Jitendra Kumar Sharma Monika Sihmar Anita Rani Santal Nater Pal Singh


Salinity stress affects plant growth and development and underlying metabolisms. To mitigate the effects of the stress, plants responded by changing their physiological and biochemical activities and withstand the stress. The present study aimed to determine barley's (Hordeum vulgare L.)  physiological and biochemical response to salinity stress conditions for 7 days and 14 days. Six barley cultivars (Alfa93, DWRB73, DL88, NB1, NB3, NDB1173) were grown under controlled conditions, and different level of salinity stress was applied. In addition, seedling growth, physiological and biochemical parameters, plant leaves RWC, and electrolyte leakage were analyzed. The overall seedling growth, RWC, and electrolyte leakage in salt susceptible lines Alfa93 and DWRB73 were low than the salt-tolerant barley lines (DL88, NB1, NB3, and NDB1173). Electrolyte leakage was 26.0 and 20.6% in Alfa93 and DWRB73, whereas it was 17.6, 14.6, 15.3, and 10.4% in DL88, NB1, NB3, and NDB1173, respectively at 300 mM salinity stress.  The loss of photosynthetic pigments under salt stress was high in susceptible lines, salinity treated (300 mM NaCl) Alfa93 plants exhibit 49.5% and 59.5% of Chl-a than control plants after 7 and 14 days of treatment, respectively. However, at 300 mM stress level, NB1 (ST) showed less Chl-a loss after 7 days, whereas NDB1173 showed less reduction in Chl-a after 14 days.  Antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POX, CAT, and APX activities in susceptible line Alfa93 and DWRB73 were lower than tolerant lines. PCA analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between antioxidant enzyme activities and genotypes under salinity stress. PCA analysis described DL88 as the most tolerant, and DWRB73 was the most salt susceptible genotype among the studied barley genotypes. The present findings suggest that barley cultivars' physiological and biochemical activities under salinity stress conditions may be used to screen salt-tolerant crops.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




