related to Alzheimer's disease model in rats.
Alzheimer’s disease, Amyloid –β. , Antioxidant enzyme, Cytokines, MAO–A gene
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