This study presents the uprising of leaf chlorophyll estimation from traditional mechanical method to machine learning-based method. Earlier chlorophyll estimation techniques such as Spectrophotometer and Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) meter demand cost, time, labour, skill, and expertise. A small-scale tea farmer may not afford these devices. The present study reports a low-cost digital method to predict the tea leaf chlorophyll using 1-D Convolutional Neural Network (1-D CNN). After capturing the tea leaf images using a digital camera in a natural light condition, a total of 12 different colour features were extracted from tea leaf images. A SPAD was used to estimate the original chlorophyll value of the tea leaves. The paper shows the correlation of original tea leaf chlorophyll with the extracted colour features of the tea leaf images. Apart from 1-D CNN, the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) were also applied to predict the tea leaf chlorophyll and compared their results with the 1-D CNN. The 1-D CNN model outperformed with an accuracy of 81.1%, Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 3.01, and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 4.18. The investigation system is very simple and cost-effective. It can be used in tea farming as a digital SPAD for faster and accurate leaf chlorophyll estimation in an easy way.
Chlorophyll, Deep learning, Machine learning, SPAD
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