Antioxidant enzymes, Barley, Chlorophyll, Eelectrolyte leakage, RWC, Salt stress

Abdel Latef, A. A. H., Kordrostami, M., Zakir, A., Zaki, H.&Saleh, O. M. (2019). Eustress with H2O2 facilitates plant growth by improving tolerance to salt stress in two wheat cultivars. Plants, 8(9), 303. https://dx.doi.org/1 0.3390%2Fplants8090303
Ahmadi, J., Pour-Aboughadareh, A., Ourang, S. F., Khalili, P.&Poczai, P. (2020). Unraveling salinity stress responses in ancestral and neglected wheat species at early growth stage: A baseline for utilization in future wheat improvement programs. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 26(3), 537–549. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-020-00768-4
Arif, Y., Singh, P., Siddiqui, H., Bajguz, A., & Hayat, S. (2020). Salinity induced physiological and biochemical changes in plants: An omic approach towards salt stress tolerance. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 156, 64–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.08.042
Bajji, M., Kinet, J.-M.& Lutts, S. (2001). The use of the electrolyte leakage method for assessing cell membrane stability as a water stress tolerance test in durum wheat. Plant Growth Regulation, 36(1), 61–70. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014732714549
Barrs, H. D.& Weatherley, P. E. (1962). A re-examination of the relative turgidity technique for estimating water deficits in leaves. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 15(3), 413–428. https://doi.org/10.1071/BI9620413
Bera, S., Sabikhi, L., & Singh, A. K. (2018). Assessment of malting characteristics of different Indian barley cultivars. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(2), 704–711. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-2981-1
Chance, B.&Maehly, A. C. (1955). Assay of catalases and peroxidases. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(55)0230 0-8
Costache, M. A., Campeanu, G.& Neata, G. (2012). Studies concerning the extraction of chlorophyll and total carotenoids from vegetables. Romanian Biotechnological Letters, 17(5), 7702–7708.
Dhindsa, R. S., Plumb-Dhindsa, P.& Thorpe, T. A. (1981). Leaf senescence: Correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Journal of Experimental Botany, 32(1), 93–101. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/32.1.93
Elsawy, H. I., Mekawy, A. M. M., Elhity, M. A., Abdel-Dayem, S. M., Abdelaziz, M. N., Assaha, D. V., Ueda, A.&Saneoka, H. (2018). Differential responses of two Egyptian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars to salt stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 127, 425–435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.04.012
González, L.& González-Vilar, M. (2001). Determination of relative water content. In: Handbook of plant ecophysiology techniques (pp. 207–212). Springer, Dordrecht.
Guellim, A., Hirel, B., Chabrerie, O., Catterou, M., Tetu, T., Dubois, F., Ahmed, H. B.&Kichey, T. (2020). Screening for durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivar resistance to drought stress using an integrated physiological approach. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, 23, 355–365. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12892-020-00043-8
Kocheva, K., Lambrev, P., Georgiev, G., Goltsev, V.&Karabaliev, M. (2004). Evaluation of chlorophyll fluorescence and membrane injury in the leaves of barley cultivars under osmotic stress. Bioelectrochemistry, 63(1–2), 121–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.200 3.0 9.020
Kumar, P., & Sharma, P. K. (2020). Soil salinity and food Security in India. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 4, 174. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2020.533781
Kume, A., Akitsu, T.&Nasahara, K. N. (2018). Why is chlorophyll b only used in light-harvesting systems? Journal of Plant Research, 131(6), 961–972. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-018-1052-7
Lakra, N., Nutan, K. K., Das, P., Anwar, K., Singla-Pareek, S. L.& Pareek, A. (2015). A nuclear-localized histone-gene binding protein from rice (OsHBP1b) functions in salinity and drought stress tolerance by maintaining chlorophyll content and improving the antioxidant machinery. Journal of Plant Physiology, 176, 36–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2014.11.005
Mahlooji, M., Sharifi, R. S., Razmjoo, J., Sabzalian, M. R.& Sedghi, M. (2018). Effect of salt stress on photosynthesis and physiological parameters of three contrasting barley genotypes. Photosynthetica, 56(2), 549–556. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-017-0699-y
Minocha, R., Martinez, G., Lyons, B.& Long, S. (2009). Development of a standardized methodology for quantifying total chlorophyll and carotenoids from foliage of hardwood and conifer tree species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 39(4), 849–861. https://doi.org/10.1139/X09-015
Moradi, M., Dehghani, H., & Ravari, S. Z. (2021). Genetics of physiological and agronomical traits linked to salinity tolerance in tomato. Crop and Pasture Science, 72(4), 280–290. https://doi.org/10.1071/CP20394
Naeem, M., Mehboob, N., Farooq, M., Farooq, S., Hussain, S., M Ali, H., & Hussain, M. (2021). Impact of different barley-based cropping systems on soil physicochemical properties and barley growth under conventional and conservation tillage systems. Agronomy, 11(1), 8. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010008
Nakano, Y.& Asada, K. (1981). Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant and Cell Physiology, 22(5), 867–880. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a076232
Noreen, S., Sultan, M., Akhter, M. S., Shah, K. H., Ummara, U., Manzoor, H., Ulfat, M., Alyemeni, M. N.& Ahmad, P. (2021). Foliar fertigation of ascorbic acid and zinc improves growth, antioxidant enzyme activity and harvest index in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under salt stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 158, 244–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.11.007
Ortiz, A. C., & Jin, L. (2021). Chemical and hydrological controls on salt accumulation in irrigated soils of southwestern US. Geoderma, 391, 114976. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2021.114976
Pour-Aboughadareh, A., Etminan, A., Abdelrahman, M., Siddique, K. H.& Tran, L.-S. P. (2020). Assessment of biochemical and physiological parameters of durum wheat genotypes at the seedling stage during polyethylene glycol-induced water stress. Plant Growth Regulation, 92(1), 81–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-020-00621-4
Soni, S., Kumar, A., Sehrawat, N., Kumar, A., Kumar, N., Lata, C.& Mann, A. (2021). Effect of saline irrigation on plant water traits, photosynthesis and ionic balance in durum wheat genotypes. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28(4), 2510–2517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.20 21.01.052
Tanou, G., Molassiotis, A.& Diamantidis, G. (2009). Induction of reactive oxygen species and necrotic death-like destruction in strawberry leaves by salinity. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 65(2–3), 270–281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2008.09.005
Tuna, A. L., Kaya, C., Ashraf, M., Altunlu, H., Yokas, I.& Yagmur, B. (2007). The effects of calcium sulphate on growth, membrane stability and nutrient uptake of tomato plants grown under salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 59(2), 173–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.12.007
Wellburn, A. R. (1994). The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b, as well as total carotenoids, using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. Journal of Plant Physiology, 144(3), 307–313. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0176-1617(11)81192-2
Xie, Y.-J., Xu, S., Han, B., Wu, M.-Z., Yuan, X.-X., Han, Y., Gu, Q., Xu, D.-K., Yang, Q.& Shen, W.-B. (2011). Evidence of Arabidopsis salt acclimation induced by up-regulation of HY1 and the regulatory role of RbohD-derived reactive oxygen species synthesis. The Plant Journal, 66(2), 280–292. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313x.2011.04488.x
Yassin, M., El Sabagh, A., Mekawy, A. M. M., Islam, M. S., Hossain, A., Barutcular, C., Alharby, H., Bamagoos, A., Liu, L.& Ueda, A. (2019). Comparative performance of two bread wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) genotypes under salinity stress. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res, 17, 5029–5041. http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1702_50295041
Zeeshan, M., Lu, M., Sehar, S., Holford, P.& Wu, F. (2020). Comparison of biochemical, anatomical, morphological, and physiological responses to salinity stress in wheat and barley genotypes deferring in salinity tolerance. Agronomy, 10(1), 127. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy 10010 127
Zhu, J., Fan, Y., Shabala, S., Li, C., Lv, C., Guo, B., Xu, R.& Zhou, M. (2020). Understanding mechanisms of salinity tolerance in barley by proteomic and biochemical analysis of near-isogenic lines. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(4), 1516. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21 041516
Citation Format
How to Cite
Sharma, J. K. ., Sihmar, M., Santal, A. R., & Singh, N. P. . (2021). Physiological and biochemical responses of seedlings of six contrasting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars grown under salt-stressed conditions . Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 13(3), 1020 - 1031. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v13i3.2863
More Citation Formats:
Research Articles